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forth we beseech Thee,' which is not a translation of any of the Prayers of the Litany. It is, of course, the prayer of the Angelus. In future editions of popular prayer books we think the editors would be doing a useful work if they inserted a complete translation of the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, including the several Prayers with suitable directions as to the appointed times for saying them.



REV. DEAR SIR,-I. The church to which I am at present attached seems to have two Titulars. It is known as the Church of St. A and St. B. Should the Feasts of both St. A (in December) and St. B (in September) be kept by us as Doubles of the 1st Class with Ordinary Octaves?

II. Is there any prohibition against the use in normal circumstances of double-coloured vestments, such as the Military Chaplains used, i.e., black on one side, white on the other?

III. An altar-stone that I sometimes come in contact with has one corner broken off. The whole of the little cross representing the place of anointing is not broken but the greater part is. Should it be regarded as desecrated?


I. We know of dioceses having two Principal Patrons, e.g., the diocese of Dublin, but it is rather uncommon to find a church having two distinct Principal Titulars. Though, however, the occurrence is rare, we can easily conceive how it might have happened. Either (1) the church, in the act of consecration, was given two distinct Titulars; or (2) it received one at its solemn blessing, and another at its consecration; or (3) a second Titular might have been added by special indult of the Holy See. However the fact in any particular instance is to be accounted for, the liturgical law prescribing the due celebration of the Titulars' feasts is clear and definite. If they are both Principal Titulars-'aeque principales '-they should be celebrated as Doubles of the 1st Class with Ordinary Octaves. In the Tables of the Breviary we do not observe any such designation as 'Secondary Titular,' to correspond with the 'Secondary Patron' of a diocese, but we are given to understand that sometimes, in addition to the recognized Titular, the name of another Saint or Mystery is found associated with a particular Church, introduced apparently through the piety of the faithful on account of some special circumstance in their past history, inviting their devotion or gratitude. Whether, in such a case, apart from an Apostolic indult, the particular Church may be said to have a Secondary Titular in the Saint or Mystery thus arbitrarily chosen, the celebration of whose feast would be on a par with that of the Secondary Patron of a diocese, viz., to rank as a Feast of Double Major rite, we should hesitate to say. The opinion of the Ephem. Liturg., however, seems sufficiently definite on the question. It says:

Si vero non sint aeque principales sed unus ex eis introductus pietate populorum, reservabitur primo, vero scilicet Titulari, ritus duplex primae

classis cum octava; secundus autem (dummodo in caetera concurrant) sub ritu duplici majori celebrabitur, sicut competit Patronis secundi ordinis. 1


II. We have been unable to find any decretorial prohibition of the use of such vestments. We have carefully examined the various decrees of the Congregation of Rites dealing with the colour, form and material of the Sacred Vestments and have sought enlightenment in the works of several recognized rubrical authorities, but have practically failed to elicit any definite information. We confess that we have been disappointed, for on reading the question we formed so decided an opinion of the unlawfulness of the practice, from the rubrical point of view, that we thought it should be an easy matter to substantiate it. We found several decrees of the Sacred Congregation prohibiting the use of multi-coloured vestments, but except for the unvarying order-'Serventur Rubricae'-given in the replies, which we think rather significant, there is nothing in those decrees on which we could reasonably base an argument on the point at issue. The Rubrics prescribe that the vestments be 'decenter munda ac pulchra, non lacera et scissa sed integra,' but an advocate of the liceity of the bi-coloured article might, we think, not unreasonably ask how the fulfilment of those conditions is impeded by the use of one form of vestment more than the other. The Ephemerides Liturgicae 3-a rubrical publication of unquestionable authority-expresses the opinion that the fulfilment of the first two conditions at least decenter munda et pulchra -is utterly inconsistent with the use of the bi-coloured chasuble. It says: Quae conditiones num comprobari possint in planetis exposito sensu bicolores, maxime in superiori parte, quae collum tangit, lectoribus relinquimus perpendendum But surely the upper part of the chasuble does not touch the neck when the stole is worn, nor does the external beauty or integrity of the vestment very much depend on the material or colour of its lining. The argument has some validity as against the bi-coloured stole. Yet our sympathies completely accord with the conclusion arrived at by this writer-'Hinc tenemus, consultius ad minus, planetas ejusmodi non esse adhibendas neque conficiendas.' For, apart from any legislation on the point, does it not seem incongruous and unbecoming to have the lining of a garment made of the same rich costly material as the garment itself— that what serves as the interior of the garment to-day may serve as the exterior to-morrow? In normal circumstances, whoever thinks of ordering a double-faced coat, or who so foolhardy as to try to justify the use of it in polite society? Who ever thinks of putting a black lining to a white garment? There are, of course, circumstances of poverty or great convenience that sometimes excuse such anomalies, but, normally, the instincts of good taste and propriety will be slow to tolerate them. In the administration of the sacrament of Baptism, the Sacred Congregation tolerates the use of the reversible stole, because of its great convenience, but it has lent no

July-August, 1919, p. 265.

2 Decrees S.R.C., nn. 2675, 2682, 2769, etc.
Eph. Liturg., 1909 (May-June), p. 292.
4 Decr. S.C.R. 3086, vii.

sanction to the use of this stole or of any reversible vestment in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. In each instance, when a custom calculated to interfere with her regulations regarding the form, material, and colour of the Sacred Vestments, has come formally under her notice the answer has come --Serventur Rubricae.' If it has not explicitly pronounced on this abuse we take it that either it has not come formally under notice, or else that it is so obviously unrubrical, so decidedly opposed to the respectability and all round becomingness that should characterize everything in connexion with the Holy Mass, as to need no formal prohibition. The silence of the Congregation in any case is a merely negative argument which proves nothing, and as regards the analogy from the alleged custom of Military Chaplains on the existence and sanction of which we should like to have more definite knowledge-we shall only remark that many subterfuges are tolerated in war which are reprehensible in time of peace, and that we are here concerned merely with normal circumstances.'

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III. A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites dated 3rd March, 1821, states the following: Quo vero ad altaria cum integra lapidea mensa, quoties fractura sit enormis, mensa omnino renovanda et ab Episcopo consecranda erit.' A notable fracture, therefore, on the table of a fixed altar or an altar-stone is sufficient to deprive it of its conscration. But what is to be regarded as a notable fracture'? All writers seem to agree that if an altar-stone is so badly fractured as to be unable to hold the chalice and paten it has lost its consecration, but whether, in estimating the enormity of the fracture we should take into consideration its location as well as its extent, we find a diversity of opinion. The difficulty of our correspondent illustrates the really practical point in dispute. Rubricists generally hold that the dislocation of one of the lateral crosses from the rest of the stone must, by reason of the anointing, be regarded as constituting a notable fracture. Theologians, such as Lemhkuhl,1 deny this as an arbitrary and unfounded interpretation of the decree. We think the new Code definitely confirms the former opinion and closures further discussion on the point. Canon 1200, § 2, reads: "Tum altare immobile tum petra sacra omittunt consecrationem si frangantur enormiter sive quantitate fractionis sivi ratione loci unctionis.' We are of opinion, therefore, that the dislocation of one of these lateral crosses deprives the altar-stone of its consecration, and we think the same should hold when, as in this instance, the fracture includes the greater part of the cross.


REV. DEAR SIR,-I. In reference to the query answered in the January Number on Reverences at Benediction,' is there any obligation to have the Monstrance covered with a veil when it rests on the altar before and after exposition?

II. And in the same issue, in the query re' Reconciliation of a Convert,'

1 Vol. ii. (Editio Undecima) quest. 308, p. 180.

does not the Instruction of the Holy Office, dated 20th July, 1859, prescribe the use of the stole in the reception of the Profession of Faith? SUBSCRIBER.

I. It is rather unusual in this country to have a veil for the Monstrance, though, in other countries, as, for instance, in England, according to the official' Ritus Servandus in solemni expositione et benedictione SS. Sacramenti,' the use of the veil is strictly enforced. It covers the Monstrance while it rests on the altar before and after Exposition, in other words, when it is exposed to view on the altar without the Blessed Sacrament. The use of the veil which, like that of the ciborium, should be of white silk, is strictly liturgical, as appears from the following reply 1 of the Sacred Congregation: 'Debetne Ostensorium velo albo, quando stat in altari ante et post expositionem SSñi Sacramenti.' Resp. Affirmative.'

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II. We are grateful to our correspondent for calling attention to this Instruction of the Holy Office, which had quite escaped our notice. We stated that in the reconciliation of a convert the stole should be used for the actual Baptism, for the confession and Absolution from excommunication; but that we did not know of any justification, apart from custom, for its use in the remainder of the ceremony. That it was customary to use the stole also for the Profession of Faith we were quite aware, but until we examined this Instruction of the Holy Office as suggested by our correspondent, we did not think that the custom had official sanction. The Instruction, which appears as No. 1689 in the Collectanea de Prop. Fidei, in giving the rubrical directions for the Profession of Faith begins as follows: Sacerdos super pelliceo et stola violacei coloris indutus sedet in cornu Epistolae,' etc.

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1 Decr. S.C.R. 4268 ad 7.





27th February, 1920.

MY DEAR LORD,-The Chief Secretary seems determined to force his pernicious Education Bill upon an unwilling people. Considering the interest at stake, not merely the temporal, but eternal interests of generations of the children of Ireland, I believe this Bill should be resisted by all the legitimate means at our disposal. Owing to the circumstances in which we are placed, we are powerless to resist it in Parliament. It only remains, therefore, for us to fall back on the active and earnest co-operation of our faithful people.

In the first place, and above all, we must rely on the Divine aid to protect us and avert from us the threatened calamity. Hence, with the consent and sanction of the other Archbishops, I venture to submit to Your Lordship the following suggestions: In the first place, in order to enlist the powerful aid of our National Apostle, St. Patrick, a solemn Novena in his honour, ending on his Feast, should be proclaimed. He has bequeathed to the children of Ireland a glorious inheritance which, with God's blessing, has been hitherto faithfully kept, despite suffering, sacrifices, and persecution; it is for us to see that it be handed down to future generations with equal fidelity. The spiritual exercises of the Novena might include, in all the churches of each parish where facilities exist, the recitation of the Litany of the Saints, to the end of the Litany proper, to secure their protection, especially the protection of the Saints of Ireland; the Rosary and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. The faithful should be exhorted to assist with earnest devotion at this Novena.

In the second place, an early Sunday should be selected to appeal to God that He may protect and rescue us from the threatened danger. Passion Sunday, the anniversary of the Consecration of Ireland to the Sacred Heart, would be most appropriate for the purpose. In the churches of each parish, wherein facilities exist, there should be exposition of the Blessed Sacrament for an hour after the last Mass, during which the Litany of the Saints, the Rosary and Litany of the Blessed Virgin, could be recited, ending with Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.

In the matter at issue parental rights, interests and obligations should hold the chief place. Parents are bound to make sure, by every means in their power, that their children are brought up and educated as

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