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Discalced Carmelites the Irish Mission, canonically visited by a representative of the Prior-General of the Order in 1668. Still, the need of additional help became all the more pressing at this period for the reason just assigned ; and, furthermore, a number of familiar names disappear from the Annals of the Province within the next few years. Special mention is made of the death of Father AngelusJoseph (McCarthy) of the Conception, who died in 1669, because he was one of the first postulants received in the Dublin novitiate ; and had survived the barbarous treatment experienced at the hands of the Cromwellian soldiers : a fact well known to his contemporaries, apparently, although no particulars are furnished by the witnesses who testify to the heroic merit of his trials. Fathers Paul of St. Ubald, Gregory of St. Elias, and, probably, John of the Mother of God, had preceded him to the grave, all dying in Ireland. To the same period must be attributed the death of Father Agapitus of the Holy Ghost; although the 'Rev. T. Dillon, supposed to be a Carmelite,' appears as the hero in a popular Sketch' of the later penal days-very strongly reminiscent of some of the episodes recorded in one of the narratives written by Father Agapitus." '

Nor should omission be made of the learned Irish Theologian, Laurence of St. Teresa, who died, in 1669, at an age when he might still have cherished those fond aspirations of being at length permitted to return to his native land ; whence, immediately after his religious profession, he had to flee to escape the fury of the Puritans. A 'Father Cornelius of St. Mary' is said to have died in Ireland the following year; but this is the only reference to the name in the documents relating to the Irish Mission. Then there is that F. Levin' of the Discalced Carmelite residence at Athboy, whom the Venerable Plunket praises as a good preacher, in a letter dated the 25th of September, 1671 : this was Father John of the Cross, mentioned elsewhere by Father Paul of St. Ubald ;

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1 Vol. ii., passim. 2 Ibid., f. 27.

3 The names of Father Paul of St. Ubald and Father John of the Mother of God occur in the Book of Missionary Obits ; but the dates given are, clearly, inaccurate, as can be hown from more reliable sources.

4 The death of Father Agapitus of the Holy Ghost is also recorded in the bame Book, without any date being assigned ; but he must have died before the year 1673 ; while that of Father Angelus-Joseph is erroneously ascribed to the year 1667. In the Lista de' Seminaristi of the Teresian Missionary College, Rome, this interesting entry appears : ' Votum Missionum-Die 6 Jan., 1632-Fr. Angelus-Joseph a Conceptione, Hybernus' (f. 4).



and, finally, Father Hilary of St. Augustine, whose name occurs among the Teresian missionary obits the same year.'

Commenting on the disadvantages of admitting postulants to religion in Ireland in the present unsettled state of affairs, the Martyred Primate also informs us that 'neither the Capuchins, nor the Jesuits, nor the Carmelites had a novitiate there, being aware that they could not give novices a proper training in this Kingdom.” The various inconveniences meationed by him, when speaking of the Franciscans, will account for the extreme reluctance of the Authorities in Rome to grant dispensations requisite for the opening of a Teresian novitiate at Loughrea, notwithstanding the brighter prospects of their Order in Ireland at this particular period. For the exiled priests, named above, seized the occasion to urge the feasibility of such a project, quite confident of eventual success. The Superiors-General were more inclined to second their efforts, as the undertaking would be under the experienced control of Father Patrick of St. Brigid, who, it seems, gave good reason to show that community-life might now be led, in perfect security, at Loughrea. But we shall see that, although the inauguration of the same project fully justified his best anticipations, the sequel proved a bitter disappointment : directly assignable, moreover, to yet another little-known phase in the history of the Valesian Formulary after Ormonde's return to power. Yet the interval sufficed for the reception and profession of quite a number of most desirable subjects, destined to perpetuate, eventually, the zeal of their predecessors on the Irish Mission in circumstances with which the remaining documents of the present series have to deal.


To be continued,]

1 Book of Obits,
2 Memoir, pp. 76-92,

3 It is hardly necessary to add that the sources to be utilized were not at the disposal of the author of the Life of James First Duke of Ormonde.



• Salute Prisca and Aquila ... and the church that is in their house.' --Romans xvi. 3-5.

Pope Innocent I (401-417), in a letter to Decentius, Bishop of Gubbio, because of the Disciplina Arcani, merely refers to the Canon of the Mass in saying : After all these things, which I may not reveal, the kiss of peace is given, by which it is shewn that the people have consented to all that which was done in the holy mysteries.' i

In studying the history of the Liturgy, or as we in the West call it, the Holy Mass, the Disciplina Arcani, or Discipline of the Secret, must be taken into account, for it was undoubtedly owing to it that the Fathers did not express themselves more clearly and more fully on the Sacraments and other dogmas of the Church. It has been said that the Discipline of the Secret began in Tertullian's time (160-240); but this is inaccurate. It was our Divine Lord who first used it : “ Without parable He did not speak unto them (the people],' St. Mark tells us, but apart, He explained all things to His disciples '3; and commanded its practice : 'Give not that which is holy to dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest, perhaps, they trample them underfoot.'' The ‘holy' thing which must not be given to the unworthy is especially the Holy Eucharist.

Some find evidence of the Discipline of the Secret in chapter iii, verses 1 and 2, of the first Epistle to the Corinthians : ' And I, brethren, could not speak to you as unto

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1 Ep. ad Decentium (Epis. xxv.) in P.L. XX. 553.

3.Haec disciplina in Oriente usque ad finem saec. v., in Occidente ad medium saec. vi. videtur durasse.'-Hurter, n. 377.

8 Mark iv. 34.
· Matthew vii. 6.

5. Ce sanctum,' writes M. Adhémar D'Alès in his Théologie de Tertullien, p. 320, ‘qu'il ne faut pas jeter aux chiens, c'est évidemment aussi, et surtout, la sainte Eucharistie.' He cites, in confirmation, one of the Canons of Hippolytus of Rome (237). Ceterum clerici caveant cum sollicitudine ne quemquam ad sumenda sacra mysteria, nisi solos fideles.'


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spiritual, but as unto carnal (people), even as unto little ones in Christ. I have fed you with milk, and not with meat; for hitherto ye were not able to hear it, neither now are ye able '—considering their weakness as Christ considered the weakness of His hearers when instructing them : ' He spoke to them as they were able to hear.' 1

The reason of the Discipline was twofold : (a) the danger of profaning holy things ; (b) the fear lest the catechumen, used to the monotheism of Judaism or the polytheism of Paganism, might be scandalized by the new teaching. Hence, the mystery of the Most Holy Trinity, the confection of the Sacraments, and, it is said, even the Lord's Prayer were kept secret from the catechumens till within a few days of their baptism.? “Sans doute,' says M. D'Alès, 'l'Eglise

. n'a jamais songé à cacher ses usages et son culte comme on cache un crime. Mais il était naturel qu'elle voulût dérober les choses saintes aux regards profanes.' 3 Yes, and Holy Church not intending it, the Discipline of the Secret has hidden much, too, from us.

In the East, the word Liturgy means the Mass, and the Mass only; whereas in the West, it means all the rites and ceremonies that are used by the Church in the administration of the Sacraments and in her sacred offices.

Did the Apostles celebrate Mass ? St. Luke answers this question for us. Describing the moment when the Holy Ghost selected Paul and Barnabas for the episcopate, he says : Aeroup Youvrov đề a Tây To Kupi. Erasmus, in the classical Latin translation with which he accompanied his edition of the Greek original of the New Testament (the Novum Instrumentum omne), gives the cited passage as cum illi sacrificarent Domino. St. Luke uses the same word in speaking of Zachary's period of priestly office

1 Mark iv. 33.

2 Τάς των φωτιζομενων κατηχήσεις ταύτας, τοις μεν τω βαπτίσματι προσερχομένοις, και τους το λουτρόν έχουσιν ήδη πιστοίς, είς ανάγνωσιν παρεχόμενος, μη δος το σύνολον μήτε κατηχουμένοις, μήτε άλλοις τισι τοις μη ουσι χριστιανοίς' επεί το κυρίω λόγον δώσεις.S. Cyrillus Hieroso., Monitum post Procatechesin. The six last of the Saint's catechisms, in which he peaks of Baptism, Confirmation, and the Mass, were given to those about to be baptized during the week preceding their baptism. Clear referonces are made to the Disciplina Arcani in Tertullian's Apologeticus, c. 7 ; in St. Augustine's treatise on St. John's Gospel, c. ii. v. 3; by St. John Chrysostom in his homily on the first Epistle to the Corinthians ; by Theodoret in his commentary on Numbers, c. 10; by Pseudo-Dion. Areop., Eccles. Hierarchy, ult. cap., etc.

3 Le catéchuménat et l'arcane,' Théologie de Tertullien, p. 321.
4 Acts xiii. 2.

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in the temple : ai quépai tîs lectoupyias aútoû. So, too, does St. Paul, in referring to the insufficiency of the sacrifice offered by the priests of the Old Law : mâs mèv iepeùs &OTNKE καθ' ημέραν λειτουργών τας αυτάς. προσφέρων θυσίας, etc. "Peltoupyéw idem est ac sacrificare.'3 The sacrifice to

λειτουργέω be consummated is called the necTovpyla, from which comes the word Liturgy, or the Mass. The verb λειτουργέω has another meaning: to perform public duties, to do the State service. Those who fulfil or hold public offices are called λειτουργοί. St. Paul spoke of them as λειτουργοί Θεού.4

. The work done-leltoupyía—is a public service, hence, says a writer quoted by Migne ; cum sacramenti cujusque distributio privata quodammodo sit, quia in commodum tantum utilitatemque suscipientis instituitur, sola est sacrificii divini celebratio, quae cum in praesentium et absentium utilitatem cedat, et in totius ecclesiae bonum offeratur, potiori prae caeteris jure Lectoupyía dici potest.'5

Eusebius informs us that the Apostles remained in Jerusalem for several years after the Ascension. During that time they celebrated the Divine mysteries. One feels that St. John's vision of a solemn Liturgy was not all a vision.' The mysteries would be carried out according to a prescribed form, which, when the Apostles afterwards separated, should be the norm or canon that all followed. What form did the nascent Liturgy or Mass take? Some seek the answer to this query in the New Testament. Dr. Kraus outlines it from this source :

The reunion began with the reading of a passage from the Old Testa ment, which was afterwards explained. A sermon followed (Acts xx. 7). Then there was singing of psalms and a prayer (Col. iii. 16). The letters of the Apostles were read (Col. iv. 16; 1 Thess. v. 27). Hymns and doxologies were chanted (Ephes. v. 19 ; Col. iii. 16). The consecration of bread and wine (Acts xx. 11) on the altar (Heb. xiii. 10) formed, with the holy Communion, the Liturgy properly so called. The fraternal kiss, pianua äyrov, brought the Mass to a close.

But a better proof for the form or norm of the Mass as it was in Apostolic times, in its essential parts, is the Mass

1 Luke i. 23. 2 Hebrews x. 11. 3 Migne, Theolog. cursus complet., vol. xxiv. p. 1466. 4 Romans xiii. 6. • Migne, Theolog. cursus complet., vol. xxiv. p.1487. • Euseb., Hist. Eccles., vol. v. c. 18. ? Apocalypse, chaps. iv. 2-4, v. 2, 6, 11, 12; vi. 9, 10, and vii. 17. 8 L'Histoire de l'Eglise, Kraus, vol. i. pp. 99, 100.

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