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are not unfrequently chosen, but it is unusual to select the Cherubim, Seraphim, or the other higher orders. According to an answer of the Congregation of Rites, the name of a saint cannot be selected unless it occurs in the Martyrology, or at least in the supplement approved for the diocese. It may be well to give the reply in full :

Q. An valide possit Episcopus pro Titulari alicujus novae ecclesiae designare Festum, quod neque in Martyrologia, neque in Supplemento Diocesis reperitur? R. Negative.


The name of a beatified person cannot be given to a church without a special Apostolic Indult. We may add that the Titular has often been likened to the Christian name given to the individual in Baptism.

II. Every church or oratory which has received consecration, or even the solemn blessing, has, eo ipso, a Titular. The form, whether of consecration or blessing, implies as much. Hence, not only a church in the strict sense, but also a public oratory, must have a Titular, since it must be at least solemnly blessed before Mass is celebrated there. A semipublic oratory also may receive consecration or the solemn blessing, and if so dedicated, it also has its Titular. But if only temporarily destined for divine worship, it receives nothing more than the benedictio loci, and is in the same position, as far as a Titular is concerned, as a private oratory, which cannot have a Titular in the strict liturgical


III. Who may select the Titular? There is nothing strictly defined in this matter. The Bishop may do so, but it is not his exclusive right. The parish priest, a generous benefactor, or any other person interested in the church may make the nomination. The designation generally takes place when the foundation-stone is being laid, since provision is made in a prayer of that function for inserting the name. But the Titular is not formally constituted until the church or oratory is consecrated or solemnly blessel; and in the meantime no liturgical notice is taken of the Titular designated when the foundation-stone was laid.

IV. The title of a church, once assigned, is lost when the church is destroyed. If a new church is erected on the site of the old one, the original title may be again selected, but not necessarily. When the Titular has been formally constituted, the name cannot be changed. It has been decided more than once that the Bishop of the diocese is powerless in this matter. Permission, however, may be obtained from the Holy See to add another name as co-Titular.4

V. Doubtless some will be inclined to ask whether this question of the Titular is of any practical importance. For answer it ought to be sufficient to refer to one of the canons of the new Code, although the legislation contained in it is not at all new. 'Unaquaeque ecclesia consecrata vel benedicta suum habeat titulum; qui, peracta ecclesiae dedicatione, mutari nequit. Etiam festum tituli quotannis celebretur ad

1 n. 3876, ad. v.

2 Codex, Can. 1168, § 3.

3 Decr. Auth. S.C.R., n. 2719, ad 2.

4 Ibid. n. 2853, ad 2.

normas legum liturgicarum." One of these liturgical laws directs that the name of the Titular is to be added, servatis servandis, in the prayer A cunctis. In addition, the feast of the Titular must be celebrated by the clergy connected with the church or oratory as a double of the first class, with a 'common' octave. The days within this octave exclude all simple offices, and the octave day is preferred to any double which is not of the first or second class. It is not a very difficult matter to arrange accordingly the calendar for the particular week which follows the feast.

As far as we are aware, this is a matter which has not hitherto received the attention it deserves. The liturgical law is there, and binds as well as any other. One explanation of the neglect is the fact that in very many instances the name of the Titular is unknown, since records on this point were not accurately kept in the past. In such cases it is impossible, of course, to celebrate the feast. Yet the canon we have quoted seems to suggest that the defect should be supplied-unaquaeque ecclesia consecrata vel benedicta suum habeat titulum. We must take it for granted that each church or oratory which has at least been solemnly blessed has its Titular, even though now unknown. We have also seen that the Bishop cannot change the name. The only remedy, then, is to make application to Rome for permission to add a co-Titular, with equal rights, whose feast will afterwards be celebrated with the requisite liturgical honours. But, even where the name of the Titular is well known, the feast is not always celebrated as it should be. For this violation of law there is really no valid excuse. 'Custom' in this matter will not serve as an answer; for such a custom must rather be termed an abuse.



FUNERAL WHEN THE EXSEQUIAl mass is nNOT SUNG REV. DEAR SIR,-From a rubric after Jan. 6 (p. 4 of Latin Ordo), it would appear that when the exsequial Mass is not sung leave is granted for only one requiem Mass. I always thought that, whether sung or not, there is leave for more than one requiem Mass. An answer will oblige.


In order that additional requiem Masses may be celebrated on the occasion of a funeral, the following conditions must be fulfilled. 1°. The body must be present, physically or morally; 2°. The Mass must be offered for the deceased person whose body is present; 3°. The exsequial Mass, on the same day, must be a sung one. Regarding this last condition, Van der Stappen says 2 :-' Decretum Aucto requirit Missam exsequialem solemnem aut cantatam, et non loquitur de casu in quo Missa exsequialis solummodo legitur, nempe in funere pauperum.' Hence the direction given in the Ordo is perfectly correct. It is scarcely necessary to add that if the rite of the particular day allows, there is no restriction regarding the number of Masses which, if offered for the deceased person, may be said as In die obitus with only one prayer.3

1 Codex, Can. 1168, § 1, § 2.

2 Vol. ii. Q. 343.

3 Ibid. Q. 324.


REV. DEAR SIR,-Will you please let me know through the I. E. RECORD What to do in the following circumstances? When at the altar vested for Mass I have to give Holy Communion daily before Mass; am I bound to give the blessing before commencing Mass even though wearing black vestments?


The rubric of the revised Ritual1 makes no distinction between a requiem Mass and others, in this particular respect : 'Et ita iis, qui communicarunt, benedicit Sacerdos tam extra Missam quam ante vel post Missam.' Some doubt might therefore be raised whether the blessing should not be given in the case mentioned. Ubi lex non distinguit nec nos distinguere debemus.' On the other hand, no distinction is made by the Ritual between requiem and other Masses regarding the Alleluia in Paschal time, where such a distinction would be very natural. For it would be quite incongruous to say Alleluia when vested in black. Hence we hold that the old rule forbidding the blessing before or after a requiem Mass is still binding. The point was definitely decided by the Congregation of Rites in the year 1868.


A Rescript of the Sacred Poenitentiary, dated 23rd November, 1918, sanctions the use of the following short form, which may be used by all priests possessing the Dominican faculties:


Ad laudem et gloriam Deiparae Virginis Mariae, in memoriam mysteriorum vitae, mortis et resurrectionis ejusdem Domini nostri Jesu Christi, bene dicatur (*) et sanctificetur haec sacratissimi Rosarii corona : in nomine Patris et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen.

Stola et aqua benedicta adhiberi possunt ad libitum.

(*) Si fuerint plures coronae dicatur in plurali.


1 Tit. iv. cap. ii. n. 9.

2 Decr. Auth., n. 3177.



(January 2, 1919)

[The concession is granted for ten years.]



Ioannes Blowick Rector Seminarii pro Missionibus Sinensibus et Praeses Societatis, The Maynooth Mission to China,' apud Shrule,. Galway, in Hibernia, ad pedes Sanctitatis Vestrae provolutus, humiliter petit :

1o. Ut definitiva in Societatem admissio, quod spectat ad excardinationem et incardinationem, effectus habeat religiosae professionis; ita ut adscripti Societati vere ipsi incardinati sint;

2o. Ut Societatis membra sine litteris dimissoriis a quolibet Episcopo gratiam et communionem cum Sede Apostolica habente ordinari possint, habitis litteris testimonialibus a proprio Ordinario; 3°. Ut eiusdem Societatis membra ad sacros ordines prom.overi possint 'titulo Missionis ';

4°. Ut ordinationes in Seminario haberi possint etiam in festis semiduplicibus;

5°. Ut Societatis Praeses facultatem habeat retinendi et legendi libros prohibitos.

Ex audientia SSmi. habita die 2 Ianuarii, 1919, SSmus. D.N. Benedictus div. prov. Pp. XV. referente me infrascripto S. Congr. de Propaganda fide Card. Praefecto, benigne adnuere dignatus est pro gratia in omnibus iuxta preces, servatis servandis. Ad decennium. Contrariis quibuscumque non obstantibus.

Datum Romae ex Aedibus S. Congr. de Propaganda Fide die et anno praedictis.

G. M. CARD. VAN ROSSUM, Praefectus.


(January 22, 1919)


Venerabilis frater, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.-Quum annus compleretur sexagesimus ex quo Immaculata Virgo Mater istic conspiciendam se obtulerat, scimus in optatis tibi fuisse, ad faustum eventum commemorandum, sacras toto anno agitare laetitias, nisi tanta belli calamitas obsisteret. Nunc vero cum, Dei benignitate ac numine, arma tandem conquiescunt, consentaneum videtur ut proximum Apparitionis festum peculiaribus sollemnibus celebretis. Nam hoc annorum spatio quot quantaque ad Lourdensem Specum facta sunt mirabilia, cum affecta desperatis moribus corpora sanitatem ex improviso reciperent, cum aversis a religione animis subita fidei lux illaberetur, cum innumerabiles inde, si non imploratae valetudinis compotes, tamen paratissimi divinae obsequi voluntati redirent. De omni hac beneficiorum copia Virgini beatissimae, cuius apud Deum patrocinio sunt tribuenda, ingentes grates persolvere officium est: quibus beneficiis illud ipsum annumerari debet quod, positis armis, reconciliandae pacis mundo spes illuxit, cum eadem et Principem pacis Iesum Dominum ediderit, et humani generis mater sit benignissima. Hanc vero ob causam amplius instandum est apud divinam clementiam, ut ea pax constituatur quam optimus quisque exspectat, quae scilicet, iustitia et aequitate comite, vincula inter universos populos confirmet christianae caritatis. Quod cum de praesentissima Mariae ope ac suffragio Nobis spondeamus, quas ubique supplicationes nuper indiximus, eas maxime in aedibus marianis celeberrimis, quo in numero Lourdensis eminet, haberi gratum est. Quare sacra sollemnia, quae istic propediem fient, vehementer Nobis intelligis probari. Atque ad eorum augendum splendorem ac fructum, de spirituali Ecclesiae thesauro, cuius apud Nos dispensatio est, omnibus qui rite confessi et sanctissima Eucharistia refecti Lourdensem Aedem adierint Indulgentiam Plenariam non solum die XI februarii proximi, sed etiam singulis diebus anniversariis ceterarum Apparitionum Virginis Immaculatae hoc anno redeuntibus, lucrandam concedimus; pari Indulgentia munere eisdem condicionibus fruantur volumus quicumque earum sollemnium peregrinationum ad Lourdensem Basilicam participes erunt quae hoc vertente anno, ut scribis, suscipientur. Ita ad pedes divinae Matris in ista benignitatis eius nobilissima sede Nos quoque vobiscum vel in agendis gratiis vel in precibus adhibendis, populi christiani causa, praesentes animo adesse videbimur. Tuae vero pietatis et observantiae erga Nos officia paternâ benevolentia rependentes, caelestium auspicem munerum tibi, venerabilis frater, tuoque clero ac populo apostolicam benedictionem amantissime in Domino impertimus.

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum, die xx ianuarii MCMXIX, Pontificatus Nostri anno quinto. BENEDICTUS PP. XV.

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