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twelve miles by no means densely peopled, the falling off in the duty paid on spirits for the month was no less than £400 sterling.1

Many cases might be reported in which the persons convinced of sin, and professing to have found peace with God, have not only given up their drinking habits, but although their desire for strong drink has hitherto overpowered every resolution for improvement, since their conversion they have no appetite for the insidious draught. They are not only saved from the consequences of their sin, but the desire to commit it has also been taken away. That is one peculiar phase of this movement worth recording as a fact in Christian ethics.

These conversions to physical sobriety we have heard were lasting in many cases. The other feature is no less striking, the decline in the party spirit during the revival.

I was in the town and vicinity of Belfast on the 12th of July. Never since the distinction of political partizanship stigmatized different classes of the community, was so little personal rancour exhibited; never was the spirit of persecution so allayed.

On the 12th of July, not so much as an offensive coloured ribbon was displayed throughout the length and breadth of Durham Street, nor, indeed, in any other locality in Ulster in which the people had become seriously impressed.

The Chief Baron Pigott referred to this general cessation of party feeling as a result of the revival in a charge at the Down Assizes.*

From these two effects we may form some idea of the energy of conversion-psychose and its wide-spread character in Ulster.

The statistics tabulated and plotted by Starbuck have led him to regard the conversion-psychose as normally a phenomenon of adolescence and puberty; it is not so however in these revival cases, where subjects of all ages are converted. The coincidence of religious development with physical changes like puberty, is, of course, to be expected when stress is laid on the emotional characteristics in religious experience. Analogous nerve disturbances have been observed in Catholic children at the time of First Communion, before the late Pope had lowered the age. The type of preparation usual in France was very emotional and contributed much to the large crop of cases of psychasthenia, whose originating scruples can be traced back to the

1 Revivals in Ireland, Parts II. and III. p. 37. 2 Ibid. p. 40.

3 Ibid. p. 62.

4 Ibid. p. 91.

preparation for First Communion.1 But we must not take effects for causes.

Nor can we, with Freud, give undue weight to the sexinstinct in the conversion-psychose. It has its role in our spiritual life, as was well known to the Fathers of the Desert. For the physically normal person the sex-instinct forms perhaps the greatest centre of instability in his whole psychic field. But it is philosophically absurd and morally disgusting to try to reduce all other psychic elements of an abnormal character into terms of our bestiality. Sexobsession is even worse than sex-agnosticism in the spiritual life. You have one or the other when the rules of a sane asceticism are ignored. A little of that lore which the Catholic Church has inherited and cultivated, that codified spiritual experience of twenty centuries, would have saved these Revivals from many painful scandals. We may snub the devil and cut the world, but the flesh is always with us.. 'But I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection; lest, perhaps, when I have preached to others, I myself should become a cast-away' (1 Cor. ix. 27).

JOHN HOWLEY.

1 Eymieu, Le gouvernement de soi-même: L'obsession et le scruple; Perrin, 1913, p. 130.

DOCUMENTS

DECREE PRESCRIBING THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF EXAMINATIONS FOR DEGREES IN CANON LAW

(October 31, 1918)

S. CONGREGATIO DE SEMINARIIS ET DE STUDIORUM UNIVERSITATIBUS DECRETUM

DE EXPERIMENTIS AD GRADUS IN IURE CANONICO ASSEQUENDOS

Legum canonicarum Codice promulgato, Sacra Congregatio de Seminariis et de Studiorum Universitatibus, litteris datis die VII augusti elapsi anni, viam et rationem praescripsit, quam in disciplina Iuris posthac Pontificia Athenaea sequerentur. Huic autem rationi, seu methodo, ut ipsa doctrinae pericula, quae fiunt ad gradus academicos assequendos, sint consentanea, eadem S. Congregatio experimentis in iure canonico moderandis has leges constituit.

I. Quoniam in praelectionibus Codex Iuris canonici est tamquam textus adhibendus, periculorum materia sint ipsi Codicis canones, vel omnes vel partim, pro diversitate gradus adipiscendi, remoto quolibet indice thesium, vel quae doctrinam exhibeant in ipsis canonibus contentam.

II. Candidati ad academicos gradus exegesim seu interpretationem exponant canonum, prout habentur in Codice, sive singillatim considerentur, sive coniuncte cum aliis.

III. Candidati non modo singulos canones interpretari et explicare, quantum gradus ratio exigit, probe noverint; sed etiam de uniuscuiusque instituti iuridici ortu, progressu et historia, doctrinae suae specimen dabunt.

Quas leges SSñus D. N. Benedictus PP. XV ratas habuit et confirmavit, atque in omnibus Athenaeis seu Universitatibus vel Facultatibus, quae e Codicis praescripto (can. 256, § 1) huic Sacrae Congregationi subsunt, servari iussit ab anno academico, qui propediem incipiet. Contrariis quibuslibet non obstantibus.

Datum Romae e Secretaria S. Congregationis de Seminariis et de Studiorum Universitatibus, die 31 octobris, anno 1918.

L. S.

C. CARD. BISLETI, Praefectus.

I. SINIBALDI, Ep. Tiberien., Secretarius.

CERTAIN ITALIAN PUBLICATIONS ARE CONDEMNED AND PUT ON THE INDEX OF PROHIBITED BOOKS

(December 14, 1918)

SUPREMA SACRA CONGREGATIO S. OFFICII

DECRETUM

Feria IV, die 27 novembris 1918

In generali consessu Supremae huius Sacrae Congregationis Sancti Officii Emi ac Rmi Domini Cardinales in rebus fidei et morum Inquisitores Generales damnarunt ac proscripserunt et in Indicem librorum prohibitorum inserenda esse decreverunt opuscula :

1. ERNESTO BONAIUTI, La genesi della dottrina agostiniana intorno al peccato originale. Roma, Tipografia del Senato di Giovanni Bardi,

1916.

2. ERNESTO BONAIUTI, Sant' Agostino. A. F. Formiggini, Editore in Roma, 1917.

Et insequenti feria V, die 28 eiusdem mensis et anni, Sanctissimus Dominus Noster Benedictus divina Providentia Papa XV, in audientia R. P. D. Assessori Sancti Officii impertita, relatam sibi Eñorum Patrum resolutionem approbavit, confirmavit ac publicari iussit.

Datum Romae in aedibus Sancti Officii, die 14 decembris 1918.

A. CASTELLANO, S. R. et U. I. Notarius.

THE

HOSTS OR PARTICLES INTENDED FOR THE HOLY SACRIFICE OF THE MASS SHOULD BE RECENTLY MADE AND AN ADVERSE PRACTICE IN CERTAIN DIOCESES IS CONDEMNED

(December 7, 1918)

SACRA CONGREGATIO DE DISCIPLINA SACRAMENTORUM
SS. EUCHARISTIAE

Relatum est huic S. Congregationi de disciplina Sacramentorum in nonnullis Dioecesibus quosdam Vicarios Foraneos, aut Decanos, vel Parochos solere singulis duobus vel tribus mensibus hostias comparare easque distribuere in propriis et filialibus Ecclesiis pro Missae sacrificio peragendo ac pro fidelium eucharistica communione. Elapso hoc temporis spatio, nova fit acquisitio et distributio hostiarum, quae pariter duobus vel tribus mensibus sufficiant, ac ita deinceps. Et exquisitum est an probari possit huiusmodi praxis adhibendi, pro SSño Eucharistiae sacramento, hostias a tribus vel duobus mensibus confectas.

Haec S. Congregatio, omnibus mature perpensis, proposito dubio respondit: negative, et servetur praescriptum Ritualis Romani et Codicis Iuris Canonici.

Rituale Romanum (tit. IV, cap. I, De Sanctissimo Eucharistiae

Sacramento) haec praecipit: 'Sanctissimae Eucharistiae particulas frequenter renovabit (parochus). Hostiae vero seu particulae consecrandae sint recentes; et ubi eas consecraverit, veteres primo distribuat vel sumat.'

In Codice Iuris Canonici haec statuuntur: Can. 815: 'panis (pro Missae sacrificio) debet esse mere triticeus et recenter confectus ita ut nullum sit periculum corruptionis. Vinum debet esse naturale de genimine vitis et non corruptum.' Can. 1272: 'Hostiae consecratae sive propter fidelium communionem, sive propter expositionem Sanctissimi Sacramenti et recentes sint et frequenter renoventur, veteribus rite consumptis ita ut nullum sit periculum corruptionis, sedulo servatis instructionibus quas Ordinarius loci hac de re dederit.'

Propter maximam autem quae debetur reverentiam erga SS. Eucharistiae Sacramentum mandat haec S. Congregatio ut in cunctis ecclesiasticis Dioecesium ephemeridibus datum responsum edatur, quo facilius omnibus patescat et ab iis, ad quos spectat, fideliter ac religiose servetur. Datum ex aedibus S. Congregationis de disciplina Sacramentorum, die 7 decembris 1918.

PH. CARD. GIUSTINI, Praefectus.

A. CAPOTOSTI, Ep. Thermen., Secretarius.

L. S.

THE PIOUS MISSIONARY UNION OF CLERICS' IS ENRICHED WITH SPIRITUAL FAVOURS

(November 18, 1918)

SACRA POENITENTIARIA APOSTOLICA

PIA UNIO CLERI PRO MISSIONIBUS, QUAE VULGO PIA UNIONE MISSIONARIA DEL CLERO NUNCUPATUR, SPIRITUALIBUS FAVORIBUS AUGETUR. Beatissime Pater,

Praeses generalis Piae Unionis Cleri pro Missionibus (vulgo Pia Unione Missionaria del Clero), a Sanctitate Vestra iam benigne approbatae, cuius finis est, iuxta vota eiusdem Sanctitatis Vestrae, efficere, ut in corde omnium sacerdotum illa exardescat, qua nemo prorsus carere deberet, sacri Apostolatus flamma; ad osculum s. Pedis provolutus, humiliter petit ut, ad facilius huiusmodi finem assequendum, dignetur Sanctitas Vestra sacerdotibus, in praedictam Piam Unionem cooptatis, sequentes spirituales fav ores concedere:

I. Indulgentiam plenariam, sub consuetis conditionibus lucrandam, in festis: (1) Epiphaniae, (2) SS. Apostolorum, (8) S. Michaelis Archangeli, (4) S. Francisci Xaverii, (5) semel in mense, die ad proprium cuiusque arbitrium eligenda, (6) in articulo mortis, servatis servandis.

II. Indulgentiam centum dierum pro quolibet pietatis opere in favorem Missionum expleto.

III. Facultatem, dummodo adscriptus ad sacramentales confessiones audiendas sit approbatus: (1) benedicendi, extra Urbem, unico crucis signo, coronas, rosaria, cruces, crucifixos, numismata et parvas statuas, cum applicatione indulgentiarum apostolicarum (de quibus in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, sub die 5 septembris 1914; (2) benedicendi, unico signo

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