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man, just as mice are supposed to grow out of the earth.2 And not only shall the new man rise in his own flesh, but the very clothes in which he was buried shall be restored to him. For, answered Rabbi Meïr to Queen Cleopatra's impertinent question, if the grain of wheat which is buried naked rises so gloriously clothed, how much more shall the just be who have been buried in their clothes ! And so Rabbi Jeremiah gave orders that he should be laid out in his very best suit, with sandals on his feet, stick in hand and hat on; and he was to be placed on his side, not on his back, so as to lose no time in rising at the coming of Messiah! Nor is this rabbinic story unique. Rabbi Simi taught that the gathering of Israel from the different parts of the world shall take place through underground passages, the corpses rolling towards Jerusalem, the site of New Sion. Whereupon Rabbi Meïr asked to be buried near the sea (from Antioch), and have a cord tied round his feet so as to make it easier (for the angels ?) to pull him to Jerusalem ; which in fact became a pious practice among the Jews of Antioch.2 Another Rabbi asks : What will they do at the time the Holy One, blessed be He, shall renew His world ? as it reads (Is. ii. 7): exalted shall be the Lord alone on that day.' To which the answer is given that the upright in question will be given wings, similar to the wings of the eagles, and they will fly over the world. to this it is written (Is. xl. 31): they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run and not be weary; they shall walk and not be faint.' 3
The copious apocalyptic literature, Jewish in origin and dating from 200 B.c. onwards to the first and second centuries of the Christian era, fill in the details of the prophetic utterings, generally in a sensuous direction :
complete in peace,5 though all defilement and unrighteousness and sin are to
Babyl. Talmud (ed. Rodkinson), p. 276.
be removed by Gabriel, and all nations are to offer adoration and praise to the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, sitting on the summit of the high mountain, on his throne of glory.1 These apocalypses may be grouped according to their content into three main schools of thought, which must have existed at the time of Our Lord, even though the dates assigned to the different compositions may vary by as much as two hundred years :
(1) The Orthodox School, represented at the time of Our Lord's preaching by the Pharisees. The Rabbinic doctrine of the Pharisees is accessible to us in the Songs of Solomon. After the happy days of the earthly kingdom of Messiah, a general resurrection will be followed by the judgment. Those who fear the Lord will find favour in that day ; they shall rise for eternal life in the goodwill of God, in the light of their Lord which will never fail —the heritage of life in blessedness. The wicked, on the contrary, will not appear in the day of mercy, but their abode shall be in Hades, in the dark and perdition—an eternal loss, a dreadful fall, an everlasting oblivion.2
(a) Resurrection in the body for righteous Israelites is shown in the testaments of Juda and of Zabulon 3 :
I shall rise again in the midst of you, as a chies in the midst of his sons, and I shall rejoice in the midst of my tribe, in the midst of those who shall have kept the Law of the Lord and the commandments of Zabulon their father. +
And they who have died in grief shall arise in joy,
to life. Ethiopic Enoch (i. 36) makes Sheol consist of four divisions, of which one is reserved for sinners who had not expiated their crimes at the time of death (ch. xxii.). These shall receive their full retribution in their bodies on the advent of the Kingdom ; the others shall not take part in the resurrection. In chapter xxv., however, all Israelites are supposed to be present at the great judgment, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring everything to its consummation for ever. The righteous and holy shall be given of the fruit of the fragrant tree of life, which shall be transplanted to the temple of the Lord :
1 Eth. En. i. 9, x. 17, xxv. 3-6.
2 P88. Solomon, üü. 13-16, xiii. 9-11, xiv. 6, 7, xv. 13-15 (cf. xvii. 50 xviii. 7).
8 Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (tr. R. H. Charles).
Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad
Or torment or calamity touch them.i This view corresponds with that expressed in the Second Book of Machabees (vii. 11-29, xiv. 46) and in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (Levi v. xviii.). Both the Testament and the Ethiopic Enoch agree with 2 Machabees (xii. 42, 43) in describing a general resurrection in the body :
In those days the earth shall yield its burden, and Sheol shall give up what it received, and the lower regions shall return its due. He (the Elect) shall choose from among them the just and the holy ones, for the day of salvation is at hand.2
Keep the commandments of God until the Lord shall reveal His salvation to all Gentiles. And then shall ye see Enoch, Noah and Shem, and Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, rising on the right hand in gladness. Then shall we
also rise, each one over our tribe, worshipping the King of Heaven. Then also all men shall rise, some unto glory and some unto shame.3
(But the Gentiles) shall be chased out of the whole earth, and cast into the torment of fire, and they shall be destroyed by wrath and by an eternal torment, which shall be eternal.4
(6) A transformation of the risen body of the just among Israelites is said by Josephus to have been taught by the Pharisees. “For although it (the body) be dissolved, it is not perished; for the earth receives its remains and preserves them, like seed ... but at the sound of God the Creator, it will sprout up and be raised in a clothed and glorious condition ... in a state of purity. But as for the unjust, they will receive their bodies not changed, not freed from their diseases or distempers, nor made glorious.
.To these belong the unquenchable fire ; and that without end ; and a certain worm that dieth not.'s
1 Eth. En, xxv. 3-6. 2 Ibid. li. 1. 3 Benjamin x. 5-7. • Eth. En. xci. 9, 10. • Josephus, Discourses to the Greeks, &$ 5, 6.
According to the Apocalypse of Ezra, after a primaeval silence of seven days the Age which is not yet awake a shall be roused, and that which is corruptible : shall perish, the Most High revealed :
Then cometh the end and compassion shall pass away and pity be afar off and long-suffering withdrawn.4
Deeds of righteousness shall awake, and deeds of iniquity shall not sleep. And then shall the pit of torment appear, and over against it the place of refreshment; the furnace of Gehenna shall be made manifest and over against it the Paradise of delight.5
The (evil) root is sealed up from you, infirmity from your path extinguished. And death is hidden, Hades fled away; corruption forgotten, sorrows passed away ; and in the end the treasures of immortality are made manifest.6 The picture is still sensuous, with rest and plenty, even for these righteous constituted in wisdom and good works, thriving on the Tree of Life.
Baruch ? is told that the earth will restore the dead exactly as it received them in order to show to the living that those who had departed have returned again. Then judgment will grow strong, and those who have now been justified will have their splendour glorified in changes, and the form of their face will be turned into the light of their beauty. Time will not age them, for they shall dwell in the heights of that world which does not die ; "and they shall be made like unto the angels, and be made equal to the stars, and they shall be changed into every form they desire, from beauty into loveliness, and from light into the splendour of glory '--an excellency surpassing that of the angels.
And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than the first ... and all the sheep were within it. ... And those sheep were all white, and their wool abundant and clean. And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house.8
1 The Ezra-Apocalypse (C. H. Box), vii. 29-42, viii. 52-54 (cf. vii. 125, x. 25, 50).
2 Qui nondum vigilat saeculum.
And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns, and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and made petitions to him all the time. And I saw till all their generations were transformed and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the oxen.1
A curious figure to denote the Messiah, here represented as a mere man with no special function allotted to Him except that of transforming non-Israelites.
(c) A still greater transformation is postulated by the Book of the Secrets of Enoch, in which undetermined forms of speech are used to convey the idea of a spiritual body :
And the LORD said to Michael : Go and take from Enoch his earthly robe, and anoint him with My holy oil and clothe him with the raiment of My glory. And so Michael did as the Lord spoke unto him. He anointed me and clothed me, and the appearance of that oil was more than a great light, and its anointing was like excellent dew ; and its fragrance like myrrh, shining like a ray of the sun. And I gazed on myself and I was like one of His glorious ones. And there was no difference, and fear and tren bling departed from me.3
Similarly with the Book of Proverbs in Ethiopic Enoch (xxxvii. lxxi.) the Messiah will recall to life those that have perished on land and sea and those that are in Sheol and hell. He will judge angels and men. The righteous, now at last in unhindered possession of the new earth, will shine with joy, and be resplendent with light. They will be vestured with life and become angels in heaven :
And the righteous and elect shall have risen from the earth
(2) Directly opposed to the orthodox teaching of the Pharisees were the Sadducees. The Gospels and Acts represent them as denying not only resurrection of the body but even the immortality of the soul. “As touching the resurrection of the dead, have you not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of
1 Eth. En. xc. 37, 38. 2 The Book of the Secrets of Enoch (Charles-Morfill), xxü. 8 Secr. En. xxü. 8-10. 4 Eth. En. lxii. 15, 16.