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"Art. 36.-The minimum of interest secured to Mr. Young or his representatives for capital is fixed at forty-three thousand five hundred francs per annum, being three per cent. on the sum paid for the estate.

"Art. 37.-After deducting from the general product of the estate during the year, the various expenses enumerated in the two preceding articles, the remainder will be net profit, from which net profit a sum, equal to three per cent., will be set apart for the interest of capital invested in the shares of the industrial society, to be paid to the shareholders for interest due on their shares from the date of payment, and for arrears of interest due, if such a case occur, from difficulties of preceding years.

“After deducting all these dues from the general produce of the establishment, the surplus will be set apart for dividends, in the general proportion of one-third to capital (the passive source of production,) and twothirds to labour and skill (the active source of production.)

"Art. 38.-The dividend awarded to capital will be distributed in proportion to the sums invested by each person in the fixed property of the estate, and in the floating or industrial capital; but the proprietor of the estate cannot, in any case, receive a dividend exceeding eight per cent. on the fifty-eight thousand pounds of purchase-money, inclusive of the minimum of three per cent. All sums exceeding eight per cent. of dividend to general capital will be exclusively devoted to industrial capital.

"Art. 39.-The two-thirds of general dividend awarded to labour and skill, in addition to the minimum secured in the preceding articles, will be 'divided amongst the cooperative members, according to the principles of regulation mentioned in Art. 26, namely, each person respectively, according to the relative value of their labour and minimum.

"Art. 40.-The desire of Mr. Arthur Young, the present proprietor of the estate of Citeaux, being that those persons who are interested in the floating or industrial capital should also be interested in the fixed capital or property, legal arrangements have been made that persons who invest money in shares of industrial capital may have the right of investing an equal sum in shares of the fixed capital, but not where such sums are less than two thousand five hundred francs, or one hundred pounds sterling, equal to one-fourth of a full share, ten thousand francs, or four hundred pounds.

"To secure this very desirable unity of interests, Mr. Arthur Young will reserve a number of shares in the fixed property, equal to the amount of the floating capital, fixed in Art. 3, at one million (forty thousand pounds,) and will only dispose of such shares to other parties, in the event of their not being subscribed by persons interested in the acting capital.

"Art. 41.-If at any time it should be found, from a general inventory, that the society for working the estate had lost one-half of the capital invested, a dissolution of the society might immediately take place, before the expiration of the time mentioned in Art. 2; and the minimum of interest secured (in Art. 36) to the capital invested in the fixed property, would cease to be due.*

"Art. 42.—In case of such results, the improvements realised upon the estate would be estimated by authorised appraisers, and one-third of the value of such improvements would be reserved to the proprietor, who would pay over the amount of the other two-thirds to the industrial society.

If the proprietor of the estate preferred selling it by auction to accepting the valuation of improvements by appraisers, he would be at liberty to do so, and the value of improvements would then be equal to the sum realised over and above the fifty-eight thousand pounds paid for the estate by Mr. Arthur Young.

The society has taken a lease of existence for ninety-nine years.

"Art. 43.-The dissolution mentioned in the preceding articles could only be effected by an absolute majority of individual voters, representing, at least, two-thirds of the capital invested in the industrial society."

Such is the primary phalanx at Citeaux. "It is twelve months," say they," since this establishment was organized, and every thing progresses in it better and more rapidly than was anticipated by the most sanguine of its projectors. The labourers live well, and are interested in its success by the hope of a good profit at the end of the year, in addition to their regular salary." The work we quote from has not been in print more than a month; the year of the association (it began in September, 1841) is concluded—we should like to have known with what results. Has Mr. Young as yet discovered the similarity between Fourierism and Owenism, by finding that it is all owing, and no paying?

A letter with which the curate of Horbling has favoured the Times newspaper, requires us to say a few more words on this subject. It seems that others have considered it their duty to warn people of the tendency of these doctrines of Fourier, and in doing so have charged our curate with advocating Socialism. This is his answer:

"The industrial system of the late Charles Fourier, is the only portion of his theory that I have recommended; and this I have done, not in the sermon itself, but in the appendix, a reference to which will show in a moment how unlike that system is to communism, or the views of Owen.

"Whatever may be the speculative and erroneous views of Fourier upon other matters, I have nothing to do with them; [INDEED?] the public are qualified to deal with them, and to decide upon their merits or demerits. My aim has been, and is nothing more, than to direct attention to a matter which I hope I may live to see taken up by the Church, viz. association upon christian principles, for which purpose the system I have indicated seems better adapted than anything I have hitherto met with."

So, when the spiritual instructor of a parish deems it his duty to recommend a portion of a philosopher's scheme for the adoption of his flock, it is not this pastor's duty to warn his flock of the erroneous views this philosopher held on points of most vital interest to their souls. It is not his duty to denounce the covert deism, the hardly concealed disbelief in the Scriptures, otherwise than as traditions, little more credible than heathen fables of old. Oh, no! He has nothing to do with his new protegé's erroneous opinions on other points, however vital. Nay, more, if the curate is right, he is to recommend to his readers a careful and dispassionate study of the books in which what he approves of is welded together with these erroneous opinions, without one word of warning. As far as we can judge, the errors of Fourier on vital points cannot be disjoined from his industrial theory, the groundwork of which is a vital error. But, admitting that this rejunction could be effected, and that our curate is not bound to warn his readers of the pitfall, how far is he justified in openly sanctioning the Phalansterians as a class, in giving a holy sanction to the entire theory and the books in which it is advocated, by adopting their publisher, heralding the titles of their writings, and

recommending their destructive works; not extracts from them, not portions of them; their entire works, as they are printed on the wrapper of his sermon-the works from which our extracts have been made? It is not every one can decide-nay, perhaps Mr. Larken himself may be puzzled in determining-how far he goes with the Phalansterians. It is enough for the sect and for the world that he gives the theory his countenance, without a warning, without a disclaimer. He is answerable by his sermon for every error advocated by the sect he thus partially (as he tells us) patronises.

It may appear, at first sight, to some of our readers that we have been writing in a tone of needless alarm;-that, on our own showing, Fourierism is a thing too absurd to be dreaded; that the mere difficulties interposed by the whole frame-work of society in the way of establishing a Phalanx, are such as may set every man's mind at ease on the subject of his living to see any thing of the sort. To this we reply, that it is not Fourierism per se that we in any way fear. We no more expect to see a Phalanx than our imaginary objectors. But what we do think ought to be regarded with seriousness, even with awe, is the present multiplication of schemes for uniting men otherwise than by God's grace, and in the bonds of His holy Church. To avert the evils of mortality, and to scale the heavens by structures of our own erection, has been the dream of man's heart, at intervals, from the presumptuous attempt on Shinar, down to the present time. And surely one day it is to be made on a fearful scale; and will tempt men by presenting every human appearance of success. One day the restraints of society, and law, and government—that "which now letteth," must be taken away, to make room for the full and the last revelation of the rebellion that is in man's heart. The mystery of iniquity would seem to be working now in many shapes: schemes of union through education, falsely so called; through a common vow of temperance, having no respect to that taken in Baptism, are but its least appalling forms. Then we have seen St. Simonism, Socialism, Mormonism, and Fourierism. None of these, perhaps, are ever to come up to the full mark, or develop the entire outline and image of Antichrist; but do they not sound in the ear of Faith like prelusive mutterings-the first fitful gusts of the coming tempest ? Whether that tempest be near or distant, according to human computation, matters little on any supposition, those who would pass unhurt through "the trial that is to come on all the earth," should give heed to the signs of the times. On any supposition, the multiplication of such schemes as we have been considering, is one of the most awful and significant of those signs.

And one other consideration strikes us as important. Every plan of social regeneration and union, except the Divine one, must, from the very nature of the case, be infidel in its principle; and infidel such have, for the most part, avowed themselves to be; but of late

they have presented us with a ghastly phantom of religion. This, surely, is markworthy. Infidel they remain; but with the full horror of infidelity hid beneath a tempting veil. And is not this what, taking the prophetic word in its simplest acceptation, we may expect the final Antichrist to be-sitting in the temple of God, and showing himself that he is God.

There is but one course for the appointed watchmen, when they observe portents like these: to proclaim the grace of God as the one remedy for the evils perceptible alike in individuals and in society, and the Church of God as the one only plan of union on which a blessing can be expected, and in which the natural selfishness and separation of fallen men can be done away with. So may they hope at once to prevent the earnest struggler against that selfishness and separation, with the blessedness which he might be led vainly to seek for in some godless scheme, and to arm Christians with a power of instinctively detecting whatever plans of melioration come not from above, and must, at all hazards, be cast aside.

1842.

Hymns of the Primitive Church, mostly Primitive, collected, trans-
lated, and arranged for Public Use. By the Rev. J. CHANDLER.
A New Edition. 24mo. London: J. W. Parker.
Church Hymns, adapted to Congregational Use. 18mo. Oxford:
Shrimpton. 1842.

A Selection of Psalms, to which are added, Hymns chiefly Ancient. 18mo. London: Burns. 1837.

Psalms and Hymns, selected and adapted to the Purposes of Public Worship. By the Rev. E. SCOBELL. 18mo. London: Cleaver. 1840.

Psalms and Hymns for Public Worship, selected for the Use of the Parish Churches of Islington. Islington: Jackson. 1841. THE taste for collections of hymns for public worship appears now so extensively spread in this country, that, whether we approve it or disapprove it, it seems vain to think of changing it. In country places, and here and there a town congregation, the old and new versions of Psalms linger on, with such additions as the managers of the University Press have thought proper to add to them; but in many parts of the kingdom even the villages are invaded, and one pastor after another follows his own taste, or obeys that of his people, by introducing some collection of hymns, as judgment or caprice may suggest. The matter, therefore, assumes an interest which may justify us in bestowing a little time and attention in considering its various bearings.

In briefly discussing this subject, then, it may be as well first to recollect what was the state of things before the Reformation.

It will be remembered, that in the old breviaries, which contained the service for the various hours of the day, the musical service, as distinguished from the more monotonous chant in which the prayers were recited, (now designated in our rubrics by the term " saying," as distinguished both from mere "reading" on the one hand, and "singing" on the other,) comprised chanted psalms and versicles, anthems, and hymns; and in the missals, or service-books for (what ought to have been) the Holy Communion, of longer anthems, the creed, and a peculiar kind of hymn called a prose. At the time of the Reformation, the Psalms, versicles, anthems and creed, not being in metre, were put into English without difficulty; but with regard to the hymns the case was different. To translate them required some readiness at rhythmical composition, and, to do it well, something of the spirit of poetry; and as at that period even our English secular poetry was much behind the prose, there probably existed no means of procuring any such translation of the ancient hymns as would have had any chance of becoming popular. Cranmer, we know, tried his hand, but his success was not such as to encourage either him or any of his friends to extend the experiment.

The metre of the

There might have been other causes. Latin hymns is different from our own, many being strictly classical. The tunes, therefore, of the old hymns could not be taken for the translations; and to compose English verses in the Latin metres would have been contrary to the genius of the language, and have ensured failure. Furthermore, although the great body of the Latin hymns were admirable in subject, in system, in tone and spirit, yet the most popular were objectionable, as being invocations of the Virgin; and it was therefore, perhaps, thought better to let them all drop, than to risk perpetuating those which were unscriptural, by showing any person the way to putting them into the vernacular tongue. Whatever were the causes, the hymns were allowed to fall into desuetude, and nothing remained to the English Church of the most popular style of its devotional minstrelsy.

But it was not to be expected that metrical singing should be laid aside; and accordingly, first in private houses, then as it were by stealth in parish churches, and afterwards by royal permission, a custom brought from abroad of singing portions of the Psalms in metre, came, in default of the hymns, to prevail in our churches to a great extent.* But the royal autho

*To this it must be added, that the Ultra-protestant, or Puritan spirit, both on the continent and in our own country, was, from the first, opposed to the ancient mode of chanting the psalter; and this, as is well known, came to its height at the fearful outbreak of the great rebellion. In the later English Church, chanting, as a part of congregational worship, has certainly, for the most part, been little prac

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