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ages the blindness of Christians of every rank and in every country, has been deplorable. Perhaps the records of every nation in Christendom will exhibit conduct of the ministers of the gospel, as inconsistent and as much to be lamented, as what the reviewer has imputed to the bishops of England. For many ages the Christian clergy in general have seemed to regard public war as a splendid game, which kings may play at with impunity and with honour, rather than as a crime of unparralleled atrocity, which all men should abhor. While they would have recoiled with horror at the thought of being accessory to the private murder of one human being, or of applauding the perpetrator of such a deed, have they not encouraged the wanton slaughter of millions by public war, prayed for prayed for success in military homicide, and applauded the principal agents in this work of human destruction?

"The ministers of the gospel have not been alone in such inconsistency. Christians of every rank have reason to blush for themselves on similar grounds. Thousands of them, like the English bishops, would gladly have excused themselves from acting as jurors or judges when only the life of an individual malefactor was at stake; yet they could volunteer their services to encourage the destruction of multitudes by war, and not merely encourage by giving their opinion in favour of a resort to bloodshed, but by taking an active part in the work of butchery, especially when an honourable and lucrative office was proposed for their acceptance. What eulogies too have many Christians pronounced on the Alexanders, the Cæsars, the Napoleons of the earth, who waded to military glory through lakes and rivers of human blood, shed by their own hands or by their direction! And what costly monuments have been erected by Christians in honour of the most wanton destruction of human life!

Indeed what have been the histories of Christian nations for sixteen centuries, but records of conduct as repugnant to Christianity as the enterprizes of freebooters and buccaniers! What in general have been the wars of Christian nations better than the more private wars of banditti, and of lawless individuals! Should a fair estimate be made of all the histories which have been written of the nations of Christendom, it is doubtful whether, on an average, more than one page in twenty would be found which does not relate to political intrigues, violence, and bloodshed.

If, instead of the Prince of Peace, God had sent a prince of war for the Messiah, and if, instead of the gospel of peace and love, he had revealed the most pernicious system of strife and bloodshed, making it the chief end and chief glory of men to destroy one another, what more horrible for history than we now have, might have been expected! Or what more of applause could have been given to sanguinary deeds and sanguinary men ! Yet how few at this day, even of the ministers of the Prince of Peace, are willing to make any considerable exertions to open the eyes of their fellow-men on this awful and interesting subject!

"How melancholy is the fact, that, for many ages, the ministers of the gospel of different sects have been disposed to reproach each other on account of supposed errors in doctrine, while they have been generally agreed in supporting such errors in temper and practice as have filled every quarter of the world with rapine and bloodshed, crime and woe!"

From Metropolitan Improvements; or LonSpirit of the Times, No. 14. don in the Nineteenth Century. By JAMES ELMES, M. R. I. A., Architect. [From the Dedication to the late King George IV.]

"The power of England, concentrated by peace, and directed by wise

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On the ceremony of the foreign ambassadors attending the king's drawing-room.

"I say, gratifying ceremony, when I reflect upon the different feelings that actuated our public men, during the last desolating and expensive war, when rivalry in bloodshed and horrors devastated the finest countries in Europe; and now, when our great est rivalries are in the arts of peace, in commerce, in literature, in the fine arts, in science, in all the elegancies that adorn and support human nature. In these instances all parties are the gainers; for even the unsuccessful for the paramount prize, reap a profit, whilst, in war, the very conquerors are awful losers."-P. 96.

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.

Sunday School Jubilee.

"Every period of time which marks an era in the civilization of mankind, is worthy of commemoration; its approach will not be unheeded by those who mark the signs of the times, and are ever ready to hail with joy the arising of any true star, which shall tend to spread the light of truththat light which is destined, sooner or later, to dispel those mists of error, prejudice, and ignorance, which be cloud the mind of man, and lead him so often astray in paths that conduct to sorrow and destruction. Among the many efforts which have been made by benevolent men to promote the improvement of their fellow-creatures, none have been attended with more distinguished success, or have

had for their end more unmixed benefit, than the establishment of Sunday Schools; a class of institutions which, as the reader is doubtless aware, owe their origin to the pious benevolence of that great and good man, Robert Raikes, of Gloucester.

"To enter into a history of these admirable nurseries for youth, is not our object at present; suffice it to observe, that to contemplate such magnificent effects produced through the spontaneous endeavours of one man, must be a task as delightful as instructive to every true friend of humanity.

"It is now the fiftieth year of the establishment of Sunday Schools; and it appears, by a public announcement, that their patrons and promoters have resolved to celebrate the epoch on the day of the founder's birth. It is proposed to establish on the occasion a fund of 10,000l. for the purpose of erecting sufficient school-rooms, which may be used both as Sunday and as Infant schools. When we reflect, with what noise and exultation the sanguinary victories of warriors, and even the triumphs of mere political dexterity, are usually applauded when we see the birthdays of men of blood, and of ambitious statesmen, figuring as red-letter days in our calendars--we should feel ashamed of the state of that society in which our lot is cast, were there not enough of a better sort of feeling existing, to do due honour to a day set apart for the commemoration of so great a work of love and charity as that which is identified with the name of Robert Raikes."-Abridged from a communication in the Mechanics' Magazine, August, 1831.

"The Voice of Humanity." "The efforts which have been made, of late years, to put an end to the many cruel practices by which men are accustomed to mark their dominion over the lower animals, have been but too commonly regarded as

proceeding from a refinement of feeling, which it is no reproach to a person to be a stranger to, and even no great sin to laugh at outright. The intimate connexion which subsists between mercy to the brute creation, and the happiness of men themselves, has been but little suspected by the multitude, and only well understood by a few. Liberty and justice are in all men's mouths, while not one in a thousand can be brought to lend a willing ear, when it is proposed to strike at the root of that cruelty of disposition, which makes of men, tyrants and oppressors. Familiarity with spectacles of animal suffering familiarity with the lash, the goad, the rowel, and the knife-these are the things which harden the natures of men, and prepare them to be as harsh and cruel to their fellow-men, as to the beasts beneath them. Had the brute tribes only suffered less at the hands of men, it is morally certain, men would never have suffered so much as they have done, at the hands of each other.

*

"Entertaining these impressions on the subject, it was with peculiar pleasure we lately noticed the commencement of the journal, the title of which is at the head of this notice. The Voice of Humanity is published quarterly, and is the origin of a benevolent association which has been formed for the special purpose of procuring a mitigation of the sufferings of the brute creation. The design of the publication is stated to be "to furnish a rallying point, where the humane may register those benevolent practical suggestions which are, from time to time, offered for correcting the evil; where acts of rational humanity may be recorded; where acts of atrocious cruelty may be held up to public execration, and where the grand principle of prevention of cruel

* The Voice of Humanity, published quarterly for the Association for promoting rational humanity towards the animal creation.

ty, by introducing an improved system, may be clearly developed to the legislature and the public." From the numbers of the work now before us, five in all, we are happy to be able to say, that it is fulfilling all these purposes with great spirit and ability. The chief subjects which have hitherto occupied its pages, are the bullbaits still so common in many of our manufacturing districts; that monstrous nuisance, Smithfield market, and the horrid barbarities of the slaughter-houses and knackers' yards of the metropolis. The new modes of practice suggested, are conceived, in general, in a very discreet and practical spirit; and we make no doubt we shall see, ere long, not a few of these universally adopted.

"A book is opened at the shop of the publisher of The Voice of Humanity, (Mr. Nisbet, Berners-street), for receiving subscriptions to the Association. We regret to observe, that the amount subscribed is as yet inconsiderable; and that the first year's balance-sheet of the Society shews an excess of expenditure beyond the receipts of 36l. Os. 11d. Let us hope that next audit-day will exhibit a very different result."-Editor of the Mechanic's Magazine, August, 1831.

EDITOR OF THE COURIER.

"We hail with great pleasure, every evidence of friendly mutual feeling between two countries so great, so civilized, and, let us add, so interested in each other's prosperity, as France and England."- Courier, September 1st, 1831.

Extract from the Prefatory Letter to Tales of a Grandfather: third series: Vol. I. By SIR WALTER SCOTT.

"The generation of which I am an individual, and which, having now seen the second race of their successors, must soon prepare to leave the scene, have been the first Scotsmen who appear likely to quit the stage of

life without witnessing either foreign or domestic war within their country. Our fathers beheld the civil convulsion of 1745-6; the race who preceded them saw the commotions of 1715, 1718, and the war of the Revolution, 1688-9. A third, and earlier generation, witnessed the two insurrections of Pentland Hills and Bothwell Bridge; and the fourth lived in the bloody times of the great Civil War; a fifth had in memory the civil contests of James the Sixth's minority; and a sixth race carries us back to the long period when the blessings of peace were totally unknown, and the state of constant hostility between England and Scotland, was only interrupted by insecure and ill-kept truces of a very few years' endurance.

"And even in your Grandfather's own time, though this country was fortunate enough to escape becoming the theatre of bloody conflicts; yet we had only to look abroad to witness such extensive scenes of war and slaughter, such subversion of established states, and extension of ancient dynasties, as if the European world was again about to return to the bondage of an universal empire. We have, therefore, had an unexpected, and almost unhoped-for escape from the evils of war in our own country, at the expense of beholding, from our island, the general devastation of the continent, with the frequent alarm that we ourselves were about to be involved in it.

"It is with sincere joy that I see a period arrived, in which the rising generation may for a time, at least, be less likely either to hear of, or to witness, the terrors of actual war. Even in the history of this small and barren country of Scotland, men may read enough of its miseries, to make them regret how often they have been occasioned by the explosions of party spirit.

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"A Tale of the War in Spain," entitled "The Lady of Cordova, or the Spanish Brother," opens with the occupation of Cordova by the French, after a short and ineffectual resistance. A French officer, bearing in his arms a man mortally wounded, knocks for admittance at the door of a house in the suburbs of the city. This house belonged to, and was occupied by the Lady Cassilda de Velasco, who had, within a few short weeks, been widowed, and at the same time bereaved of a darling son. son. Her boy, an artillery cadet, had fallen in the tumult of the memorable 2d of May, at Madrid; her honoured husband had been one of the victims who suffered in the Prado, on the day following. He had given utterance to his patriotic sentiments, and was removed by a military execution. She had quitted her large mansion in the heart of the city, and retired to a smaller which her husband possessed in the suburbs, for the sake of its garden. "Here she was living with her only daughter, and the aged confessor of her house. She had still one son, her eldest, indeed now the representative of her family; he was absent, and serving as an officer in the army of Cuesta. It was a helpless, defenceless household,-defenceless to human eyes; but the Lord encampeth round about them that hope, that trust in his mercy.”— Vol. I. p. 15.

Such is the subdued Christian sentiment of our author, and we congratulate him on his more matured views. We shall now describe the character of the persons who had entered this house of mourning ;-the wounded man was Henry de la Bourdonnaye, a youth of eighteen, and a protestant; the officer who supported him was Eustace de Rochfort, also a protestant, and an intimate friend, about

thirty-one years of age; and religion had so far shed its benign influence over them, as to make them exceptions to the too general character of the French soldiers; at least as it was displayed by their conduct towards the Spaniards during the Peninsula war. The youth "had not fallen in the attack of the city. It was in the faithful, fearless, and zealous discharge of a noble duty, that he met his untimely, but honourable death. He was shot by a drunken French grenadier, while in the act of rescuing a Spanish lady from his violence."Vol. I, p. 18.

The reception of the French officer and his wounded friend was attended with those mixed emotions which would be naturally produced on such an occasion; when the sanctity of the peaceful domestic hearth was no protection from the ultra violences of men under the maddening influence of the demoniacal spirit of war. We will give the author's account of their reception.

"It had already struck eleven by the clock of the Augustine convent, when the trembling inmates of a house in one of those narrow and unfrequented lanes, which, presenting little more to the eye than dead walls, apparently enclosing gardens, had hitherto escaped a visit, were alarmed by a loud knocking; the sound of horses' feet, and the clank of arms, plainly announced the quality of their visitors. They rose and crossed themselves in terror: to this first emotion succeeded a brief contention for the dangerous service of opening the door. The lamp, however, in spite of all kind efforts to prevent him, was resolutely taken by an aged and venerable looking priest, who slowly descended to the door, followed by an infirm domestic, the only male besides himself in the dwelling.

"Four females stood leaning over the rails of the balcony above the small patio or court, and listened

with intense fear, and a suspense full of anxiety, for the issue.

"As the key turned slowly in the lock, and the rusty bolt was drawn grating back, their hearts beat quick in their bosoms: a moment, and woe and death might be in their chambers; woe unutterable, and an end untimely, violent, in blood.

"What tears dropped warm from their eyes, as a fine voice, mellowed by deep mournfulness, asked, in good Spanish, for a bed!

"It was some fugitive patriot, they thought, escaped from the affray, whom they should have the happiness to succour and to save.

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