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quos certiores antea fecerat circa colloquium ante nuptias habitum cum sponso et conditionem appositam. Porro si ei fides data est quando ante nuptias suum retulit colloquium cum viro et adiectam consensui conditionem, tribuenda quoque est quando refert viri confessionem, ni quis velit in contradictionem incidere. Haec insuper confirmantur ex confessione facta ab eodem viro testibus indubiae fidei qui de hoc testati sunt. In ipso demum tribunali laico viri patronus concubinatum admisisse ex actis eruitur.

Quare quum mulier, contrahens sponsalia et matrimonium, alligaverit suum consensum conditioni proprie dictae immunitatis concubinatus in P. D.; nihil in actis probet hanc conditionem fuisse revocatam vel cessasse; constet vero ex actis virum ama siae adhaesisse, matrimonium ab Emis Patribus nullum declaratum est.

E. LUCIDI, a Secretis Commissionis.

THE METROPOLITAN CHURCH OF CARTHAGE BECOMES A MINOR BASILICA (August 5, 1918)

METROPOLITANUM TEMPLUM PRIMARIUM CARTHAGINENSE TITULO AC PRIVILEGIIS BASILICAE MINORIS COHONESTATUR BENEDICTUS PP. XV

Ad perpetuam rei memoriam.-Illustriores inter sacras Aedes, quae sive sacrorum Antistitum sanctimonia, sive Conciliorum celebritate, sive martyrum copia in historiis dilaudantur, omni procul dubio illa eminet Primaria Carthaginensis appellata. In summo veteris urbis clivi fastigio, inter paganorum templorum ruinas sacrasque recenter detectas primi aevis christiani aedes, a fundamentis erecta fere exeunte saeculo decimonono, Deo in honorem S. Cypriani episcopi et martyris et S. Ludovici regis Francorum confessis sollemniter dicata, nobilium Gallicae nationis virorum munificentiam late praedicat. Et sane circumstantes inter agros aedes ista caput effert, christiani nominis insigne trophaeum et victoriae prius de ethnico, dein de islamitico cultu relatae splendidum monumentum. Hic cura et sollertia amplissimi viri, divinae gloriae atque aeternae hominum salutis studiosissimi, bo. me. Caroli Martialis S. R. E. Presbyteri Cardinalis Lavigerie, tituli ad S. Agnetis extra moenia, postea archiepiscopi Carthaginensis, feliciter actis effossionibus, plures et quidem ingentes Basilicae in lucem redierunt, ornatae sepulchris tertii saeculi ad quartum reparatae salutis, passim epigraphes sive epitaphia referentibus, in quibus, praeter omnigenam veritatem, formarum Crucis et D. N. Iesu Christi monogrammatis legere est, adiectos hos titulos: episcopus, diaconus, subdiaconus, acolytus, lector, exorcista, clericus, virgo sacra et saepissime vocabulum: fidelis. Perampla interior aedes, etsi enunciatae basilicae romanae ad S. Agnetis extra moenia formam aliquatenus imitetur, structuram tamen bizantino-arabicam praesefert, pulcherrime decoratam gentilibus stemmatibus descendentium e viris illis, qui in sacris expeditionibus vulgo 'Cruciatis' bonum pro fide certamen strenue decertarunt. Magnificis decora artis operibus plura

adsunt sacella, ubi pretiosa varioque de marmore nitent altaria. Templi autem decus adauget splendidissima theca, affabre elaborata, et in altari principe collocata, quae S. Ludovici Francorum regis et confessoris relliquias insignes recondit, itemque conspicuum monumentum, sive mausoleum, ad perennandam memoriam purpurati principis Lavigerie exstructum, qui benemerentissimus exstitit in Metropolitani templi condito illique pro dignitate ornando, nullis laboribus parcens, donec vixit, consuluit, atque in ea sede honoris sui conditus, exspectat immutationem. Denique praecipuum, ne dicamus caelestem, templo nitorem effert Beatissimae Dei Genitricis marmoreum simulacrum, vetustissimo praegrandi anaglyfo ibidem reperto, accuratissime expressum. Virgo Dei Mater, Domina nostra Carthaginensis, ut vocant, Infantem Iesum ulnis complectens, veluti solio maiestatis assidet, atque ex illo urbis culmine, Punica olim arce, subiectam civitatem et propemodum cunctas Algeriae ac Tuneti regiones materna sollicitudine tutari benignissime videtur. Quare ad ipsius aram voti et piae peregrinationis causa frequentes ac persaepe turmatim accedunt fideles, gratiarum apud Deum sequestrae Virginis praesidium opemque imploraturi, vel ut plurimum felici successu, quod ibi appensae tabellae votivae ac donaria luculenter testantur. Quemadmodum Carthaginensi Sacrorum Antistiti fel. rec. Praedecessor Noster Leo PP. XIII primatus honoris et iurisdictionis in Africanis cunctis Ecclesiis privilegium recognitum, confirmavit, ita Metropolitano templo triginta quatuor abhinc annis noviter aedificato, Primariam aeque dignitatem ac pristinum eius Ecclesiae splendorem, per Litteras sub plumbo die x mensis novembris anno MDCCCLXXXIV datas, iure restitutum idem Praedecessor Noster voluit, vestigiis adhaerens Leonis PP. IX, qui de eo Primatu sententiam rogatus, in epistolam ad Thomam Episcopum Africanum, medio saeculo undecimo, perhonorificum et gravissimum testimonium scripserat. Nil mirum igitur quod brevi annorum spatio in Primaria nova illa Aede octo episcopales consecrationes habitae fuerint, itemque templum sacra suppellectili ditiore abunde refertum sit atque indulgentiarum thesauro locupletatum, nil mirum quod eiusdem templi ordo canonicorum, qui una cum cetero clero divinis officiis muniisque. ecclesiasticis ibidem in exemplum perfungitur, ab hac Sancta Apostolica Sede potioribus choralibus insignibus et privilegiis late honestatus fuerit. Haec omnia animo repetens venerabilis frater Bartholomaeus Clemens Combes, archiepiscopus Carthaginensium, Africae Primas, de honore qui templi Metropolitani cultuque augendo apprime sollicitus, ferventia quoque vota cleri populique sibi commissi humiliter depromens, enixis Nos precibus rogavit, ut primariam Aedem Metropolitanam Carthaginensem basilicae minoris appellatione ac dignitate cohonestare dignaremur. Nos autem, quibus nihil antiquius est, quam ut templum hoc, munificentiae ac pietatis praenobilis Gallicae nationis monumentum praestantissimum, singulari per Nos augeatur honoris titulo, optatis hisce annuendum ultro libentesque existimavimus. Quare, collatis consiliis cum VV. FF. NN. S. R. E. Cardinalibus Congregationi praepositis pro sacris tuendis Ritibus, apostolica Nostra auctoritate, praesentium vi, perpetuumque in modum, templum Metropolitanum Carthaginense, Deo in

honorem S. Cypriani episcopi et martyris ac S. Ludovici Francorum regis et confessoris dicatum, Decessorum Nostrorum beneficiis, ac potissimum perpetuo privilegio Primatus super totius Africae Ecclesiis honestatum basilicae minoris titulo donamus, illique omnia et singula honorificentias, ac privilegia tribuimus, quae minoribus almae huius Urbis Basilicis de iure competunt. Porro haec largimur, decernentes praesentes Litteras Nostras firmas, validas atque efficaces semper exstare ac permanere, suosque plenos atque integros effectus sortiri atque obtinere, illisque ad quos pertinent nunc et in posterum plenissime suffragari; sicque rite iudicandum esse ac definiendum, irritumque ex nunc et inane fieri si quidquam secus super his a quovis, auctoritate qualibet, scienter sive ignoranter attentari contigerit. Non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, ceterisque omnibus in contrarium facientibus quibuscumque.

Datum Romae apud sanctum Petrum, sub annulo Piscatoris, die v augusti мCMXVIII, Pontificatus Nostri anno quarto.

P. CARD. GASPARRI, a Secretis Status.

LETTER FROM POPE BENEDICT XV TO THE PATRIARCH OF

VENICE

(September 20, 1918)

AD PETRUM S. R. E. CARD. LA FONTAINE, PATRIARCHAM VENETIARUM, CUIUS OFFICIOSIS LITTERIS EX SACRA SPIRITUALIUM EXERCITIORUM SECESSIONE DATIS RESCRIBIT.

Dilecte fili Noster, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.-Quae in proximis litteris, communiter cum pluribus de tuo clero ad Nos datis, significaveras, ea Nobis pergrata acciderunt, siquidem optimis digna filiis visa sunt. Cum enim statis divinarum rerum commentationibus una vacaretis, nihil fuit vobis antiquius quam conceptum inde animorum fervorem testimonio praeclarae vestrae in Nos pietatis cumulare. Profecto maxime in hac temporum inclinatione Nos consolatur sacerdotum bonorum diligentia; qui quidem sui memores officii, excitato saepius in secessione spiritu, incensiore in dies studio, cum Christi Vicario coniuncti, sancta obire ministeria contendant. In quo certe plurima etiam communis salutis spes continetur. Itaque vobis gratulamur vehementer; in primisque tibi, dilecte fili Noster, in cuius laude merito singularis quaedam pastoralis sollertia atque cura ponenda est. Vestrum erit, ut certe facietis, istam retinere alacritatem: Nos vero ut propositi vestri constantiam salutarium copia fructuum consequatur, datorem munerum Deum enixe rogamus. Quorum auspicem paternaeque benevolentiae Nostrae testem, apostolicam benedictionem tibi, dilecte fili Noster, et omnibus qui tecum convenerunt, amantissime in Domino impertimus.

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum, die xx mensis septembris MCMXVIII, Pontificatus Nostri anno quinto. BENEDICTUS PP. XV.

REVIEWS AND NOTES

CORRESPONDANCE DU SIÈCLE DERNIER: UN PROJET DE MARIAGE DU DUC D'ORLÉANS (1836); LETTRES DE LÉOPOLD 1er DE BELGIQUE À ADOLPHE THIERS (1836-1864). Par L. de Lanzac de Laborie. Paris: Beauchesne, 1918.

In these days of open diplomacy and democratic alliances the political marriage as the basis of national alliances seems strange. The system, however necessary as a political instrument, was frequently detestable in its effects on individual happiness. M. De Lanzac de Laborie furnishes us with an interesting series of letters dealing with the projected marriage of the Duc d'Orléans with an arch duchess of Austria. The chief correspondents are Queen Marie-Amélie, the Duc d'Orléans, the Archduke Charles, Metternich, Adolphe Thiers, and the Comte de Sainte-Aulaire. The correspondence opens in the year following the death of the Emperor Francis (1836). Sainte-Aulaire was convinced that the death of Francis had ruined all chances of the proposed marriage. Metternich was indisputable head of the State under the new Emperor Ferdinand; and the direction of the Imperial Family passed into the hands of the youngest of the uncles of the sovereign, the Archduke Louis, a strong opponent of an alliance with France. Metternich had no desire to oppose Louis, and hence when the marriage question was broached he replied 'qu'il ne fallait point toucher à cette corde.' With the replacing of the Duc de Broglie by Thiers as head of the French administration, Metternich suddenly discovered all the virtues of the world in the King of the French. "The Revolution of July,' he cried, 'has saved the world.' Sainte-Aulaire tried to warn Thiers against taking Metternich's ebullitions au pied de la lettre'; but Thiers had already written to Vienna to say that he was a partisan of the English alliance for reasons known to all, but that this alliance would be strengthened by an Austrian one: and that this triple alliance would secure the Peace of the World! The Duc d'Orléans and his brother, the Duc de Nemours, left for Vienna (via Berlin) on May 2nd, 1836. The correspondence now published for the first time describes the events and negotiations to which this journey gave rise.

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The Letters of Leopold I of Belgium to Adolphe Thiers reveal to us an important chapter in European diplomacy. When Leopold ascended the throne in 1831 he was not exactly a lover of the French. As SaxeCoburg he had his first experiences as a soldier in the Russian army. After Waterloo he became naturalized in England and was married to the daughter and heiress of the Prince of Wales. Even after the death of his wife he remained associated with England and English affairs, and this did not predispose him in favour of the French. The feelings were reciprocated. When the question of the Belgian throne was mooted

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Sébastiani, the Minister for Foreign Affairs for Louis Philippe, exclaimed: 'If Saxe-Coburg sets foot in Belgium, we shall shoot him.' After the refusal of the Duc de Nemours, however, the opposition of the French Government was withdrawn. Once elected, Leopold devoted himself wholeheartedly to the interests of his kingdom. We are a small country, it is true, but we are by no means insignificant politically.' Though a Protestant, he won the favour of the Catholics by his observation of the Parliamentary Constitution. He drew closer the friendly relations between Belgium and France. He helped to restrain and moderate Thiers. The latter was on the point of bringing about a rupture between France and Russia and England in connexion with the affair of Mehemet-Ali. Leopold did his best to restrain Thiers, foreseeing the consequences to Belgium of a European crisis. Even the fall of the Monarchy of July did not interrupt his efforts to keep in touch with the Liberal Party in France. He continued his correspondence with Thiers, exchanging with him reflections on the great international crises, the Crimean War, the war in Italy. We have, therefore, in the present publication a 'document intime' on the politics of Europe from 1836 to 1864 which will well repay perusal,

P. M.

READINGS AND REFLECTIONS FOR THE HOLY HOUR: THE MANIFESTATIONS OF THE DIVINE PRESENCE. By Rev. Frederick A. Reuter. Second Edition. New York: Pustet, 1918.

THE object of this little work is to help to spread the devotion to the Blessed Sacrament. As Father Reuter says, there is now a happy rivalry between the clergy and laity in their efforts to extend to our Divine Lord in this Sacrament of Love every token of the deepest love and veneration. The short chapters are divided into Legenda and Reflections. In the Legenda numerous historical examples are given of devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and its consequent happy results. The Reflections stimulate us to pious thoughts based on the examples given. The method is a sound one. The priest will find in the Legenda numerous apt illustrations with which to enliven his discourse. The Reflections consist of a collection of passages from the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, cach of which has won a place here by the beauty of its diction or the truth it teaches. The little work is at once, therefore, a history of the devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and a work of meditation as well. As an example of the historical illustrations we may quote the following :—

'The first circumstance which led to the celebration of the Feast of Corpus Christi was a vision granted to the Blessed Juliana, a nun of Liège. . . . Being one day engaged in contemplation, she saw in spirit a vision of the moon at its full, but a dark spot on it marred its shining radiance. After much prayer and fasting she was enlightened as to the meaning and signification of this apparition. God revealed to her that the moon represented the Catholic Church, and that the dark spot signified the want of a special feast in honour of the Blessed Eucharist. . . . In the year 1230 she disclosed the apparition to a few men equally renowned for piety and learning. These men declared the apparition to be of God,

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