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churches and services may acquire a greater freedom, may be open to all occasions, and under a greater variety of circumstance than our present rigid laws of uniformity permit of.

A great practical deficiency, however, in our Church is the almost entire absence of any training in composition and delivery, having the pulpit especially in view. There are no schools of oratory at the Universities; no college of preachers under the sanction of ecclesiastical authority, like the different orders of Oratorians that have at various times and places adopted this work as their peculiar mission; and there are also no institutions in each diocese, having for their object the encouragement of sound Christian oratory, either by means of direct instruction, preparatory, and even subsequent to orders; or by means of supplying living examples and models; if such we might call good preachers, who, known also for their solid attainments and high character, might in many ways be a stimulus to the parochial clergy. We might swell out the list of impediments to eloquence much further, but we have said enough for practical purposes, and now we shall briefly suggest such remedies as seem to us not wholly visionary or impossible.

The feeling that some stimulus is required in the way of preaching is so general, that some have advocated out-of-door or street preaching. This is not the line we would take. If any clergymen feel that they can do real good by this plan, and if, in the execution of it, they can avoid any unpleasant contact with the police, and can preserve order, let them do it. This must be, however, on their own responsibility; and, for ourselves, we should prefer a systematized reformation of the present state of things, to such a foreign appendix. This climate is not suited to out-of-door preaching, at least for any great portion of the year; and as long as we have or can obtain churches, well covered in and proof against the elements, we see no reason for leaving them empty, whilst we stand outside in the wet and cold. The primeval use and intention of churches is to cover priest and people during the time of preaching, among other acts of religion; and the open air system is, to say the least of it, barbarous, as well as specifically inconvenient to delicate lungs. The policy of Churchmen should be to strive for a legitimate revival of the system which we inherit, and a real and energetic use of the whole machinery which is given to us. Where it appears inoperative, and clogged with difficulties, let us at any rate turn our attention to the task of obtaining greater freedom of action, and of cleansing away nuisances, before we leave it to itself, and establish ways and means of an external character.

To put new life into any system, or, indeed, to maintain its

efficiency at any time, it is of course, in the first place, essential to have a living government, with discretionary power to authorize arrangements. A mere statute-book Church, void of any such living and responsible authority, will inevitably fail in practical work. Let there be some power, then, to authorize, especially in large town churches and cathedrals, set preachings, with a few hymns and collects, as at the Universities, distinct from the present regular services. Let sermons be preached at times of the day which suit different classes of society, and different ages, so that occasionally, at any rate, each class may have counsel freely given to them, in plain terms, without the hindrance of others being present who might check the preacher's liberty. Let the several ordinances of the Church, as catechising, confirmation, preparation for communion,—or again, in more secular matters, the anniversaries of clubs and societies,-all be occasions of varying the monotony of our beaten track in sermon writing, by addressing those present on their distinctive duties or failings. Let the Bishop of each diocese, where practicable, preach in his churches occasionally, stirring up by his zeal both pastor and flock to renewed diligence and good-will. Let him also appoint the dean, canons of his cathedral, and others, to preach in the churches of his diocese, as ordered in the Constitution and Canons Ecclesiastical:' especially let this be done during the seasons of Lent and Advent. These seasons, well attended to as occasions for solemn preaching, would stimulate, twice a year, the quiet monotony of parochial sermons. Let the naves of cathedrals be open to catch even passers-by in the streets of a city, as places where the voice of religion is to be heard, free and open to all who even casually would look in. Many who thus came even to 'scoff, might remain to pray.' How inaccessible is the preaching of our cathedrals, at present, to the poor and ignorant! Unconnected, however, with the ritual of the choir, we cannot but think that multitudes might be drawn in to hear words of persuasion from powerful, eloquent preachers, holding forth in the naves. Let the bodies, also, of large churches be used in the same manner, clearing away for the time the whole principle of appropriated seats. Let no prejudices exist either against a layman for hearing a sermon in another parish, or against the visit of an appointed preacher sent by the Bishop, with the Incumbent's consent, at the solemn seasons of the Church, into a parochial pulpit. In extreme cases, the rights of an Incumbent would preserve him from annoyance; and this is no more than is implied by the Canons, in ordering licensed preachers to be called in where the Curate of the parish is not so licensed; or than is yearly carried out in the Lent preachers appointed by the Bishop of London in his diocese. Many of these arrangements could only, perhaps, be carried

124 The French Pulpit, and the Court of Louis XIV.

out in large towns; but, as it happens in them that some reformatory system is most needed, we might well be contented even if the example was not copied in rural districts, where the appointment, for instance, of Advent or Lent preachers would be a matter of difficulty and inconvenience.

But, to ensure good preachers, the Church must retain in her service men of power, of talent, of sound theological education, and of general high character. She must first educate them in the science of oratory; and having done so, she must not let all her high places and emoluments be disposed of for party and private ends, or for barter and simoniacal dealing: she must not do this, while all young men of talent and promise are brought up in other professions. She must so manage her worldly estate, that it may redound to her true efficiency. It might be aiming too high to have a Metropolitan College of Oratorians-men solely devoted to the work of preaching, and the study necessary for it; but the Training College for Orders, which we hope will soon be found in every diocese, should do much, under the direction of the Bishop and his officers, towards assisting in their studies those who, in a short time, will have to be preachers throughout the diocese. These institutions, if near the cathedral, might derive much advantage from that free use of the naves, which we have mentioned, for the purpose of attractive sermons. An example would thus remain in the recollection of the young student, which might long be a stimulus to his own exertions. At any rate the young ecclesiastic would not go to his parish, having had these things before him, without a strong sense of the necessity that lay on himself to use labour and care in the preparation of his sermons, and also to observe good taste and scholar-like habits, together with boldness and freedom, in their composition and delivery. To statesmen who have high patronage in their gift, we would strongly commend their duty of exercising it in such a way as may promote these ends. Bishops, deans, canons, and others, ought, by their office, to be the very men we have described,public men, who can do their part before the world with zeal and ability. And if, to rise in political life, it is essential to possess powers of oratory, surely it is also needed, in ecclesiastical dignitaries, that at any rate a fair proportion should be so far eloquent, as to be impressive and sound Christian preachers. We are not without good hope for the future, from recent appointments in the Colonies, and with all due encouragement from statesmen, and from other members of the Church in their several vocations and ministries, we have that confidence in the powers and the earnestness of the main body of our rising clergy, that we look forward to another Augustan age of Christian oratory, to other Bossuets, to other Bourdaloues, and to other Massillons.


ART. IV. Some Account of the Council of Nicea in connexion with the Life of Athanasius. By JOHN KAYE, D.D., Lord Bishop of Lincoln. London: Rivingtons. 1853.

THE above work may be regarded as a legacy bequeathed to the Church by the learned and excellent prelate whose name it bears. The lamented death of the author has not only delayed its appearance, but has sent it into the world devoid of his own final revision. An Appendix, which the publishers had been led to expect would be found among his papers, has not appeared; and it is therefore concluded that Bishop Kaye had either abandoned his intention of forming one, or had not found leisure to carry it into effect. Prefixed to the whole is a short preface, which has been revised by his intimate and learned friend, the Rev. J. A. Jeremie, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge.

Bishop Kaye's work consists of three parts,-1st, that entitled, Account of the Council of Nicæa;' which, in fact, contains a history of the whole Arian heresy, from its rise to the death of Athanasius: 2dly, 'A digest of the four Orations of Athanasius against the Arians;' in which the author considers at length the arguments brought against the Christian and Catholic faith by those heretics, and their answer by S. Athanasius and lastly, 'Some account of the tract De Incarnatione Christi; an independent piece of that Father's, composed before the commencement of the schism.

We consider this work as a decided acquisition to the library of Theological students, that class for whom the author more immediately designed it. The great doctrine of which it treats, that of the Godhead of Jesus Christ our blessed Lord and Saviour, does in truth form the very foundation of the whole Christian faith, and is that on which the question of man's redemption must inevitably depend. Yet, vitally important as the subject is, we have scarcely any standard work on it, the mastery of which does not require more time and labour than most even of the Clergy, especially those in large towns, have to give. Bishop Bull's Defensio, of inestimable value as it is, deters the majority of readers by its length, and daunts them by its language. The style of Barrow is alone enough to repel any but the most resolute and persevering. Dr. Newman's elaborate and valuable work on the Arians

requires the reader to bring to its perusal a competent knowledge of the chief heathen schools of philosophy, added to an accurate and extensive acquaintance with the great doctrinal questions which had agitated the Church, previously to the time of Arius, and it is therefore of comparatively little benefit to the general student. It is besides, and has long been, unattainable, from its scarcity in the market. The translations from the works of S. Athanasius, in the Library of the Fathers, scarcely do more than prove that the doctrinal writings of that great champion of Christendom cannot be formally transferred from their own language without losing much, not only of their interest and spirit, but even of their primary force and significance.

Here, then, Bishop Kaye appears to us to step in with a very valuable work. In a volume, of which one, not the least, recommendation is, that it is not too lengthy or laborious, but is within at once the intellectual grasp and the pecuniary reach of every one who has a real desire to make himself acquainted with its subject, the author has depicted, with the utmost care, the history of the Church, during perhaps the most momentous period of her existence; and has represented, with the most scrupulous fidelity, the arguments both of Arius and his followers in support of their heresy, and of their great opponent, S. Athanasius, in its confutation. Bishop Kaye has approached his subject with his own clearness and acuteness; and to abundance of original learning he has added ample means, in the shape of references and foot notes, by which the reader may, if he please, further instruct himself. He shows throughout a keen appreciation of the true doctrine, in the enunciation of which, as we need scarcely say, he is to be most fully trusted. We cannot, indeed, avoid expressing a wish that we could discover in his pages something of that animation and fervour of which his subject is so preeminently worthy, and which Bishop Bull has shown it to be so capable of inspiring, when approached with a becoming sense of its deep importance. As it is, we fear that his style may tend to chill the feelings, and damp the interest of the reader. The author seems scarcely to have realized the full weight of his character and position. The lightest word of an aged and learned Bishop would come with incalculable weight on such a subject; and there are occasions on which even gentleness and forbearance are so greatly out of place, as almost to suffer change in their very nature. We would, however, say less on this point, because, in addition to the trite rule of De mortuis nil nisi bonum,' the present work presents a favourable contrast, in this respect, to some of its author's earlier productions.

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