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32 Mrs. Cappe, on the Adaptation of Divine Revelation to the Human Mind.

to a mind like his, of the keenest mental and moral sensibility, could not fail to encircle the scourge and the cross with tenfold horrors. But did he shrink from the dreadful ordeal? "God called, and did the Son of God refuse to answer ?"* He_well knew that nothing short of all this would decisively prove that those things which are so highly esteemed among men, a life of ease, of sensual enjoyment, great riches, high station, worldly honours and distinction, are of no estimation in the sight of God; that the truest humility may be united with the greatest dignity of character, and the acutest sensibility with the most unshaken fortitude. He knew that his public death in this dreadful manner, in which there could not be any deception, was requisite to demonstrate its reality-That on this wholly depended the proof from fact, first, by his triumphant resurrection, that death is not the end of man; and secondly, by his ascension to the right hand of God, and from thence dispensing the gifts of the spirit, to prove also from fact, the reality of a future retribution ;—to convince his faithful followers that those " who by patient continuance in well doing, seek for glory, honour and immortality," should finally attain everlasting life.

Can we wonder then, when we seriously reflect upon all these things, that the apostles, who were the living witnesses of such transcendant virtue, filled with the highest admiration, and impelled by holy ardour, should speak of their ascended Lord in the highly figurative, hyperbolic eastern phraseology, as having been made "sin for us" of having been made a willing sacrifice as giving himself for our sins; not indeed to make God propitious, but to render his erring imperfect creature, so liable to transgression, so incapable of knowing his true interest, more worthy of the divine favour; of raising him higher in the scale of intellectual being, and of rendering him meet, when all sublunary things shall have lost their influence, for that eternal felicity which

See, on the Great Importance of the Public Ministry of Christ, Discourse XX. page 388, of a volume of Sermons by the late Rev. Newcome Cappe; edited by Cath, Cappe. 1815.

66 eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive."

Thirdly, the power of deliberating upon and of choosing between two different modes of action in respect of all their various and complicated results, is not only taken for granted, but more strongly, more promptly, and with greater authority called into action by revelation, than by the slow deductions of reason, although eventually it perfectly harmonizes with them. "Thou shalt not steal," "Thou shalt not commit adultery," are prohibitions, which the most ignorant, if acquainted with the meaning of the terms, cannot fail to comprehend; whereas, on the contrary, to see the foundation on which they rest, to feel the importance whether to the individual or to society at large, of holding the right of private property sacred, fully to appreciate the misery, the wretchedness, the jealousies, the endless mistrusts, together with the whole train of baneful, malignant passions engendered and excited by a breach of the nuptial tie, requires a very considerable degree of previous mental and moral progress; and hence the unspeakable importance of a positive divine command to the great bulk of mankind, at all times and in all ages.

It is readily admitted, that there have occasionally arisen sages and philosophers who have been capable of making some of these important deductions without the aid of divine revelation, and of thence becoming the guides and instructors of others; but notwithstanding the praise so justly due to their virtuous exertions, it is very obvious to anticipate how very small would be the fruit of their labours without consulting the page of history, not bearing the stamp of divine authority.†

Again. A written history of the series of extraordinary interpositions of divine providence for the guidance and improvement of the human race, presupposes and requires the possession of those faculties which form the fourth line of demarcation between man and the inferior animals, and is therefore exclusively suited to them.

† See Vol. iv. p. 71, of Dr. Cogan's admirable treatise.

Dr. Carpenter to Mr. Frend, Dr. Lloyd. &c.

Could not an account of these extraordinary events have been first publicly preached, and afterwards committed to writing, the knowledge of them if it had reached us at all, could only have been conveyed on the frail, uncertain authority of oral tradition, casually floating down the stream of time from generation to generation.

In respect even of that great event, momentous in its consequences beyond all others, the resurrection of Christ, although the very same care had been taken in the arrangements of divine providence which is now so apparent, and although the people of that day might therefore have been equally convinced of its reality, yet had not the relation been circumstantially committed to writing by eyewitnesses, we of this distant age should not only have received the account, loaded with and obscured by many human inventions, but we should have wanted all those various proofs, arising from minute circumstances incidentally noticed, with which it now abounds, and on which the firm conviction of its truth, in respect of us, so essentially depends.

In respect of the fifth and last mentioned line of demarcation, namely the unspeakable privilege of being capable of forming some small conception of the adorable and ever-blessed God; of confiding in his goodness, and of rendering him, however imperfectly, the humble ascription of adoration and praise, there is no need to prove that without an especial revelation these most desirable privileges, important beyond all others, would not have been obtained.


Exeter, Jan. 8, 1816.

number 459,) it was proposed to raise a fund in order to defray the expense of republishing some important works, which though not perhaps directly Unitarian, might have great efficacy in weakening the influence of religious bigotry, and preparing for the diffusion of our principles: and reference was particularly made to Bishop Tay. lor's Liberty of Prophesying, and Whitby's Last Thoughts, with his four Sermons, published with them. These, and particularly the latter, are almost inaccessible to the public:


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and the Last Thoughts ought, in justice to the learned Commentator, to be in the hands of every one who possesses his commentary on the New Testament, because they furnish his own corrections of his work. It was also stated that a gentleman, who seemed impressed with the importance of the object, offered a loan of 1001. towards the accomplishment of it, if others could be found to unite with him.

Your correspondent A. Z. in the number for September, (x. 549,) inquires for particulars respecting my plan, and my opinion as to the necessary funds. The subject has often been in my thoughts, but I have seldom had time to commit my ideas to paper.

I think the simplest way would be for a few individuals to raise among them, by way of loan, from 2007. to 300l., and be joint proprietors of the editions republished, which (if the selection of books were made with due caution,) would always be a good security for the money advanced. The books should be printed neatly, but as cheap as possible; and the price should be regulated by the probable time of sale, the cost of advertising, &c. For instance, if the expenses of reprinting any book be 751. for 1000 copies, in 8vo. ; allow 251. for advertising at different periods of the sale, and consider it as employed at once for the purpose. Then suppose the impression to sell completely in eight years; and allow interest for five, (as small sums on their return could not easily be made profitable :) the whole return, to remunerate the propietors, should be 1251. Now for booksellers' profit and the publisher's commission on the selling price, we must

The price to the public would therefore be about 3s. 8d. in quires, or say 4s. 6d. in extra boards. I should think it probable that for Whitby's Last Thoughts encouragement might be expected from the societies.

The experiment might be made, in the first instance, with the Last Thoughts, where I should suppose there can be but little risk, and which, if I had any capital to spare, I would myself immediately reprint, upon the above mentioned system of estimating the price. If any friend to free in


Mr. Josiah Townsend on the Daventry Academy.

quiry feel disposed to do it, any advice or assistance I can give in the execution of the object will be at his service.

Shall I request from the able reviewer of Townsend's Armageddon, to furnish us with a few more horrors, particularly such as have their service in the popular ideas of atonement. I am persuaded that the exposure of such representations is of great service they shew us how careful we should be to keep close to the doc trines of revelation; and the contemplation of them must make us thankful that we have not so learned Christ.

In this connexion, allow me to beg Mr. Frend (if his views respecting the death of Christ really differ, in essence, from those commonly entertained by Unitarians,) to state them, and the grounds of them. Why, if he possess important truth, and be lieve us to be in error, does he withhold the communication of it from the readers of the Repository?

In reference to Dr. Lloyd's proposal for a pamphlet on the Greek article, I wish to observe, that if he have any decisive facts and principles in addition to those which Winstanley,* Gregory Blunt and Middleton himself, have advanced, (which, how

can give ground for his present confidence that he can offer a fresh demonstration against them, let him announce his intention of preparing it for publication, as soon as a subscription is raised to defray the expense of printing it and I cannot doubt that he will meet with sufficient encouragement to proceed.

I will avail myself of this opportu nity to say that I have a youth with me preparing for York, where he will be ready to go next session, and I suppose may gain admittance without any great difficulty. He is, however, so circumstanced, that he cannot defray those expenses which are not included in the foundation. I shall, therefore, feel myself particularly obliged to any of your readers, who can obtain for him, (or shew me how to obtain) such assistance from funds, exhibitions, &c. as will enable him to go on in the object to which he desires to devote himself. If any one having this power, will favour me with a line on the subject, I think I can give him satisfactory proof that the assistance would be well directed. I am, Sir.


Yours very truly,


Mansfield, Jan. 13, 1816.

TAVING been favoured, by the

ever, to my mind are satisfactory,) IH Rev. Joseph Hunter of Bath,

should conceive that a subscription might easily be raised to defray the expense, and should readily take a share in it. Dr. Lloyd does not refer at all to what has been done by Blunt and Winstanley; and as their tracts are not now easily accessible, he will perhaps excuse my referring him to the Appendix, No. III. in the second edition of Unitarianism the Doctrine of the Gospel. If on perusing this outline of the proof which has already been given, that Mr. Sharp's renderings of the controverted passage are not required by the Greek idiom, Dr. L.

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with a list of Dr. Doddridge's pupils (accompanied by many valuable remarks), and by the Rev. Wm. Tullideph Procter, of Prescot, with a list of those who were educated by Mr. Horsey, after the resignation of Mr. Belsham; I have been employed in collecting information from every quarter accessible to me, that I might be enabled to execute my purpose of drawing up as complete an account as possible of the seminaries established at Northampton and Daventry. But, my hope of receiving the neces sary intelligence concerning the Academy at Daventry having been so long disappointed, I find myself compelled (on the supposition that the work is not undertaken by some other hand,) again to request the grant of

that information without which I

cannot proceed. I shall be happy to receive it, not only from the gentle


men who have already been particularly mentioned, (M. Rep, x. 391,) but from any other who may be able and willing to afford it. Communications (post paid), addressed to me. at Mansfield, Nottinghamshire (which is now the place of my fixed residence) are once more earnestly solicited, and will be thankfully received, by, Sir, Yours sincerely,





has dictated our customs, and they are more ancient than the law."

De Tott's Memoires, Vol. I. Pt. i. p. 212.


Popish Renderings.

The Papists, in their versions of the scriptures into the modern tongues, have contrived by various falsifications, to make them speak the language of their Missals and Breviaries, in order to sanctify their novel rites

REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE by the authority of the apostles, and



Tahtar (or Tartar) Hospitality. When the French Resident to the Khan of the Tahtars was travelling through Tartary, on his route to Constantinople, on arriving towards dusk, at a village in Bessarabia, under the conduct of an officer, appointed by the Khan, they found every inhabitant standing at his door; and on inquiring the cause of this of a venerable old man whose interesting appearance had determined the travellers to make choice of him as their host), he answered-" Our eagerness to come to our doors is only to prove that our houses are inhabited; their uniformity preserves an equality, and my good star alone has procured me the happiness of having you for my guest. We consider the exercise of hospitality as a privilege."

Frenchman. "Pray tell me, would you treat the first with the same humanity?"

Old Man. "The only distinction we make, is to go and meet the wretched, whom misery always renders timid; in this case the pleasure of assisting him is the right of the person who first approaches."

Frenchman. "The law of Mohammed cannot be followed with greater exactitude."

Old Man. "Nor do we believe that, in exercising our hospitality, we obey this divine law. We are MEN before we are Mahometans: humanity

make the people believe that they had been practised from the times even of the gospel. Thus to countenance the practice of beatifying or making saints in the Church, they have rendered a passage of St. James, v. 11, not as it ought to be, Behold how we account those blessed, but Behold how we BEATIFY those who have suffered with constancy: and in favour also of their processions, where it is said, Heb. xi 30, that the walls of Jericho fell down, after they compassed it about seven days, their versions render it, after a PROCESSION of seven days around it. And to give the better colour to their trade of pilgrimages, St. Paul, according to their versions, requires it, as the qualification of a good widow, that she have lodged PILGRIMS. 1 Tim. v. 10. And St. John praises Gaius, for having dealt faithfully with PILGRIMS iii John 5.

See Serces' Popery an Enemy to Scripture, quoted in Middleton's Letter from Rome, Works, v. 49. Note f.


King by the Grace of God.

In the French National Assembly, in 1789, Petion de Villeneuve proposed giving to the King the title of "King of the French by the Consent of the Nation," and suppressing the form of "by the Grace of God."-" It is calumniating God," cried he; "was Charles the IXth, too, King by the Grace of God?"

Biographie Moderne, iii. 93.



"Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame."- -POPE.

ART I.-Evangelical Christianity considered, and shewn to be synonimous with Unitarianism, in a Course of Lectures on some of the most contro. verted Points of Christian Doctrine, addressed to Trinitarians. By John Grundy, one of the Ministers of the Congregation assembling in the Chapel in Cross Street, Manchester. In Two Volumes. 8vo. Pp. 538 and 552. Eaton. 1815, 1814. N the winter of 1813, Mr. Grundy began a course of Unitarian Lec tures at Manchester, on the alternate Sunday evenings. Public attention was immediately aroused, The Chapel in which the Lectures were delivered was crowded to excess; in four or five other places of worship opposition-lectures were regularly delivered; pamphlets also appeared against the Lecturer; the strangest reports were put in circulation; and some of the more timid Unitarians were alarmed. Under these circumstances, Mr. Grundy published the Lectures singly soon after their delivery. Illness interrupted him in his course; and he devoted his hours of involuntary retirement to the collection of the Lectures already published into volumes, adding a few others which he would have delivered if at the time his health had been sufficiently recovered. This is the history of the present publication; which independently of its merits recommends it strongly to the notice of the advocates of free inquiry and the friends of truth.

The following are the Contents of the volumes :-Vol. I. The Unity of God. Explanation of the Trinity. The Existence of a Devil. The distinct Existence and Personality of the Holy Spirit. The Impersonality of the Holy Spirit. The Deity of Jesus Christ. Nine Hundred Passages of Scripture proving the Unity of God. The Pre-existence and Divinity of Jesus Christ. Extracts from various Authors on the Trinity. manity of Jesus Christ. Appendix The Huaddressed to the Members of the New Jerusalem Church.-Vol. II. Opinions of Christians in the First The Century on the Person of Christ.

Opinions in the Second and Third
Centuries. Opinions after the Third
The Eternity of Future Torments.
The Atonement. Ditto.
Ditto. Ditto. The Plenary Inspira-
tion of the Scriptures. The Miracu-
lous Conception and Nativity. Ditto.
Original Sin. Practical Summary.

that the volumes contain a body of
From these tables it will appear
Unitarian Divinity. The author

agrees in opinion for the most part with the well-known writers of his denomination, of whom he makes a free but judicious and acknowledged* vile follower or blind partizan; he use. At the same time, he is no serdares to differ from those whom he most honours; and in justification of himself, he presents his readers with impertinent or weak. his reasons, which are never captious,

tures are not novel, the mode in Although the subjects of the Lecwhich they are discussed gives them liveliness of a personal address relieves an appearance of originality. The the heaviness of a continued argumeut, and the dullness of verbal criticism; and Mr. Grundy's manner of writing (and this is said to be more particularly the case with his manner of speaking) kecps the attention awake from first to last, and allows neither listlessness nor lassitude.

On the Athanasian Creed no argu-
the following anecdote, which the
ment would have been so striking as
experience of every one that has been
no means incredible.
much in the world will shew to be by

who previously to going to Church on one
"I know a clergyman of some celebrity,
of the Saint's Days, specified, said, 'I am
going to read the Athanasian Creed; may
God forgive ine, for I utterly disbelieve it."
I. 34.

the address to the members of the New
The following is the conclusion of

is scarcely candid to avail themselves of
* We employ this word in order to hint
to some of our polemical brethren that it

the researches of others without acknow

alienis bonis. Bonas in partes, Lector,
ledgment or reference; ne gloriari_libeat
accipias velim.

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