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replied1:- Etsi aliquando preceperit haec S.R.C. quod in Altari ubi est publice expositum SSñum Sacramentum, tempore Sacrificii, Crux de more collocetur; non est tamen in suo robore observantia hujus praecepti. Et sane Patriarchales Ecclesiae urbis oppositum servant; supervacaneam enim adjudicant imaginis exhibitionem ubi Prototypus adoratur. Et hac de causa Instructio pro oratione quadraginta horarum Clementis XI, Benedicti XIII et Clementis XII Summorum Pontificum jussu edita, sub silentio praeterit, an locanda removendave sit hujusmodi Crux, relinquens quemlibet in sua praxi.' According to this decree there is no precept to have the Crucifix removed, even for the Exposition of the Forty Hours,each church is free to follow its own custom-and we think, a fortiori, there is no preceptive rubric for its removal during the brief Exposition at Benediction. In this country we believe it is usual to remove the Crucifix before the Benediction Service, but if in any particular church the opposite custom prevails there need be no anxiety about a 'new rubric' to confirm its legality.

II. There is certainly no rubric regulating the point, whatever may be said of the custom prevailing in particular churches. The Sacred Congregation tolerates the use of lace Albs wherever the custom exists, and makes no distinction as to the colour of the vestments with which they may be associated. We think, however, something might be said for the propriety of having a plain white Alb under violet vestments, which are symbolical of penance. The lace seems more appropriate to festive occasions.

III. We do not think it correct to have a veil at all, in the strict sense, on the Tabernacle of a side-altar which does not contain the Blessed Sacrament. The Sacred Congregation in prescribing the Tabernacle veil always speaks of the 'Tabernaculum Sanctissimi Sacramenti,' and it is well to note that when the Blessed Sacrament is removed from the Tabernacle so also should the veil. The veil is not merely intended to ornament the Tabernacle; it has a symbolic significance linking it exclusively with the Blessed Sacrament.

This veil may be either permanently white or change with the colour of the vestments of the day,' provided that violet is substituted when the liturgical colour is black."

IV. According to the old rubric Masses might be celebrated 'ab aurora usque ad meridiem,' which, with the approval of Benedict XIII and Clement XII, was interpreted to mean that the Mass was not to end before dawn or commence after midday. The new Code alters the rubric and allows the celebration of Masses to begin from an hour before dawn to an hour after midday. 'Missae celebrandae initium ne fiat citius quam una hora ante auroram vel serius quam una hora post meridiem.' The time of dawn (aurora) is not mathematically determined for any particular

1 Decr. 2365 ad 1.

2 Decr. 3191 ad 5; 3780; 4048.

3 Vide Decr. 3804.

4 Decr. 3035; 3520.

5 Decr. 3035 ad 10.

6 Decr. 3562.

7 Can. 821, § 1.

place. It is different in different countries, and varies, of course, according to the season of the year. In these countries it is usually taken to include the hour before sunrise, so that, in accordance with the new legislation, the Mass may begin at any period of the year two hours before sunrise. Theologians teach that a reasonable cause wil! justify anticipation of the time, varying in extent according to the gravity of the cause.

V. Where there is no clear directive legislation we must be prepared for divergence of opinion, and a consequent divergence of practice. It is distinctly stated that the veil should hang down in front when the chalice rests on the altar at the beginning of Mass, but there is no authoritative pronouncement, as far as we know, regulating the position of the veil when the chalice is being carried to and from the altar. As a consequence liturgical writers, relying on arguments of convenience, predilection or established custom, give different directions. When there is apparently freedom of choice, one cannot presume to dogmatize on the rubrical accuracy of either custom. Personally, we favour the opinion of Fortescue; we have been accustomed to adopt it in practice, and we think, apart from its more usual acceptance, it best accords with the spirit and letter of rubrical legislation touching the point. The object of the veil is to cover the chalice; the properly dressed chalice has the veil hanging down in front with the cross in the centre 3 facing the people, and there is no inconvenience in carrying it thus to and from the altar. On the other hand, the alternative method seems to necessitate the exposure of the lining of the veil and the foot of the chalice, the hiding of the centre cross, and the inconvenience of unfolding the veil when the chalice is laid on the altar, and there appears to be no meaning in or sanction for thus partially covering up the burse of the chalice which is made of the same rich material as the vestments themselves.

VI. The rule that the Stole used for preaching should correspond to the colour of the day's Office does not admit of exceptions, as is clear from several decrees of the Sacred Congregation. The following decree dated 26th February, 1892, contains a sufficient answer to our correspondent's query. It was asked: 'An stola concionatoris pro sermonibus festivis de S. Joseph et Annuntiatione B.M.V. quando haec festa occurrunt in Hebdomoda majori debeat esse coloris albi vel violacei? Et an die 2 novembris (vel Dominica sequenti) ad sermonem pro defunctis liceat

1 Van der Stappen says (vol. iii. p. 242): ‹ Per auroram intelligitur tempus quo incipit matutinum crepusculum, id est tempus medium tenebras inter et ortum solis; aurora igitur incipit diverse pro diversitate, tum temporis anni tum geographicae longitudinis.'

2 Decr. 1379.

3 The cross is usual on the veil of the more precious vestments in this country, but is not prescribed. The Roman veil is not thus ornamented and hangs down equally on all sides of the chalice. When folded, therefore, as is the Roman custom, the foot of the chalice is not exposed (vide Van der Stappen, vol. iii. p. 105).

4 Decr. 3157, 3764.

Decr. 3764 ad xiii.

VOL. XV-23

habere stolam coloris nigri?' And the reply was: 'Stola concionatoris sit coloris officio diei respondentis, etiam die secunda Novembris.' Where the law is so clear and emphatic, the only answer to our correspondent's query must be a negative one.


REV. DEAR SIR,-I would be glad to have your opinion on the following rubrical question. In one of our churches it is usual to hold devotions to the Sacred Heart in the evening of the First Friday. They consist of certain prayers, Sermon and Benediction. In the morning, at 8 o'clock Mass, the choir attend and sing hymns during the Mass. That is the only devotion during the morning.

Under these circumstances: (1) Is it lawful to say the Votive Mass of the Sacred Heart; (2) and if it is, may the same Mass be said at 7 o'clock, (3) and may the same Mass be said privately at a side-altar?


In order to encourage devotion to the Sacred Heart, Leo XIII, on the 28th of June, 1889, granted permission to add the Votive Mass of the Sacred Heart in those churches and oratories where on the morning of the First Friday of each Month special exercises of devotion in honour of the Sacred Heart are held with the approbation of the Ordinaries. The decree1 is as follows: in iis Ecclesiis et oratoriis, ubi Feria sexta, quae prima unoquoque in mense occurrit, peculiaria exercitia in honorem Divini Cordis, approbante loci ordinario, mane peragentur, Beatisissimus Pater Leo XIII indulsit ut hisce exercitiis addi valeat Missa Votiva de Sacro Corde Jesu; dummodo in illam diem non incidat aliquod Festum Domini, aut duplex primae classis, vel Feria, Vigilia, Octava ex privilegiatis; de caetero servatis rubricis.'

To avail then of the privilege of saying this Votive Mass we observe that certain conditions have to be fulfilled, the more important of which are the following: (1) that special exercises are performed in the church or oratory in the morning (mane peragentur') in honour of the Sacred Heart; (2) that these exercises have the approval of the Ordinary; (3) that they are so joined to the Mass that, morally speaking, they may be regarded as forming with it one liturgical act ('ut hisce exercitiis addi valeat Missa '). The exercises may take place before or after or during the Mass, but, according to all authorities, they should be in conjunction with it, and have as their primary object the honour of the Sacred Heart. Again, from the very nature of the case, the privilege permits one Mass only in the same church or oratory, but if there are two distinct Communities residing in a town or parish who have separate services carried out in the one church in honour of the Sacred Heart, we see no reason why the privilege could not be availed of on both occasions. Such a case would be where the church has a special service for a religious Community residing in the parish and another for the ordinary congregation.

1 Decr. 3712.

These things premised, we reply to the queries of our correspondent. (1) We have the gravest doubt as to whether the exercises referred to could be regarded as sufficient to justify the use of the privilege of the Votive Mass. If the devotions mentioned by our correspondent were carried out in the morning in connexion with the Mass we should have no doubt about the matter, but as held in the evening, they do not affect the issue. The question then is: Does the mere chanting of hymns by the choir during the Mass deserve to be styled 'peculiaria exercitia in honorem Divini Cordis,' or should the practice be regarded as sufficient to warrant the approval of the Ordinary-a necessary condition of its validity for the purpose. The schemes of exercises approved as sufficient in places that we are acquainted with usually include 'The Act of Reparation' and Benediction of the Most Holy Sacrament, but there is no rigid rule on the matter. Van der Stappen says: 'Exercitia quaecumque ea esse possunt, dummodo pro objecto habeant honorem SS. Cordis Jesu' (vol. iii. p. 277). Granted, however, that the Ordinary's approval has been duly obtained, for with him rests the responsibility, we should reply to the first query in the affirmative.

(2) No; unless there is a distinct Community, and all the exercises are duly carried out on each occasion.

(3) No.

It might be well to note that this Mass of the Sacred Heart has the character of a solemn Votive Mass, whether it is sung or read. Hence the Gloria and Credo and one Prayer, and the last Gospel is always that of St. John. The Proper Mass is the Votive Mass Miserebitur, given in the body of the Missal, with certain changes according to the season of the year.


REGINA PACIS' OF THE LITANY OF B V.M. Writing of the Litany of Loreto in the March issue (p. 247) we stated that the invocation-Regina pacis-was added by the present Pope for the term of the war and that the consent of the Ordinary was necessary for its public recitation. This was in strict accordance with the terms of the original decree, which we cited, dated November 16, 1915. To avoid misunderstanding, however, we should have mentioned that, in a subsequent Letter to the Cardinal Secretary of State, issued May 5, 1917, the Pope set aside the original conditions for the insertion of the invocation, and ordered that, from June 1, 1917, it was to be added permanently to the Litany. The Letter reads1 :—

Al quale scopo Noi ordiniamo che, a cominciare dal primo dì del prossimo mese di giugno, resti fissata nelle Litanie Lauretane l'invocazione Regina pacis, ora pro nobis, che agli Ordinarii permettemmo di aggiungervi temporaneamente col Decreto della Sacra Congregazione degli Affari Ecclesiastici Straordinarii in data del 16 Novembre, 1915.

1 Acta Ap. Sedis, June 1917, p 266.




(February 16, 1920)


Or fa un anno, in pari circostanza, Noi chiedemmo al Dottore delle genti con quali parole avremmo potuto salutare efficacemente i predicatori della Quaresima, adunati alla Nostra presenza ; e san Paolo allora ci suggeri di salutarli col nome espressivo di uomini di Dio' tu autem, homo Dei (I a Tim., vi. 11). Lo stesso saluto potremmo ora volgere a voi, o dilettissimi figli, che vi preparate a bandire la divina parola in Roma, nella Quaresima ormai imminente. Ma, se il nome che meglio si addice ai predicatori giova a dimostrare il rispetto che loro è dovuto e deve persuadere ad essi le virtù necessarie all'esercizio del loro eccelso ministero, sembra a Noi, che il doppio scopo sarebbe anche più facilmente raggiunto, se si avesse adeguato concetto dell'opera che è commessa ai predicatori. All'amore delle persone e delle cose è necessario vadano innanzi la conoscenza e la stima delle une e delle altre: nil volitum quin praecognitum ; e perchè non dire che, quanto meglio radicata è la stima delle persone e delle cose, tanto più giustificato e sincero ne deve esser l'amore? Perciò un'altra volta Ci siamo rivolti a san Paolo ed abbiamo chiesto a lui una parola, capace di esprimere in maniera comprensiva l'importanza dell'opera affidata ai predicatori. E il Dottore delle genti ha fatto subito risuonare all'anima Nostra l'eco della parola da lui indirizzata al suo discepolo Timoteo: opus fac evangelistae (I a Tim., Iv. 5).

Certamente è a tutti palese l'importante significato di questa parola, la quale viene a rinnovare, e ad applicare ai predicatori, quell'antico precetto age quod agis, cui è connesso il ricordo della necessità di far bene ciò che si deve compiere. Ma, affinchè a niuno apparisca superflua la parola dell'Apostolo e niuno dica che solo equivale ad inutile ripetizione, Noi vi invitiamo, o dilettissimi figli, a riflettere che san Paolo, nello scrivere a Timoteo opus fac evangelistae, supponeva che il suo discepolo conoscesse e ciò che vale per sè' l'ufficio di evangelista, e ciò che un tale ufficio richiede in chi deve adempierlo. Anche Noi pertanto facciamo Nostra la parola di san Paolo: opus fac evangelistae, e, mentre la indirizziamo a ciascuno dei predicatori dell'imminente

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