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him sent up to Dublyn as a Prisoner. When he came there, it so fell out, that he met Cromwell himself, with his officers in the streets, where, after great Menaces that he would make him an Example, and expresly threatning him with pronouncing the sentence of death upon him, committed him to prison : as he was carried away, besides the votes of all the officers against him, Hugh Peters fell most upon him, who (as was affirmed then) had blamed Cromwell for saving of his life so long.
Seaventeen dayes he was close prisoner, and afterwards upon Bonds confined six months within the City, and after that sent up to the Army at Clonmel, permitted to come then with Cromwel into England, where to himself he never varied in any discourse in the said Subjects, from what he had said to him at the first sight of him.
Thus far his sufferings in that storm, and his Deliverance. Some Articles Objected against the Doctor, while he was a Prisoner in
Dublyn. I. That he had refused to obey Col. Michael Jones his order, for the forbearing the use of Common Prayer, in his church at Drogheda.
II. That he had Preached a Thanksgiving Sermon for the taking of the Town of Drogheda, by the Lord of Inchiquin, under the Command of the Lord Marquesse of Ormond.
III. That he saluted one Col. Trenchard, with great joy the Town was taken, accordingly for the King.
IV. That he moved the Mayor of the Town to come in his Scarlet to the Proclaiming of the King, and that he attended at it himself, and went immediately to the Church, and observed the Book of Common Prayer, and in special those prayers for him.
V. His Praying for the Lord Marquesse of Ormond, as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, then beseiging of Dublyn.
VI. His praying for a Confusion upon Oliver Cromwells Army while he was beseiging Drogheda.
VII. His withdrawing of some Commanders and Souldiers, from the service of the Parliament, and in special the speeches of one of their Captains upon his deathbed produced, in complaining of the Doctor to that purpose.
VIII. That he was with the Lord Marquesse of Ormond at his Camp before Dublyn.
IX. That he refused to goe with the Parliament Army, out of the Town of Drogheda, but staid with the Lord of Inchiquin and his party in it, attended the Lord Marquesse of Ormond, when he came back to it, the keeping of a Fast, and preaching before him, and praying accordingly for a good successe upon his designes.
X. That he had employed his parts (to use the very words as it was written to him) against the Saints, and that Interest which the Lord Jesus is now bringing forth into the world.
And thus he hath been compelled against his own disposition to reckon up those things which else he had not so much as mentioned, he having in all this done and suffered but that which was his duty to do. 1
1 The last paragraph is in smaller type than the rest.
Two slight discrepancies between the farewell sermon and the narrative should be noticed. Firstly, in the sermon, Dr. Bernard interpolates the date of January 27 as that of his first sermon after the storm. And yet, in his narrative, he says that he was confined under bonds, presumably in Dublin, for six months. January 27 was less than five months after Drogheda fell. So that either Dr. Bernard was permitted to return to Drogheda, or his confinement was not so strict as he pretended. In any case it rather gives the impression that he exaggerated his services and sufferings.
Secondly, he states in his sermon that the officer who saved his life had not been seen by him for eighteen years. In his narrative he says sixteen years. Both statements cannot be accurate, for, eighteen years back from September, 1649, would be in 1641, just before the Irish Rebellion began; while sixteen years back would be in 1643, when the Civil War was in progress. Nothing turns upon this, however.
J. B. WILLIAMS.
JEWISH BELIEF IN THE RESURRECTION
OF THE DEAD
By Rev. T. J. AGIUS, S.J.
We are told in the Book of Genesis that "Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son's son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram's wife ; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan ; and they went into Haran, and dwelt
; and Terah died in Haran.'1 Now the Lord said unto Abram : Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto the land that I will show thee ...; and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran . and went forth to go into the land of Canaan.': This was the beginning of the long series of special manifestations of God, in preparation for that grandest act of His love, His actual pitching of His tent : amongst us, by taking human flesh Himself.
Possibly an idolater himself,+ Abraham was chosen from among his family and kin to be the seed of the promise and the recipient and guardian of the mystery of love, hidden from all ages, to be revealed in all its fullness from the midst of the chosen people even unto the ends of the earth." Gradually, with infinite gentleness and forbearance, the God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob did protect and guide His chosen ones out of and in the midst of the vast majority of their depraved and thoroughly corrupt fellow-men. Not, indeed, by placing before them truths beyond their grasp, or by imposing upon them tasks above their strength;
1 Gen. xi. 31.
3 John i. 14 : cokývwgev seems to recall mar, so that the Incarnation itself would be the Shekinah amongst us ; or the Word is Shekinah in the Sacred Humanity.
4 Jos. xxiv. 2 ; Judith v. 6-9.
but with gifts and promises, or threats and punishments, lopping off their vices and stimulating them to virtue, making them lean ever more confidently on His own Mercy and Love ; opening out their minds and hearts to His most tender Fatherhood ; and urging them to imitate His own infinite Perfection and to aspire even to union with His divine Essence 1-'a peculiar people,' indeed ! :
This of itself would show that even such a consoling truth as the resurrection of the dead was not necessarily known to the Hebrews from their very first intercourse with their loving God. But the traditions of their land of origin, Chaldea, were changed and modified by notions gathered from the peoples among whom they lived ; and finally corrected, purified, and elevated to the standards of eternal truth by men of God, raised and inspired by the Holy Spirit who dwelt within them, above the gross superstitions and abominable usages of their neighbours. Not that anywhere in the inspired Scriptures does God allow falsehood to pass for truth-much less could God declare true what is false--but He did not reveal the full truth to them at a time when they were not capable of grasping it, even as He did not rebuke their evil ways beyond their strength. He treated them as babes, unable to take strong meats, feeding them with milk as much as they could bear, until the fullness of time had come for the complete and final revelation made by Christ Our Lord, and entrusted to the infallible keeping of His Church.
One is not surprised, therefore, to find among this favoured people-stiff-necked and wayward at all times
1 See Is. xlix, 15 : 'Can a woman forget her suckiing child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb ! Yea, these may forget, yet will I not forget thee.' Similar tenderness is expressed in the other prophecies ; even punishment is a proof of His unalterable faithfulness and love. Cf. Osee ii. ; Is. xi., xiv. 32; Jer. xiii. 13.
2 Deut. xxvi. 18, and passim in Old Testament.
4 Compare Our Lord's gradual manifestation of the true character of His mission : His Messiahship, His sufferings, death and resurrection-cf. John xvi. 12, 29. Compare St. Paul's words to his converts at Corinth: 1 Cor. iii. 1 ff (Heb. v. 12 ff.) a teaching followed by various Popes : St. Gregory with the Angles, St. Nicholas with the Bulgarians.
5 Such are many of the expressions and actions alluded to below in connexion with Sheol : they are mentioned here, only in so far as they show the kind of beliefs current among the Jews, with regard to the dead-prescinding altogether from the question as to whether the biographer, inspired by God, approved of them or condemned them (cf. for example, the rebuke of Job and his false friends, by God, in Job xxxviii.- xli., for their rash utterings).
6 Acts vii. 51; Exod. xxxii. 9, xxxiii. 3, xxxiv. 9, etc.
-a tendency to Chaldean worshipping of ancestors, such as the teraphim which Rachel stole from her father's house, or the strange gods which Jacob hid under the terebinth, 2 or the familiar spirits which Saul consulted, despite his own ordinances, at En-dor,; or even in the house of David, for 'Michal let David down through the window and Michal took the teraphim and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair at the head thereof '4 to deceive Saul's messengers. It is these household gods, or spirits of ancestors, amongst other forms of idolatry, which good kings like Josiah o strove to put away, in obedience to the denunciations of the prophets.?
For the dead, as they thought, when honourably buried,8 entered the pit or Sheol 10—not unlike the Babylonian
i Aralô 11 - the land of dust 12 and disorder, is a land of darkness where the very light is as darkness, 14 situated in the lowest parts of the earth,15 or even below the sea, 16 above the subterranean waters. 17 It was conceived of as a house provided with different divisions or chambers," whose gates are barred, 10 and where the dead are grouped in clans and tribes and nations 20 — forsaken of all, even, so it would seem, of God's providence.21 Hence it was all-important
1 Gen. xxxi. 19, 30-35. 2 Gen. xxxv. 4. 3 1 Kings (1 Sam.) xxviii. 6-13 : 'I see a god coming up'; cf. Is. vüü. 19. 4 1 Kings (1 Sam.) xix. 12-16. ó Compare Judges xvii. ; Is. viü. 19. 6 4 Kings (2 Kings) xxiii. 24. 7 Osee iii. 4 ; Ezech. xxi. 26 ; Zach. x. 2, etc. 3 4 Kings (2 Kings) ix. 10; Eccles. vi. 3 ; Jer. xxxiii. 1; Ezech. xxxii. 23.
9712: Ezech. xxvi. 20, xxxi. 14, 16, xxxii. 18; Is. xiv. 16, 19; Lam. üi. 53, 55 ; Prov. i. 12, xxviii. 17; Ps. xxvii. (xxvii.) 1. nori: Job xyii. 14, xxxii. 18; Is. xxxviii. 17, li. 14 ; Ezech. xxviii. 8. ;
10 bine, dis &dov.
16 Ezech. xxvi. 20, xxxi. 14, xxxii. 18, 24; Ps. lxii. 8 (lxiii. 9), lxxxv. (lxxxvi.) 13; cf. cxxxviii. (cxxxix.) 8 ; Amos ix. 2.
16 Job xxvi. 5. 17 Ps. Lxx. (lxxi.) 20. 18 Prov. vii. 27-Sheol, the chambers of death. 19 Job xvii. 16, xxxvii. 17; Is. xxxviii. 10; Ps. ix. 5 (4), cvi. (cvii.) 18.
30 See notes 2 and 3 on next page ; Ezech. xxxii. ; Is. xiv. On the other hand, Job xxx. 23, Eccles. xii. 5: Every man goeth to his eternal house, the house appointed for all living.'
21 Is. xxxviii. 18; Ps. lxxxvii. 6 (lxxxviii, 5); cf. Ps. cxxxviii. (cxxxix.) 7, 8.