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the general teaching was that in many cases, in addition to jurisdiction, the minister also required approbation to validly hear confessions. In certain cases the approbation came from a Local Ordinary and the jurisdiction from a Regular Superior; and, hence, the point in the discussion of Lugo and the others. To transfer, however, their teaching on approbation to jurisdiction is manifestly unjustifiable.

We think, therefore, that Arregui's opinion has really no solid foundation.





REV. DEAR SIR,-I have two Masses each Sunday. The first is an

. early one, about four miles away, with confessions previously, and a sermon, and frequently Benediction; the second is in the parochial church at 11.30, at which another priest preaches. The sermons at the latter are seldom less than forty minutes in length. Am I justified in omitting all the English Prayers after Mass?



II Rev. DEAR SIR, I would like to have your opinion on the following points :

1. The Prayers to be recited after Low Mass should be recited by the priest' alternatim cum populo.' Can this, by any stretch of imagination, mean that these Prayers are to be recited as indicated in the enclosed leaflet ? Should, as therein directed, the congregation alone recite the * Hail, Holy Queen,' while the priest alone recites O God our refuge,' and the congregation alone, "Holy Michael'?

2. With regard to the ejaculation to the Sacred Heart, which is the correct form, O Sacred Heart of Jesus,' or Most Sacred Heart of Jesus'?

BREFFNEY. I. According to a decree 1 of the Congregation of Rites (issued June 20, 1913) the Prayers prescribed by Leo XIII to be said after a Low Mass may be omitted when the Mass is celebrated (a) cum aliqua solemnitate; (b) when the Mass is followed immediately by a sacred function or some pious exercise. The editor of the Ephemerides Liturgicae, commenting on the decree, infers that the first condition is verified if the Mass said is not strictly a private Mass-cum ipsa haud presso sensu privata legatur.' Consequently, the prayers need not be said 'in missa parochiali vel communitatis in die festo vel cum celebrans missam dicit pro aliqua consociatione,'3 etc. The second condition is verified if a

1 Acta Ap. Sedis, v. p. 311.

2 Dec., 1913, p. 727.

3 Ibid.

sacred function or pious exercise takes place immediately after the Mass

quin celebrans ab Altari recedat.' A sacred function of the kind contemplated is undoubtedly Benediction of the Most Holy Sacrament. 1

With these premises our correspondent should be able to resolve his doubts. He may omit the Prayers after the first Mass if it is followed immediately by Benediction. This implies that while the altar is being prepared for the function he remains in the sanctuary and effects therein the prescribed change of vestments. Otherwise, it could hardly be said to follow 'immediate et rite.' The earliness of the hour, the distance from the church, the confessions and sermons, do not materially affect the question. If the Mass at 11.30 a.m. is the principal parochial Mass, he may safely rely on the interpretation of the decree given by the Ephemerides Liturgicae, and omit the Prayers. In each of those cases, however, it is well to note that he is free to say the Prayers and gain the indulgence attached, as is clear from the words of the query : eique applicari valeant praefata decreta quoad preces ... omittendas.'

II. 1. In a decree of the Congregation of Rites (August 20, 1884) it is prescribed that the Prayers be said 'alternatim cum populo.' The same was virtually contained in the original decree Urbis et Orbis (January 6, 1884),2 making the Prayers obligatory throughout the Church. The intention of the Pope was to get the priest and people to join in public prayers for the necessities of the Church : 'Ut quod Christianae reipublicae in commune expedit, id communi prece populus Christianus a Deo contendat, auctoque supplicantium numero, divinae beneficia misericordiae facilius assignatur.' And with this end in view permission was afterwards granted to have the Prayers recited in the vernacular. To avail of the privilege, however, the vernacular version should be a faithful one and be approved by the Ordinary. Now, this is the first fault we have to find with the enclosed leaflet, viz., that it is unauthorized, lacks the Imprimatur of the Ordinary of the diocese wherein it was published, and cannot be licitly used for the liturgical recitation of the Prayers.

Again, we think that the directions given therein for the recitation of the Prayers are neither justified nor allowable. We can find no justification in any authority for this extension of the words 'alternatim cum populo,' and we believe the almost universal practice of the Church is against it. There are some of the Prayers that naturally lend themselves to this manner of recitation, viz., the 'Hail Mary and the Versicle' and 'Response '-one part is the completion of the other-but the remaining three Prayers are distinct and separate, and, in our opinion, the priest is not fulfilling his obligation if he does

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1 Ibid. p. 726.

2 The later decres, interpreted as granting exemption from the Prayers at the principal parochial Mass,' seems hardly in keeping with the spirit of the original decree. A priori one would have thought it the most suitable occasion for the recitation of the Prayers.

3 S.R.C., March 5, 1904. This permission was granted to Ireland by an Indult of the Congregation de Prop. Fide, on June 22, 1884.

not recite the three of them. By all means let the people join in with him, as far as they know the Prayers, but that does not lessen his obligation of saying them in full. The Ephemerides Liturgicael summing up the decree in question, says: 'Praefatae preces recitandae sunt a Sacerdote alternatim cum populo; versiculus vero et Oratio Deus refugium cum sua additione dicantur a sacerdote flexis genibus prout Ave Maria et Salve Regina.'

2. We think the ejaculation is admissible in either form, but we prefer the rendering O Sacred Heart of Jesus.' The Latin has the superlative-Cor Jesu Sacratissimum'-but the simple adjective 'Sacred' is the equivalent of it, and is more in accordance with English idiom,

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Rev. DEAR SIR,- There is a chalice here which was regilt (and desecrated ?) some time before the regulations concerning the matter in the Codex. We do not use it. Does it need reconsecration ?


Until the promulgation of the New Code, it was generally held 2 that the regilding of a chalice necessitated its reconsecration before being used again in the celebration of Mass. The following decree 3 of the Congregation of Rites left no doubt about the matter : 'Ad Dubium --Num Calix et Patena suam amittant consecrationem per novam deaurationem et sic indigeant nova consecratione ?' The reply was: * Affirmative ; amittere nimirum, et indigere nova consecratione, juxta exposita.'

This teaching has been set aside by the New Code. Canon 1305, § 2, reads : Calix et patena non amittunt consecrationem ob consumptionem vel renovationem auraturae, salva tamen, priore in casu, gravi obligatione rursum ea inaurandi.' Doubtless, it was held previously by liturgists that the chalice did not lose its consecration by the mere wearing away of the gilt (though the grave obligation of having it renewed was not quite so definite), but the necessity of reconsecration when the chalice is regilt can no longer be maintained.

The chalice described by our correspondent manifestly needs reconsecration if it is intended for further use in the Holy Sacrifice. It had lost its consecration before the promulgation of the New Code, and there is no regulation as far as we know, sanctioning the use of a desecrated chalice.

1 Dec., 1913, p. 726.
2 See Van der Stappen, tom. iii., p. 101.
3 Decr. 2889.



• CONFITEMINI' AT THE 'ASPERGES' Rev. DEAR SIR,—Will you kindly tell me the nature of the obligation to recite in full the Psalm ‘Miserere' (or 'Confitemini,' in Paschal Time) at the 'Asperges'? The 'Miserere' Psalm is difficult to get through without a book, and the " Confiteministill more so. It seems a hardship to be obliged to do it.



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We sympathize with our correspondent, though the actual wording of the rubric of the Missal seems to point the other way. The choir sings the antiphon 'Asperges' (or Vidi Aquam') with the first verse of the * Miserere' (or 'Confitemini') followed by the Gloria Patri and a repetition of the antiphon, and the priest is directed to recite the antiphon and the Psalm Miserere' (or 'Confitemini') during the course of the Aspersion. The new edition of Martinucci (edited by B. M. Menghini, Master of Apostolic Ceremonies at Rome) qualifies the direction of the rubric with the words, si memoria teneret,' and significantly adds : Nos tamen putamus, tot versiculos sufficere, quot sunt necessarii tempore quo aspersio vel cantus perdurat.' 1 Such, presumably, being the teaching and practice at Rome, we believe ‘Pastor' will be quite safe in following it. Other Liturgical authorities state that the priest will fulfil his obligation by reciting the first verse of the Psalm with the Gloria Patri,' as is prescribed in the Roman Ritual. Müller 2 quotes Pavone and Felise as favouring this view, and they are liturgists of recognized authority,

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Rev. DEAR SIR,-When lace Albs are used we often notice, especially on the sleeves, an underground of black or red material for the purpose perhaps of stiffening the lace or crochet. Can you tell me if this is permissible, or if there is any decision forbidding it, or if a custom in any church makes it allowable, and if there is any difference between black or red ? A reply in the I. E. RECORD at your convenience will oblige.

SACERDOS. There are two decisions of the Congregation of Rites bearing precisely on the points raised by 'Sacerdos.' The first, dated July 12, 1892, is in reply to the question : Num tolerari potest ut fundus coloratus supponatur textili denticulato vel operi phrygio in manicis vel fimbriis nec non in ma nicis rochetti ?' And the answer is : 'Quoad manicas et fimbrias Albarum affirmative ; quoad manicas autem in rochettis,fundum esse posse coloris vestis talaris relativae dignitatis,'3

The second, dated November 24, 1899, recalls and confirms the former decision and is as follows: 'An toleranda consuetudo utendi fundo caerulei coloris sub velo translucenti in fimbriis et manicis Albarum?' And the reply : 'Affirmative: et detur decretum 12 July, 1892.'+

The coloured underground on the sleeves of Albs is fairly common 1 Vol. ii, Pars Prima, p. 68.

3 Decr. 3780. 2 Müller, Handbook of Ceremonies, 1918, p. 108.

4 Decr. 4048.


in this country, and most probably the custom arose in the way suggested by our correspondent. The introduction of lace or crochet to

. ornament the cuffs and fringes of the Alb called for the further innovation of a coloured lining or underground, either for the purpose of stiffening, or preventing the black soutane from showing through the transparent embroidery. The innovation is decidedly against the best traditions of the origin and significancy of the Alb, and it is well to note that the Sacred Congregation merely tolerates the custom where it already exists. The Alb is the white and spotless garment of the priest, the purity of its colour symbolizing newness of life. Liturgical writers, like Van der Stappen, express their surprise that the Sacred Congregation even tolerated such a custom, and seem at a difficulty to find words strong enough to condemn the practice. 'Vix credibilis nobis videtur,' says

. Van der Stappen, 'talis simulatio vestis Cardinalitiae dignitatis,' and again he adds : 'sperandum quod nullus ex nostris Sacerdotibus unquam audeat ejus usu fidelium animos in admirationem inducere.'? As to the motive suggested herein-' of exciting the admiration of the faithful '—we do not find ourselves in agreement with the writer, and we think such condemnation somewhat in excess of the abuse; more especially as we find medieval inventories showing blue, red, and black Albs and Albs made in silk, velvet, and cloth of gold.

If we are to judge by the wording of the decrees there does not seem to be any distinction as to the use of black or red, but we think liturgical usage is more strictly adhered to when the colour corresponds to that of the ceremonial dress which the individual is entitled to wear. In the case of the rochette we see that the decree expressly emphasizes the point.

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AN OVERSIGHT We are indebted to a correspondent for kindly calling attention to a decree which had escaped the notice of the contributor in his discussion of this subject in a recent number of the I. E. RECORD :

REV. DEAR SIR,- In the May number of the I. E. RECORD, received a few days ago, I find, on page 424, that you state : “ We are not aware of any law forbidding the practice' of placing cushions on the altar steps whereon the ministers may kneel during the Benediction Service. You may be glad to have your attention called to the fact that the Master of Ceremonies of Westminster Cathedral submitted a number of Dubia to the Sacred Congregation of Rites, amongst which is the following: X. Utrum cuilibet celebranti, an soli Episcopo vel Praelato, liceat genuflexo manere super pulvinari in infimo gradu altaris ?'

The reply (dated May 27, 1911): 'Ad X.-Negative ad primam partem ; affirmative ad secundam.'4 (Acta Ap. Sedis, vol. iii. p. 280.)-B.

M. EATON. 1 Sac. Lit., tom. iii, p. 154.

2 Ibid. p. 155. 3 Van der Stappen gays: “toleratur suppositus color quicunque, imo color non liturgicus nempe caeruleus.' Ibid. p. 155.

4 Decr. 4268.

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