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hearers; that he gave a summary history of Peace Societies in America, England, and France; and that he answered, most convincingly, the objections that had been made to Peace Societies, the ultimate end of which is to eradicate the taste for war, and to induce men to live in friendship and harmony together. He concluded by recommending the establishment of a branch society in this place, and cautioning his hearers, that, in its principles, there was nothing sectarian-nothing exclusive, and that it was not necessary that all its members should carry their views to the

same extent.

The applause having subsided, The Rev. Mr. Earle spoke earnestly in favour of Peace Societies, and enlarged at some length on the fictitious glory attached to military renown. He agreed with the previous speaker in every observation he had made, and hoped that a Society would be established in this place.

The Rev. J. M'Pherson followed in the same strain, and concluded with moving a resolution, of which the import is, That it is highly desirable to form a Peace Society in Hull, and that certain gentlemen, whose names were mentioned, should be a provisional committee, to prepare the regulations under which it should be conducted.

Mr. Earle seconded the motion, and on being put to the vote, it was carried unanimously.

Mr. T. J. Buckton, having made some pertinent observations on the taste for war, in early times, amongst the heathen nations, and on the mischiefs by which it is invariably accompanied, moved

That the Provisional Committee be an open one, and that its first meeting should be held on the evening of the 17th instant, in the Friends' Chapel, in Lowgate.

This motion, seconded by Mr. Stickney, of Ridgemont, was also carried.

Mr. Lee then moved the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Hargreaves for his address, seconded by Mr. Alsop. Mr. Hargreaves expressed great gratification in the reception he had met with; and thanks having been voted to the Chairman, the company separated.

That the Provisional Committee has succeeded in carrying into effect the object for which it was appointed, will be seen by the following account of the meeting, at which an Auxiliary Peace Society was established at Hull:

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"We copy the following from the Advertiser :-On Wednesday evening, August 24, 1831, a meeting was held, pursuant to public advertisement, in the Friends' Meeting House, Lowgate, to establish a Society in this town, for the purpose of Promoting Permanent and Universal Peace.

"Mr. Hipsley was called to the chair, and briefly opened the proceedings, which we cannot, at present, give in detail. He observed that the institution was founded on the principle, that war is inconsistent with the spirit of the Christian religion, and he shewed, by an appeal to facts, that it was also inconsistent with the temporal interests of mankind.

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"Mr. James Henwood proposed a resolution, cordially approving of the London Society, which was blished on these principles, and which sought to accomplish its objects by the printing and circulation of tracts. It was, he said, to the honour of the religious community meeting in that place, that they had on all occasions, not only advocated the cause of peace, but exemplified its spirit and principles. On surveying the various bodies of which the Christian world was composed, it would seem that some particular feature of Christianity was observable in some denominations more than others; that some were remarkable for carrying into full effect and practical results one precept or peculiar view, and

some another; though, as professors of the gospel, they all recognized the great principles of the Christian faith. Now, whatever might be thought of the difficulties which stood in the way of accomplishing the momentous object contemplated by the Society, he supposed no objector would, for a moment, advocate war, considered in itself, and that all would readily acknowledge that "peace" was not only a word of very delightful import, but, as far as it could be obtained, a most desirable thing. To show that it was not hopeless, he referred to the page of inspiration, wherein it was predicted that the kingdom of Christ should be the kingdom of peace, and where every precept of the gospel was of a character eminently pacific. To express unbelief, therefore, as to the spread of pacific feelings and practices, was to acknowledge to that amount that they were not Christians, and had not imbibed the spirit of their religion. Some looked for the spread of a peaceable spirit only as it respected individuals, from the natural result of the general diffusion of Christianity, and thought nothing could be accomplished by the formation of such societies. He would state his reason why he took a different view. Many were, he was of opinion, sincere believers in the Christian religion, yet, unless their attention were fixed on its particular requirements, they might be very defective in certain points of Christian practice; and the hope of success in that Society was principally that it would tend to turn the tide of thought another way, and it would be something if men could be led to consider how far war was consistent with Christianity. Many of the false notions which prevailed, and the awful practices which sprung from them, were connected with errors in the understanding; and the publications of the Parent Society were calculated to remove from the minds of reflecting persons the false

ideas entertained on the subject of war-a subject on which, judging of others by himself, numbers thought very superficially indeed. Mr. Henwood then went on to argue, from the present feeling in this and other countries, that the object of the Society was not so wild and Utopian as many imagined. Never was the general sentiment of the people of England so adverse to war as at this time. He approved of the mode in which the sentiments and principles of the Society were intended to be propagated, because its various publications fairly submitted the subject to the understandings of the people. Let every thing be taken for what it was worth; and let every man approach the subject with a candid mind, and then draw his own conclusions. When they considered how long the tide of thought had run in a certain direction, it was not to be wondered at if it could not be altogether diverted from that direction. It was well known how forcibly notions took hold of the mind, which had long been fixed there; and what an unwillingness there was in the human mind to make the candid acknowledgment-" I have been in error." He looked to beneficial results from the increasing means of information by which the age was distinguished; observing, that whatever became the general feeling of the public, in a free state, would influence the measures of government. This was already the case to a considerable extent, and would be more so, when knowledge, virtue, and piety had increased in the land. He denied, however, that the Society was adverse to the cause of good order or regular government. It looked for no sudden change. In its workings it would rather resemble, to use a scripture metaphor, the working of leaven-gradually diffusing better feelings and more correct views among men ;-like the beautiful results in the works of nature, it would

rather seem to have grown than to grow. In conclusion, when alluding to the miseries entailed upon mankind by the practice of war, he drew an affecting picture of the state of agriculture, commerce, and social life, in unhappy Poland.

"The Rev. E. Morley, in seconding the resolution, dwelt upon the object, the means, the sphere of operations, and the probable results of the Society, adverting also to other incidental topics.

"Mr. Acland supported the resolution in a speech of considerable length and ability. It was also supported by Mr. Wallworth, chiefly on the ground that the spread of information would have a beneficial effect upon the minds of the great mass of the people. Both these speakers alluded to the savage attempts now making to coerce the oppressed and heroic Poles.

"The meeting was addressed by the Rev. C. Daniell, the Rev. G. Lee, Dr. Longstaff, Mr. T. J. Buckton, Mr. Noble, the Rev. E. Higginson, and other gentlemen.

"It may be sufficient to add, that a Society is formed, of which Daniel Sykes, Esq. is president, and Mr. Hipsley secretary; that subscribers of 5s., donors of 50s., and all clergymen approving of the objects, are members; and that a respectable Committee is nominated, to meet monthly, who are likely to give efficiency to its operations."-Hull and Rockingham Gazette.

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The following letter from Mr. John Hipsley, the Treasurer and Secretary of the Hull Auxiliary Peace Society, has been since received:

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Hull, 27th 8 Mo. 1831. "ESTEEMED FRIEND,-I have delayed writing to thee on the subject of our forming an Auxiliary Peace Society until that point is accomplished. At our first meeting, onthe 11th inst., our friend James Hargreaves delivered to us a very impressive and interesting lecture,

which evidently made a deep impression on his audience in favour of our object. Several persons who were friendly to our views, thought it was better to give a little time for the 'leaven' to work, before we proceeded to take any definitive step. Accordingly, two resolutions only, suggested by J. Hargreaves, were passed at the first meeting

"1st, Expressing the desirableness of forming an Auxiliary Society, and appointing a Provisional Committee to take such steps as might appear expedient for that purpose.

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2dly, That the Provisional Committee should hold an open meeting, and invite the friends of the cause to attend.

"This open meeting was held on the 17th, and was attended by a considerable number of persons; and the resolutions proposed for the adoption of a general meeting were very freely discussed.

"It was resolved to invite Daniel Sykes, Esq. to allow himself to be appointed President of the Society, and to call a general meeting for the purpose of forming the Auxiliary Society, on the 24th inst.

"The general meeting was held accordingly, and was largely attended. Some excellent speeches were made on the occasion, and the resolutions, of which I intend a copy to accompany this, were passed without opposition, except an amendment on one of them, which did not affect the object of the meeting. A letter was read from Daniel Sykes, Esq. accepting the office of President, and expressing his approval of the object of the Society. Upon the whole, I think our Auxiliary is formed under very favourable circumstances; and although many of our members may not go the whole length of the views of some others, for we have no test, yet I cannot but anticipate considerable advantage from our associating together for so good an object, in the effect likely to

be produced on the public mind relative to the subject of war.

"Our Committee will hold its first meeting in the course of next week, after which I may have occasion to address thee again. * * * * I remain, thy assured friend,

"To John Bevans."

receive within the year, tracts to the amount of half his subscription.

6. That Daniel Sykes, Esq. be the President of this Society, and that the following gentlemen shall be a Committee to transact its affairs, with power to add to their number, "JOHN HIPSLEY. of whom five shall be a quorum.

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2. That a Society be now formed upon the same principles, to be called "The Hull Auxiliary Society for the promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace," whose business it

shall be to co-operate and correspond with the Society established for that purpose in London.

3. That for the sake of union of

action the publications circulated by this Society shall be such as have received the sanction of the Society in London.

4. That all subscriptions and donations, after deducting incidental expenses, shall be remitted to the Treasurer of the Society in London to promote the great objects of the Institution.

5. Every annual subscriber of five shillings and upwards, and every donor of two pounds ten shillings and upwards, shall be a member of the Society, and shall be entitled to

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7. That all Ministers of the Gospel of every denomination signifying their approval of the principles and objects of this Society, shall be members of the Committee.

8. That the Committee meet monthly.

9. That John Hipsley be appointed Treasurer and Secretary.

10. That an annual meeting be held on such a day as the Committee shall appoint, to receive their report, to elect officers, and to attend to such other business as may come before it.

[Since we sent the foregoing to press, Mr. Hargreaves has returned home; an interesting account of his in our next number.-ED.] journey we hope to be able to give

Report of the Coggeshall, Braintree, Kelvedon, and Halstead Auxiliary Peace Society.

Ar a Meeting of the above Society, held on the 20th of July, 1881, the following resolutions were passed:

On the motion of the Rev. James Hargreaves, seconded by Mr. Joseph Docura, sen., it was resolved unanimously,

1. That the Report now read be approved; and that it be printed and circulated under the direction of the Committee.

On the motion of the Rev. A. Wells, seconded by Mr. S. Waylen, it was resolved unanimously,

2. That this Meeting, believing war to be opposed in its spirit and operations to the christian religion, and a fatal source of misery and crime to man, views with gratitude and delight the exertions of "The Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace."

On the motion of Mr. Thomas

Bullen, seconded by Mr. W. Doubleday, jun., it was resolved unanimously,

3. That this Meeting, aware that the active co-operation of auxiliary Societies is essential to the success of the parent institution, trusts that its early efforts will be succeeded by more vigorous exertions, and that, with a steady yet determined zeal, it will persevere until war be banished from the earth, and universal happiness and tranquillity prevail.

On the motion of Mr. J. Hunt, seconded by Mr. I. Barrett, it was resolved unanimously,

4. That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee for the ensuing year, with power to add to their number:

W. Appleford, jun.,
Charles Allen,
Alexander Brockway,
Isaac Barrett,
J. N. Hunt,

Jos. Docura, sen.,
F. Hunwick,
F. Hills, jun.,
William Knight,
Titus Reynolds,

and that W. Doubleday, jun., be requested to continue the office of secretary and treasurer.

Moved and put by J. Hargreaves, and resolved unanimously,

5. That the thanks of this Meeting are due to C. Allen, for his kind and able conduct in the chair.

REPORT.

We, your Committee, in returning the trust reposed in us, are not prepared to boast of our services, which indeed have been small, as our sphere of action is narrow; but shall be happy if it be admitted that we have

done what we could. We are, however, cheered with the general prospects before us. We see the public disposed seriously to consider the subject of war. We discern in the mind of the moral and reflecting part of the community, a growing sentiment that war is unlawful. Where shall we find the man of a sincere and unprejudiced mind who will avow himself the advocate of war, as it now exists, with all its inseparable evils? And the most skilful sophistry can never persuade us that those evils are separable; they are not separable, they are fixt and inherent in the system. Can we then, as men, as brethren, as Christians, stand still and see this desolator of the earth, this demon, whose rage is pacified only with blood, devastating the fairest portions of the earth, daily consigning hundreds and thousands of our fellow-creatures to an untimely grave? And shall we extend no pitying hand, shall we altogether refuse to assist in dissipating the illusion by which they are deceived? By every principle of mercy and justice, of humanity and religion, we are imperatively called upon to interpose on behalf of those who are led astray by the deceitful glare of military glory and a false patriotism; to present to their minds the folly, the impolicy, and the wickedness of war; and to impress upon them a practical conviction that benevolence, meekness and forbearance are leading principles of our holy religion. They believe the prophecies, which we also believe, and these tell us, "That in the last days men shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war ony more;" and we know that this is not an isolated prophecy; it is not like the oasis in the desert, the only spot of fertility and beauty; but in numerous pages of the prophets we find an allusion to the glorious and

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