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'Codex plerumque,' says the second Canon, nihil decernit de ritibus et caeremoniis quas liturgici libri . . . servandas praecipiunt in celebratione sacrosancti Missae sacrificii, in administratione Sacramentorum et Sacramentalium aliisque sacris peragendis. Quare omnes liturgicae leges vim suam retinent, nisi earum aliqua expresse corrigatur.' The actual changes in the liturgical laws hitherto in force are not, it is true, very numerous; but some of them are of considerable importance. In several instances, too, the new Code has placed beyond further doubt matters regarding which opinions were formerly very much divided. It must be understood that the changes, such as they are, do not come into operation until next Pentecost; one or two which are already in force will be noticed as we proceed.


A-De ritibus et caeremoniis baptismi.

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1. Without any special indult the Ordinary can permit, gravi et rationabili de causa,' the baptism of adults according to the rite for infants (755).

2. Where, as in America for instance, Catholics belong to different rites-Latin and Oriental-and one of the parents belongs to the Latin, the other to an Oriental rite, the general rule is that the child is to be baptized 'ritu patris.' If only one of the parents is a Catholic the child is to be baptized according to the rite to which this parent belongs (756).

3. When baptism is repeated conditionally, the ceremonies must be supplied only when they were omitted in the previous baptism. If the first baptism was conferred with the full ceremonies, these may be employed or dispensed with in the second (760).

B.-De patrinis.

1. Ex baptismo spiritualem cognationem contrahunt tantum cum baptizato baptizans et patrinus' (768). The spiritual relationship between the minister and parent, and between the sponsor and parent, can no longer be contracted as soon as the new Code comes into force; and any such relationship, already contracted, will not be then an impediment to matrimony (1079).

2. It was formerly a disputed point whether sponsors should assist at private baptism. But the new Code lays down distinctly that a sponsor should be employed, 'si facile haberi queat.' If not, then at least one sponsor should be present when the ceremonies are afterwards supplied. In this latter case, however, the sponsor does not contract the spiritual relationship. It is clear from the wording of the Canon that the relationship is contracted in the former case (762).

3. When baptism is repeated conditionally the sponsor, if any, who assisted at the previous baptism should also assist at the second. If no sponsor was present in the first instance a sponsor is not required when the baptism is conditionally repeated. But one may be present; if so, be does not contract the spiritual relationship. Neither does the sponsor, if any, who assisted at the first baptism. If, however, the same sponsor is present on both occasions, he contracts the relationship (763).

4. The ordinary conditions for acting validly as a sponsor are clearly set forth in the Codex. The person must be baptized, have the use of reason and the intention of acting; he must be properly designated, and must physically touch the child, per se vel per procuratorem. The father, mother, husband, or wife of the person to be baptized cannot validly act as sponsor. Nor can non-Catholics, nor Catholics who are under certain ecclesiastical penalties, such as a deposed or degraded cleric, or a person who has been excommunicated sententia condemnatoria vel declaratoria' (765).

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In order to act licitly as sponsor a person must have attained the age of fourteen years; but the minister may, for a just cause, admit as sponsor one who is under that age. There will be no distinction in future between males and females in this respect. A novice or professed member of any religious community can act licitly only in case of necessity and with the express permission of, at least, the local Superior. Secular clerics require the express permission of the Ordinary. Of course the other classes of persons mentioned in the Ritual cannot be lawfully admitted as sponsors (766).

C.-De loco baptismi.

1. The rule laid down in the Ritual by which baptism in a private house was allowed in the case of children of kings or great princes' has been modified and extended. The Canon on this matter reads: ‘Si baptizandi sint filii aut nepotes eorum qui supremum actu tenent populorum principatum vel jus habent succedendi in thronum, quoties id rite poposcerint' (776).

2. In accordance with the terms of a concession granted a few years ago the Ordinary may, for a just and reasonable cause, permit baptism in a private house (776). Whenever the baptism is so administered by episcopal permission the sacrament must be conferred solemnly. Private baptism can be allowed by a Bishop only in one case, namely, when an adult heretic has to be baptized conditionally (759).

D.-The Baptisma Register.

1. The Parish Priest should take care, as already stated in the Ritual, that a Christian name be given in baptism. Should those responsible insist on any other, he should himself add the name of some saint, and inscribe both names in the baptismal register (761).

2. When there is question of an illegitimate child, the name of the mother is to be inserted in the register if her maternity is publicly known, or if she makes a request to that effect in writing, or orally in presence of two witnesses. The name of the father is to be inserted only when he


makes the request under the conditions mentioned, or when he is known as the father ex publico authentico documento. In other cases the child should be registered as 'filius patris ignoti,' or 'ignotorum parentum' (777).

3. When baptism has been administered neither by the 'proprius parochus' nor in his presence, the minister must send him notice of the baptism as soon as possible, in order that the necessary entries may be made in the register (778).


1. Our readers are aware that according to the legislation of Pius X Communion may be given to the sick 'qui jam a mense decumbunt' even though they have broken the fast by taking something in liquid form. In that concession a distinction was made between the ordinary faithful and those who live in pious houses where the Blessed Eucharist is reserved, or who have the privilege of Mass in a private oratory. The former class were allowed to receive Communion only once or twice a month, while the latte: might receive once or twice a week. This distinction is abolished by the new Code; and even the ordinary faithful will be allowed to receive Communion once or twice a week in the circumstances contemplated by the original legislation (858).

2. Although the faithful are to be exhorted to receive the Paschal Communion in their own parish, they will be no longer strictly bound to do so. If, however, they fulfil the precept elsewhere, they should take care to make known the fact to their own pastor (859).

3. The time for the fulfilment of the obligation extends, by the general law, only from Palm Sunday to Low Sunday. But the Ordinary may extend the time, from the fourth Sunday of Lent until Trinity Sunday. This provision of the Code will come into force next Paschal time (Ibid. and Decree of 20 Aug., 1917).

We understand that the Irish Bishops, in virtue of their special faculties, have fixed the time from Ash Wednesday until Trinity Sunday, thus introducing uniformity for the whole of Ireland.


1. In case of necessity a single unction will suffice in uno sensu seu rectius in fronte, cum praescripta forma breviori.' But should the patient survive, there remains the obligation to supply the individual unctions.

2. The unction of the loins is to be omitted, in the case of men as well as of women.

3. The anointing of the feet may be omitted 'ex qualibet rationabili causa' (947).


The solemnization of marriage is forbidden only from the first Sunday of Advent until Christmas Day, and from Ash Wednesday until Easter Sunday. But even within these times the nuptial blessing may be given, in the usual way, by permission of the Ordinary. A just cause is required

for the dispensation; and the newly-married are to be advised to avoid excessive pomp (1108). These provisions of the Code are already in force.


1. A Bishop may designate one altar as privileged in the cathedral, or in a parochial or quasi-parochial church; but not in a public or semipublic oratory, unless such an oratory is united with, or subsidiary to, the parochial church. Abbots, Vicars, and Prefects Apostolic, and the Superiors of exempt clerical Orders, have the same power regarding their respective churches (916).

2. Every altar in the church is privileged not only on All Souls' Day, but also while the devotion of the Forty Hours is being carried on in the church (917).

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3. When a fixed altar has lost its consecration by the removal of the table from the stipes,' the Ordinary may permit a priest to reconsecrate it by the short form. Formerly the Ordinary could not give such permission without an Apostolic indult (1200).

4. A fixed altar, or an altar stone, will not lose its consecration if the Bishop or his delegate removes the operculum' which covers the relics ' ad illud firmandum vel reparandum vel subrogandum, aut ad visitandas reliquias.' Any priest is permitted to mend (with cement) an 'operculum' which has been only slightly broken (Ibid.).


1. The parish priest, or any other priest, who is called upon to attend the sick, will have faculties from the Canon Law itself to give the last blessing according to the formula prescribed in the Ritual (468).

2. Vestments, corporals, and other such articles which require a blessing before use, may be blessed not only by the Bishop and his delegates, but also by the parish priest, for churches and oratories within his parish; by rectors, for their own churches; and by religious superiors and priests of the Order delegated by them, for their own churches and oratories, and for the churches of nuns subject to the Order (1304).

3. Such articles lose their blessing if they are applied to unbecoming use or have been publicly exposed for sale (1305).

4. The chalice and paten will not require re-consecration when they have been re-gilt (Ibid.).

5. Not only clerics, but also those who have charge of such things, may lawfully touch the consecrated chalice and paten; and corporals, palls and purificators used at Mass and not yet washed. But the rule regarding the washing of corporals, etc., is still in force. Only clerics in major Orders are permitted to give the first washing (1306).




(August 1, 1917)



Aux Chefs des Peuples Belligérants.

Dès le début de Notre Pontificat, au milieu des horreurs de la terrible guerre déchaînée sur l'Europe, Nous Nous sommes proposé trois choses entres toutes: garder une parfaite impartialité à l'égard de tous les belligérants, comme il convient à Celui qui est le Père commun et qui aime tous ses enfants d'une égale affection; Nous efforcer continuellement de faire à tous le plus de bien possible, et cela sans acception de personnes, sans distinction de nationalité ou de religion, ainsi que Nous le dicte aussi bien la loi universelle de la charité que la suprême charge spirituelle à Nous confiée par le Christ; enfin, comme le requiert également notre mission pacificatrice, ne rien omettre, autant qu'il était en Notre pouvoir de ce qui pourrait contribuer à hâter la fin de cette calamité, en essayant d'amener les peuples et leurs chefs à des résolutions plus modérées, aux délibérations sereines de la paix, d'une paix 'juste et durable.'

> Quiconque a suivi Notre œuvre pendant ces trois douloureuses années, qui viennent de s'écouler, a pu facilement reconnaître, que, si Nous sommes restés toujours fidèles à Notre résolution d'absolue impartialité et à notre action de bienfaisance, Nous n'avons pas cessé non plus d'exhorter peuples et Gouvernements belligérants à redevenir frères, bien que la publicité n'ait pas été donnée à tout ce que Nous avons fait pour atteindre ce très noble but.

Vers la fin de la première année de guerre, Nous adressions aux nations en lutte les plus vives exhortations, et de plus Nous indiquions la voie à suivre pour arriver à une paix stable et honorable pour tous. Malheureusement Notre appel ne fut pas entendu; et la guerre s'est poursuivie, acharnée, pendant deux années encore, avec toutes ses horreurs; elle devint même plus cruelle et s'étendit sur terre, sur mer, jusque, dans les airs; et l'on vit s'abattre sur des cités sans défense, sur de tranquilles villages, sur leurs populations innocentes, la désolation et la

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