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privileges other Madonnas have not; she has special indulgences other Madonnas of the Rosary cannot boast; her images, her pictures, are all distinctive, all her own.

"There is only one Sanctuary in honour of the Rosary, built for this purpose from the very foundations, and that Sanctuary is in the Valley of Pompeii. It is not right to confound this with other sanctuaries, and dualise the worship! Others," says the founder, "will honour the Son directly, I intend to honour particularly the Mother."

INDULGENCES.

I have lying before me the Calendar of the Sanctuary, in which are solemnly set forth the various indulgences that may be obtained there. They follow the usual language of privilege, though many and varied in character. Three hundred days' indulgence is granted by Leo XIII., in the Rescript of the 21st of June, 1890, to the faithful who visit any image of the Virgin of the Rosary of the Valle di Pompei, in whatsoever church or chapel it may be found in any part of the world. On another page, noting the commencement of "the Novena in honour of the great patriarch, St. Joseph, patron of the Universal Church, and protector of the Sanctuary, Pompeii, and of the Female Orphanage of the Most Holy Rosary," we read that "in the Sanctuary of Pompeii whoever hears a mass at the altar of St. Joseph obtains plenary indulgence and the liberation of a soul from purgatory," the altar having been declared "privileged" by the Holy Father Leo XIII., in a Rescript, dated the 7th March, 1888. Again, on the day of the "Apparition of St. Michael," there is plenary indulgence for whoever visits the Sanctuary; a second plenary indulgence for those who visit the Image; a third for those who have gone through the Novena of the Virgin of Pompeii; a fourth for those who hear Mass at the High Altar of the Sanctuary, or at the Altar of the Transit of St. Joseph, or even at the Altar of St. Michael the Archangel-" with liberation of souls from purgatory." These are but illustrations of an elaborate programme.1

THE ROSE-LEAF CURE.

These indulgences are supplemented by bodily cures. The Altar of the Rosary Queen is supposed to vie with the Altar of Esculapius in old Pompeii. If wonders were wrought by the Pagan god, shall Christianity be less potent? So it has been argued. But the processes of cure are startling. "By the side of the great building in which the orphans are housed," writes Don Bartolo, "we thought we would have a garden, and now there are quite eighteen different species of roses growing there. Gathering great quantities of them we decorate the throne of Mary with them, and when we change them for others, we touch the

I must confess I have not found in this catalogue anything that beats what I have found elsewhere: "Whosoever during a year, shall recite every day before this true image of St. Bridget, the prayer of this saint, shall deliver fifteen souls of his nearest relations from purgatory, will convert fifteen sinners, and will cause fifteen other persons of his family to persevere in holiness, and will even receive from God all that he asks, even the salvation of his soul."

wonder-working picture of our Lady with them. Having taken leaf from leaf, we dry them by a special process, and make them up into little packets to be sent to the sick." But how to apply the rose-leaves: "The little dry leaf may be put in water to revive it. If the sick persons are able to swallow it, and like to do so, let them swallow it; if not, let them drink the water, repeating the ejaculatory prayer printed on the paper." Does this audacious prescription surprise What shall we say, then, when we find a bishop of the Church testifying to being cured by these leaves? The monthly "Rosario," or record of the place, has, moreover, many extraordinary statements of like cure.

us?

MIRACULOUS PICTURE-CARDS.

Still more ingenious, if less æsthetic, are the picture-cards. Who could have imagined that a little card, on which is printed a picture of the Virgin of Pompeii, could cure disease and even save life? The virtue, we are told, is derived from certain distinctive miraculous characteristics. It bears the effigy of this Pompeian Virgin. It has been blessed. The wonderworking efficacy is said to be communicated when it is swallowed by the patient. Here are the instructions: "In case of sickness, they are to be swallowed by the sick persons, producing immediately the desired effect." This is the style and tone of the supernatural, as we find the supernatural in the Valley of Pompeii. There seems more of the nostrum, of the charm, of the enchantment, than anything else about these pana

ceas.

But here is a Benedictine nun testifying to her cure. She was taken ill so suddenly, and the fever was so high, that two doctors were called in and pronounced her in immediate danger. "I did not lose heart," she declares, “I called one of the sisters, and asked her for one of the picture-cards of the Madonna of Pompeii, promising that if I got well I would recount the whole story. . . . I had hardly taken the picturecard before I began to feel so much better that the change was simply wonderful, and I felt I might even entirely recover."

THE OIL OF THE SILVER LAMPS.

The Italian advocate and his wife, the Countess, have a marvellous art of utilising everything. We have an example of this in the use of the old oil from these silver lamps. We are not joking, nor are we in any sense distorting their representation of the miraculous. We read in the "Rosario" a case of cure. The story told is of one Signor Giovanni Fateo, a pharmaceutical chemist, of Alberobello, in the province of Bari, who, in returning from a shooting expedition, felt a pain in the sole of his foot. It grew worse. He was The illustrious Countess of expected to die. Conversano sent him an image of the Virgin of Pompeii, a medal with her image, and a book with the Novena; and "though these did him good, it was not till after ten months of suffering that a rapid improvement took place, and this as soon as the wounds were anointed with the oil of the

THE SANCTUARY OF NEW POMPEII.

fifteen lamps that burn night and day before the thaumaturgic image in the Sanctuary at Pompeii: they then immediately healed up." Interested in this anointing with oil, not in the name of the Lord, but in the name of the Virgin, I soon found out that before the altar and around the miraculous picture are fifteen lamps; the old oil is gathered from these into little bottles. It is ready then to be dispensed to the faithful; its nearness to the Sacred Picture, and the holy office to which it has been devoted, having communicated to it a healing virtue.

It will scarcely be believed that the dust on the sacred picture is also carefully collected, and made into little packets for the cure of various maladies. "O what unworthy, what vile trading!" exclaims a Neapolitan who declares himself a zealous devotee of the Virgin; but, he adds, Bartolo "hoodwinks the Pope as well as the people."

Don Bartolo at every turn and in every way, by word, by the tone and temper of his writings, by the very arrangements of his publications, tries to produce the impression that, in the Sanctuary of the Valley of Pompeii, we are overshadowed by the presence of the supernatural and the miraculous. The Sanctuary is a miracle! The orphanage a miracle! His monthly "Il Rosario" is filled with the testimonies of persons who profess that through the Madonna of Pompeii they have been miraculously healed and blest. It is by these marvellous interpositions of the supernatural, we are told, that God sets His seal upon what is done; and it is by these supernatural demonstrations that the Madonna of Pompeii would rouse this age of indifference and materialism to a new life of earnestness, "destroying heresy, and bringing the people who profess Christianity within the folds of the Roman Church."

Those who examine the cases of cure and deliverance cannot but be struck with the fact that a vast number of these "Miracles of the Madonna," and even some of the typical cases heralded to the world as absolutely and irrefutably demonstrative of the sanction of heaven, are wanting in the evidence that connects cause and effect. In the most tragic story of the shipwreck of the Utopia, with its freight of emigrants, we heard, for example, that amongst the saved was a little boy, who wore a scapula of the Madonnahere was a miracle! Here is a providence of mercy --but who can show that it was the scapula, or the Madonna of the scapula, that saved him? Who knows how many of those who sank to 1ise no more wore the self-same scapula? How many of the others saved wore no scapula at all? Other cases raise other questions, which have been many times discussed in relation to other shrines. The subtle relations of mind and body are often curiously illustrated here as elsewhere.

The stranger who has made himself acquainted with the history of the Sanctuary from its own records those records from which we have so largely drawn-cannot but be astonished to find the names of scientific men-men whose names are a household word-statesmen, deputies,

59

senators, and even those associated with the ministry-upon the register of the visitors, sometimes in simple approval, sometimes in testimony of "conversion." Her Majesty the Queen, whom they call only "Margaret of Savoy"-denying her, her own rightful, august title: Margaret, Queen of Italy-has visited, and revisited the "Valley;" she has bowed before the miraculous shrine; her royal gifts enrich the magnificence of its display. Can we wonder that ladies of her court and of the aristocracy follow suit? The "Valley," it should be noted, has its own railway

station.

courts.

It is some satisfaction to know that the methods and procedure of the founders of New Pompeii have been challenged on the spot. They have themselves been assailed in unsparing terms, and invited to test their sincerity in the law The press has been directed against them. The Archbishop of Naples, and others of the local clergy, have not been able to veil their displeasure. It is also noteworthy that when the Madonna of the Rosary of Pompeii found a place in the church of the Dominican Fathers at Turin, it had to be removed on the ground that the "Madonna of the Rosary," which is the distinctive property of the Dominican Order, was already there. The action of the Congregation of Rites which, on appeal, excluded the picture was construed unfavourably to Pompeii. Then it was that the Pope intervened, and the following manifesto was issued:

"It is not unknown to us how our beloved children, Bartolo Longo and his wife, the Countess Marianna Farnararo, Contessa De Fusco, under the direction of the Bishop of Nola, have erected from the foundations in the Valle di Pompei, not far from the ruined and scattered remains of the once most flourishing city, a new and august temple, enriched with a great quantity of ornaments, in honour of the blessed Virgin Mary, under the most holy title of the Rosary, as pleasing to her as helpful to us, and having erected it with equal ardour and industry are trying to complete it.

"The fame of this Sanctuary has gone on increasing amidst Christian peoples, so that many are they who implore the aid of the Virgin Mother of God, who here shows forth her patronage by many and many manifestations to those who go there as pilgrims, or who, at least, trustfully have recourse to her.-LEO XIII." (Signed by his own hand.)

But what became of the exiled picture of the Madonna of Pompeii? It was received by the Jesuit Fathers, who proposed to build a little chapel for it in the church of St. Anthony.

The story we have recounted is ope of Italians, told by Italians, and to Italians; it is reproduced in their own colouring, and without exaggeration. Its spirit is native of the soil of the South, where superstition and ignorance were unrebuked for centuries. But "Our Lady of Pompeii" could not have become the centre of interest which she now is, without special, official, ecclesiastical, authoritative recognition by the Papal curia. The Incoronation was completed with immense pomp. This was the Pope's sanction to the picture. In the "Index," books are put; that is condemnation. So coronation is sanction, seal,

highest approval. You may see the crown in the picture-only the Pope and curia could put that there. After incoronation "Our Lady of Pompeii" could have a place in any Romish church; Pompeii can have an altar in every church where there is no other Madonna of the Rosary. New Pompeii is now as fully and authoritatively recognised as either Lourdes or Salette. Everything goes to constitute it a great South Italian institution, endowed and chartered from Rome, with the Pope's sovereign and affectionate consent. The not over-friendliness of the Archbishop of Naples has been overruled. Rome has sent a Dominican monk to have the special spiritual direction of the Sanctuary. The Pope has made Bartolo Longo, the founder, on the recommendation of Cardinal Monaco La Valletta, Knight Commendatore of the Order of St. Gregory. This Cardinal Monaco La Valletta is the Cardinale Protettore appointed by the Pope as responsible for the Sanctuary, when it was withdrawn from the immediate authority of the ordinary Diocesan, the Bishop of Nola. His Holiness, moreover, has recently given the same efficacy to each of the other altars as the high altar had before; every time a mass is said there a soul is liberated from purgatory. The grand recurring solemnities, when groups of bishops and archbishops take part, are evidence to all eyes of the favour to which the Sanctuary has attained.1

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the present day; of men and women who are living around us here. One thing that cannot but fix itself in the thoughtful mind is that not merely is Rome not seeking to purge the church from the errors which are as the accretion of ages, but that, on the contrary, new phases of faith are manifesting themselves; the evolution of dogma is going forward, the mythic element is becoming more and more marked. The socalled pious belief in the Assumption of Mary is being wrought into the soul of the people, and it must be transformed, fixed, defined into an article of faith. See the development of error, the Assumption of Mary leads on to the Transit of Joseph! Admit that Mary, by reason of her maternal relation to Jesus, exercises still the right of motherhood over the Saviour, and in the sphere of spiritual things, then outgrows from this very concession the authority of Josephthe myth grows, and surely grows, however slowly. The church is not turning to a purer faith. The rather it continues to foster its own errors and superstitions. There is poor hope of better days from any internal movement towards the truth, in the church itself.

The temporal power of the papacy seems outwardly broken; the spiritual, the social power remains. How little does Italy herself realise the ferment that is working beneath the surface of her national life! She is doing much, though still far too little, to amend the sad conditions of the past, both by education and philanthropy, but subtle forces of superstition and error are still active everywhere. The peril of the New Pompeii, in the elements by which its influence grows, is the peril of Italy. The peril of Italy is the peril of the nations, the peril of the world.

A BUNCH OF SEALS.

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CHAPTER IV.

UNCTUAL to the minute, Wilfred presented himself on Monday morning at the offices of Fletcher and May. He had grown a good deal during his active life as errand boy, but he was still small and slight for his age, and the other clerks looked with something of scornful amazement at An elderly, pleasant-faced gentleman coming from an inner office took

the new junior.

The contribution of New Pompeii to Peter's Pence is estimated at 10,000 francs a year. It is said that on the church from a million and a half to two million francs have been already spent, while the organ alone cost some 5000l. sterling.

his letter of introduction, and soon made him feel at home by giving him something to do.

Endless copying from one book into another, done of course in his very best handwriting, and one or two small errands made up his first day's work, and it cannot be denied that his back ached when he left his high stool for the day. But that was early in the evening, and Wilfred reckoned up with delight the long hours he could now call his own. "It is only shifting the tiredness," he said to himself as he started for home at a quick pace; "my legs ached at Mr. Shirley's often, and now it is only fair my back should have a turn. I shall soon get used to it."

That very evening his first attendance at a shorthand class was made, and before many weeks had gone he had mastered the names of the strange-looking curves and signs, and could do something at putting words and sentences together. French, too, was begun, and very merry was the supper-table now as Wilfred proudly aired his little stock of queer-sounding words and, by-and-by, puzzled his mother, asking for things by what she called outlandish names. He

A BUNCH OF SEALS.

worked with all his might, carrying his books in his pocket, and bringing them out in every minute he could call his own, writing lists of words and putting them over his table to be conned while dressing in the early mornings, and, as in all determined, resolute work, the first hard drudgery soon yielded pleasant fruit. It was not "all work and no play" either, Mr. Fletcher took care of that. A ticket for a gymnasium close by was added to his many kindnesses, and under the influence of this and of better food Wilfred rapidly grew tall and strong. His mother's health was much better also, for Mrs. Fletcher had kept her word and helped her to get a good deal of profitable work, and so they were able to have many little comforts undreamed of in the old days.

"They won't be able to call me 'the scrap' in our office much longer, will they, mother?" he said merrily one day, when she had been noticing how fast he was shooting above her in stature.

“No, indeed, Wilfred, you are going ahead, but I want you to grow in the best things as well as in inches that can be seen. We must not let anything make us forget the great aim, to grow up into Him in all things," she said gently.

"I don't think I shall forget, mother," he answered earnestly; "I want that more and more."

“Then blessed are those that hunger and thirst—they shall be filled." Mrs. Lee did not often preach to her boy, but her life was a continual example of goodness before him. And the longing to be a Christian, that had been his almost ever since he could remember, had lately deepened into decision, and he had given himself to the Lord Jesus for ever.

The wish to do something for his Saviour soon fourd opportunity. One evening a ragged little urchin ran up to him as he was hurrying home, and asked him to come and see a man who was very ill.

"He's in our court, and he was run over a good while back and was in hospittle, but they couldn't cure him, and now they say he's dying. He did curse at first, but now he's quiet like and wants somebody to pray. And I see you agoing to school Sundays, and so I run arter you, ces I dunno where parson lives." Wilfred felt timid at the thought of this errand, but he followed his dirty little guide, and presently, in a wretched attic-room, he found himself face to face with his old enemy, Jem Wills.

A strange puzzled look passed over the man's face as Wilfred spoke to him, but it was evident he did not recognise in the tall well-dressed lad the little errand-boy he had once persecuted so. But he soon seemed to forget his presence and tossed restlessly from side to side, moaning with pain, and now and then muttering, "Dying, and not ready! Oh, what shall I do ?"

Wilfred had been praying with all his might for some word to say to him and wishing so earnestly for his mother's help, but the words "What shall I do?" reminded him of one who long, long ago asked the same question, and so he just gave him the answer: "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved."

"Who are you?" cried the man suddenly, looking up with dim anxious eyes into the pitiful young face bent over him.

"Why, don't you remember me? I'm Wilfred Lee and we used to be at Mr. Shirley's together."

"Why, so 'tis," said the man, wonderingly, "and yet you come to see me for all I was so down on you there. Ay, and I'd planned to do worse for you, and get some things put down to you as would have landed you in gaol. Only I got sent away myself."

"Never mind, that is all done with long ago," said Wilfred. "And oh, Jem," he went on eagerly, as a sudden

61

thought came to him, "can't you see how it may be so with our sins? Pray that for Christ's sake you may be forgiven and helped. Just think now that Jesus died to save you. God can make you a good man."

There was silence in the room for some minutes. Jem lay in silent prayer, with a new look breaking into his anguished face.

No words can tell the joy that Wilfred felt as he realised that he had been doing a bit of real work for the Saviour he loved.

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After some more talk he went away, but came back later in the evening with his mother and some little comforts for the sick man. But they were not needed, for Jem's sufferings were over. "He went off quite peaceful like just now,' said a rough-looking woman, standing on the stairs. "Somethink you said to him comforted him, I reckon, for he was in a terrible way before."

Standing by poor Jem's grave, as the only mourner, Wilfred thanked God with all his heart for helping him to comfort his old enemy and show him something of the way to heaven. Death-bed repentances are often very unsatisfactory, but in this case Wilfred always thought afterwards that there was real penitence, and heartfelt turning to the Father slighted so long. After this, months and years went peacefully by. Step by step Wilfred was promoted in the office and proved himself so faithful, and so apt in business matters small and great, that "the firm" rejoiced more and more in the chance that had brought him there. Mr. Fletcher never relaxed his kindness, and as time went on invited him often to his home and made him feel thoroughly welcome there.

"For our lost Wilfred's sake," he would say sometimes to his wife when she remonstrated, thinking perhaps of their pet Ida.

To Ida also the passing years had brought much, and she was growing, in the eyes of those who loved her, more winsome every day.

Wilfred never forgot his first sight of her, as she had looked when taking their part against the irate footman, who had long since disappeared from the establishment. And if he found himself thinking of her more and more often, especially when that goal of five hundred a year had been gained and passed, who could blame him?

There came a time when Wilfred reached the highest point of his ambition in business life, a partnership in the firm he had served so well, with every prospect of becoming a rich man in the not distant future.

Long before that time the sewing machine had been discarded in their home, at least as a means of earning money, and Mrs. Lee had more than one of the black silk gowns Wilfred had promised her so many years before.

She was able to devote her well-earned ease, that was not by any means idleness, to work that she and her son both loved, the work of helping those who were poor and lonely as they had once themselves been.

Many a struggling mother and ambitious boy were given a foothold, through their timely aid, that was a starting point to success; and through Wilfred's carnest effort and consistent example many a wanderer was brought back into paths of pleasantness and peace. And, before the loving mother was called to go up higher, she had the joy of sceing Wilfred in his own happy home, abundantly prosperous in things temporal, and rich too in the treasures that are eternal. There were many beautiful and costly things in that home, but, to the children there in after years, none had more fascination than a little case in father's library, whose story they knew by heart, a case of shining crystal in which, on a lining of crimson plush, lay a bunch of old-fashioned seals.

MARY ROWLES JARVIS.

The Era of Strikes.

ALL the ordinary moralities and precepts of the Christian faith seem in peril when so large a part of England is convulsed by social feuds. The strikes which have disturbed the colliery districts have been a national calamity. They array class against class, to the dislocation of many industries; and bring upon women and children much of the suffering of a civil war, while they affect the whole community injuriously. The riot at Featherstone, in which the soldiers were called upon to fire, and three men fatally wounded, marks a crisis which caunot pass unheeded. It is a new thing to hear of men out on strike meeting in large bodies for religious exercises, and seeking to escape from their troubles by prayer and hymn; but such a fact appeals to the Christian Church. First almost among social reforms which all sections must now demand is some means by which the risk of these great collisions can be lessened. Mr. John Burns, speaking at Battersea, on the Belfast Trades-Union Congress, declared that all sections of the Congress had practically come to the conclusion that the day of strikes is over. Strikes were all very well when labour was organised but capital was not; but to-day the conditions were very different. The vote should be used, not strikes, to secure what labour still required. This is a definite conclusion, but of more avail than the vote would be the spirit of a brotherhood ready to submit questions of dispute to just arbitrament, and to a ljust relations by its impartial decisions. At the Belfast Congress, Mr. Monro, the President, said it was an act of criminal folly to hint at or recommend a strike until all the resources of civilisation had been exhausted. He expressed the hope that one outcome of the Royal Commission on Labour will be to formulate a system of conciliation and arbitration. Mr. Monro asked whether the working men of to-day are much nearer the standard of true manhood than their forefathers were? Whether they had made progress in the full sense of the word? Whether they were using their increased leisure and the talents vouchsafed to them for their own benefit or for that of mankind? It was his wish that each of them in their several spheres might endeavour to make their own lives and the lives of those around them higher, healthier, and happier. When the masses of men, realising how much of social mischief is due to moral defect, set themselves individually to break the force of evil custom3, in the spirit of Mr. Monro's questions, the way will be prepared for greater reforms than the world has yet seen.

"Don't do

it

again."

THE Foreign Ministers at Pekin acting in concert forwarded, as is known, a joint Note to the Tsung-li Yamên, or Chinese Office for Foreign Affairs, reciting the facts connected with the recent massacre of the Swedish missionaries Wikholm and Johansson at Sungpu, in Hupeh, and demanding "the exemplary punishment of all the officials, high and low, who, by their culpable negligence, had permitted this atrocious crime to be committed." It demanded also "the just and severe punishment of the ringleaders of the mob, and of those who organised it, though they did not actively participate in it." This Note, to which the signatures of all the Foreign Ministers of Europe and America were aflixed, was handed in to the Yamên by Colonel Denby, the United States Ambassador, who is also doyen of the Diplomatic Body. In reply, a communication has now been received from the Foreign Department at Pekin to the effect that Chang Chi Tung, under whose administration the acts complained of were committed, will be punished by being degraded from his rank and office in the event of any further outrages occurring in the province under his authority. It remains to be seen whether this virtual evasion of the difficulty will be accepted as sufficient security for the future.

The THE cruel persecution directed against the Stundists, Stundists in Russia knows no abatement. A correspondent of the Christian World, familiar with the country and its people, has recently published a series of letters which recall the worst days of religious strife. "One of the most sinister aspects of this persecution," he writes in conclusion, "is that it has so deteriorating an effect even on the Orthodox. They are encouraged by

the clergy and police in a hateful system of espionage. Archbishop Ambrose of Kharkoff, one of the most thorough of the Inquisitors, has openly asked his people to report to their priests any suspicious cases of heresy they may notice in their midst, leaving a life and death matter of this kind to the judgment of the most ignorant peasants in Europe. And still the Government are uneasy, still they cry out for more victims and for harsher measures. More than one conference of Churchmen has been called to consider what stronger measures should be adopted to utterly eradicate the Stundist heresy. For it still grows, and grows, and cannot be killed. A Stundist is now an outlaw; his children are no longer his own; he is excluded from all village life and activity; his passport bears a mark of infamy; he dare not employ an orthodox servant, nor is he permitted to serve an orthodox master. Even when dead the vengeance of the Church follows him, for his body is to be cast into the grave, away from the consecrated earth that holds the bones of his fathers."

Mecca.

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MECCA from time to time attracts attention Pilgrims at not only as the sacred city of Mohammedanism but as one of the plague spots of the world. The last terrible outbreak of cholera there has given rise to a demand that some steps shall be taken to abate its noxious impurities. We get some glimpses of the Mohammedan pilgrimages and their numbers in a letter from Tunis which recently appeared in the Standard. During May last over 6000 pilgrims left that port alone for Mecca, and about 3000 more sailed from other places on the coast. It is estimated that of these 4500 persons perished on their way to or from the Holy City. The steamers bringing those back who had made the Hadj arrived here about ten days ago. The pilgrims were landed on the quarantine island of Zembia, and after medical inspection were allowed to come on shore. On the afternoon of the day when they were expected, the different Tunisian sects, with the friends of the returning pilgrims, in number about 12,000, marched down to the quays, carrying banners and singing hymns. At length the pilgrims landed, and it was then learned, for the first time, that scarcely 2000 of all who had started from Tunis had come back. Heartrending cries of wailing and lamentation arose from the vast throng of women, of whom some were carried away fainting, while others threw themselves on their knees and supplicated the Prophet with frenzied fervour to restore to them the lost. The pilgrims themselves, as soon as they set foot ashore, and before they sought their relatives, turned their faces towards Mecca, and prostrating themselves, offered thanks to Mahomet for their salvation. They tell a terrible tale of their experience. On June 24th, two days before the Courban Bairam, upwards of 100,000 Mussulmans, Arabs, Turks, and Indians had gathered on the Sacred Mount to hear the solemn address which is delivered to those who wish to become Hadji. Many of these people were in the most wretched condition, and some had not even a loaf of bread. The following day the onward movement to the Holy City began. Those who got away were fortunate. The Mount was like a battle field, strewn with dead and dying. At length a battalion of Turkish troops was sent from Soana to bury the dead and remove any people who still lived. The battalion, when it reached the Mount, was 700 strong. After the work had been done 200 men only remained to go back to the coast. Five hundred of the soldiers had died of cholera."

The Day of Atonement

in London.

THE influx of Jews into London was curiously shown on their great "Day of Atonement," when they gathered in the Assembly Hall, Mile-end Road, which was lent for the occasion by Mr. F. N. Charrington, who there conducts his well-known evangelistic services. "The day began at sunset on the Tuesday, and the first service commenced at half-past five P.M. on that day. The hall," says the Standard, "was densely packed by over five thousand Hebrews, mostly English, Polish, and Russian. The women assembled in the first gallery. The fast is observed from dusk to dusk-viz. twenty-six hours-and no adult Jew or Jewess is allowed to take any food or drink

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