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Jehovah. The last pulpit I ascended in the South Sea islands was at Ru rutu. I had ministered to a large congregation in a spacious and wellbuilt chapel of native architecture,

over which the natives conducted me at the close of the service. The floor was boarded, and a considerable portion of the interior space fitted up with seats or forms. The pulpit was well, though rudely constructed; the stairs that led to it were guarded by rails, surmounted by a bannister of mahogany-coloured tamanu wood; the rails were of dark aito wood, and highly polished. I asked my companions where they had procured these rails? and they replied that they had made them with the handles of warriors' spears!-Vol. ii. p. 517 to 520.

Spirit of the Times, No. 13.

Prize offered by an Assembly for the Promotion of Peace at GENEVA, for the best Essay in French on the means for establishing a General and Permanent Peace.


[IN vol. vii. p. 213, of our Work, was inserted an offer, by the American Peace Society, of a premium of thirty dollars for the best Dissertation on the subject of a Congress of Nations for the prevention of War. have now the gratification of presenting our readers with an offer of a prize, by an assembly for the promotion of peace at Geneva, for the best essay, in French, on the means of establishing a general and permament peace. From the Prospectus of the Assembly at Geneva it appears that a national council or congress is the means upon which they principally depend for accomplishing this important object. In America, as we have been credibly informed, the proposal of a reference of all international disputes to a court of nations" has met with the ready and full approbation of several members



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of the Legislature, and of persons of all classes in society the farmer, the merchant, the mechanic, the professor, the tutor, the proctor and the physician. We view these events as favourable indications of the spirit of the times. We hail them as some of the fruits that have been produced by the labours of the Peace Societies.

Upon the influence of Christian principle only, which subdues the turbulent passions that no less disturb the peace of families than that of nations, can we safely depend for the establishment of permanent peace upon the earth. The friends of peace are therefore loudly called upon, by passing events, not to relax in their efforts to inculcate this "Christian principle among men, confident that, however clouds and darkness máy, for a time, envelop their labours in obscurity, they will, through the Divine blessing, at no very distant period, produce an abundant harvest. The Peace Society of Geneva, of which we have before given information, was established since the offer of the prize for an essay, as will be seen by comparing the dates, -EDITOR.]

[Translation from the French.]


Νου. 25, 1830.

The Prospectus of the Assembly for the promotion of Peace, opened at Geneva by Mr. De Sellon, member of the Sovereign Council of this canton, is intended to be presented,

1st, To Christian Ministers; for as the gospel is eminently a religion of peace, they should be its most powerful advocates.

2dly, To Writers, who, by the extent of their information, are called upon to denounce the employment of brute force.

3dly, To Journalists, called upon by their consciences to remove, as much as in them lies, the most cruel


of all scourges, by calming the passions instead of irritating them.

4thly, To Academies and other institutions, established to give to opinions a direction favourable to order and the general good.

5thly, To Colleges, where competitors may be found among young persons brought up in the belief that war is lawful only when its object is to protect any infringement of territory and the national independence.

6thly. Finally, To all who know that war is the most cruel of all scourges, and who therefore have an equal interest in preventing it, on their own account as well as on that of all those who are dear to them.

Prospectus of an Assembly opened at Geneva,

for the consideration of the best means of insuring a General and Permanent Peace. By Mr. J. J. SELLON, Member of the Sovereign Council.

The Essay, written in French, must not, when printed, form more than an octavo volume, of 250, nor less than 100 pages, independently of the synoptical and statistical tables.

The prize essay will be the property of its author, who is to print and publish it immediately after the decision shall have been made public." The prize will be a gold medal of 400 francs (value about 167.), upon which the author's name will be engraved, and a subject, illustrative of the object of the Assembly. It will be delivered by the founder, assisted in his decision by ten persons, selected from amongst the most learned men of Geneva. The essays, with appropriate mottos, must be sent to the founder of the Assembly before the 1st of May, 1831, accompanied by a sealed letter, containing the name and address of the author.

Without wishing to restrain the liberty of the competitors, the founder is desirous of recommending more

*The founder of this Assembly engages to take 100 copies of the Work.

especially to their attention the following points:

By what institutions can a State reasonably hope to insure external and internal peace?

Among the present institutions of civilized States, which are those that threaten the greatest dangers, with respect to external and internal peace?

What has been the result of the introduction of permanent armies into Europe?

What would be the result of substituting militia for these permanent armies?

What sum do its permanent armies cost Europe?

What sum would a militia organized for its defence cost?

What are the military functions which should receive annual emoluments?

What schools should be opened for the instruction of the militia?

What central institution would insure the peace of the world, by pronouncing arbitral sentences be-tween independent States, when differences should arise, which to the present period have provoked ruinous and sanguinary wars?

What modifications could be made in the great design of Henry IV., given in the 30th Book of the Mémoires de Sully, and which was intended to guarantee Europe for ever from the scourge of war?

What coincidence is there between the submission of great vassals to the exhortations of St. Lewis and of the church, and that of the present chiefs of nations to an august tribunal, composed of their deputies?

What would be the form and the corporate strength of the arbitral tribunal, charged with pronouncing a supreme and decisive sentence between independent nations?

What relations and what differences would this august tribunal present to that of the Amphictyons-the German Diet-the States General of

Holland-the American Congressthe Confederative Diet of Switzerland; which have all had, and of which some still have, the authority of pronouncing arbitral sentences between sovereign States jealous of their sovereignty?

By the analogies, and by the differences between these systems, the author will make clearly appear to the reader what is understood by an arbitral and permanent tribunal, designed to preserve the world from the scourge of war.

The author may, if he think proper, offer the plan of an agreement between all the powers, to reduce their military forces to militia, and cite the numerous treaties by which they have engaged to disarm their fleets, their fortresses, and by which they have engaged reciprocally to place their armies upon the footing of peace. The author will show the analogy which really exists between these two propositions. Having given an animated description of the evils of war, of the blood and of the tears that it has made to flow during the last century, the author will produce calculations by which it will be easy, with a single glance, to perceive the use that society can make of three millions of soldiers converted into citizens; and of the sums which their maintenance would have cost in one year.

He will notice what a temptation a permanent army offers to an ambitious people, or to an ambitious prince, of which he will give historical proof.

He will notice the useful works, such as roads, canals, bridges, the construction of penitentiaries and workhouses, which, from economical motives, are neglected, and which will be no longer neglected after the reform of a permanent army. That he may leave no objection unanswered, the author will point out the advantages that may be derived from the occupation of

Algiers, and of the good disposition of the pacha of Egypt, for the colonization of Africa; and thus to open vast resources to Europe. He will then demonstrate all the evils of war, and the benefits of peace, at an epoch when all Europe is under arms; and, to the merit of having produced a good work, he will add that of having done a good action, especially if he publish his work without having received the prize. All the authors who adopt this plan will receive a silver medal of the same model as that in gold delivered to the author who has gained the prize. The translators of the prize essay, and of the others, if they print and publish their essays, will receive bronze medal.


In a Supplement, the names of twelve members of the Sovereign Council of Geneva are enumerated as having, in 1826, adjudged the prize, for the best essay on the abolition of the punishment of death, to Mr. Charles Lucas, that the candidates for the present prize may be assured of the award being made by enlightened and impartial judges.

Author of the Recollections of the Peninsula-his Preface to the Tales of the Wars of our Times.

AN article sent for insertion in the last Number of our Work, and which appeared in page 497 of the same, induced us to procure and peruse the work whence it was extracted, entitled, "Tales of the Wars of our Times, by the author of Recollections of the Peninsula," 1829. The reader may recollect that in the fourth and fifth volumes of our work, appeared extracts from the latter work, interspersed with some judicious animadversions on the author's advocacy of the atrocities of war, and on his delusive representations of the life of a soldier in active foreign service. We are glad to discover, by the work which has last come

under our notice, and which, we believe, is the latest product of his pen, that since he wrote his "Recollections" more light has dawned on his mind, that the laurels of the warrior, which formerly dazzled his eye and blinded his judgment, are now withered in his view. Justice to the author demanded from us this notice of the change in his opinions, and we hail it as another proof of the progress of the spirit of the times. These remarks have been elicited by the author's

Preface to the "Tales of the Wars of

our Times."

"War is the curse, and peace the blessing, of a country; a realm gaineth more by one year's peace than by ten years' war." Thus thought and spoke the great Lord Burleigh. His last memorable act was an attempt to bring about a peace with Spain, in which he was opposed by the Earl of Essex, to whom the statesman pointed out these words in the Psalms, "Men of blood shall not live out half their days."

It is a very ancient and true pro verb, that "War is pleasant to none but to those who have never tried it." Protected by her insular situation, and happy in her many and blessed privileges as a nation, England dwells in security, and breaks her daily bread in peace. It is now more than a century and a half since she has seen her happy valleys defiled by the work of slaughter-since the tide of battle has rolled through her affrighted villages-since trumpets have sounded in her pale marketplaces, and loud cannon have burst a way into her trembling cities. True it is, she has borne many a struggleher treasure has been drained to support long and bloody wars. But the arena of the combatants has been always in a foreign land ;-her sailors and her soldiers have fought her battles; but they have been sent forth out of her bosom to fight them. Her

citizens have sat warm by their own firesides-her haymakers and reapers have sung and whistled at their la bours seedtime and harvest have never failed and every revolving sabbath her village "bells have knolled for church."


In how sad a manner this picture of peace and security has been reversed in those countries of Europe which have been, in mournful succession, the theatres of war, needs scarcely to be told; but yet, methinks, it is not sufficiently remembered or these tales is to portray the miseries gratefully considered. The object of of war; but I mean not to fill these pages with bulletins of battles, of which we have had almost a surfeit, but rather with such little histories of private sorrow as every theatre of war, which I make the scene of them, could doubtless furnish.

The reader will have the goodness to bear in mind that these tales are pure fictions-inventions; that all I pledge myself to preserve is the character of the wars of our times;-to show in what a difficult and unhappy relation to each other, individuals of conflicting nations are often placed→→ to show how domestic happiness is frighted away how human loves, human friendships, become broken or destroyed by their cruel operation;-to exhibit by true inference, that

"False the light on glory's plume

As fading hues of even,

That youth, and hope, and beauty's bloom,
Are blossoms gather'd for the tomb;

There's nothing bright-but heaven."

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strong robust man, and as was his body so was his mind; his courage and magnanimity were great, and he possessed uncommon zeal and fortitude. Being deeply impressed with the truths of religion, he became a powerful preacher of the Methodist doctrines, and was the first or second individual who exercised that function in the newly-risen Society, without having been regularly ordained according to the usage of the Church of England. His sentiments on the subject of War, as well as on other points, are of the more importance, as he may be considered one of the founders of Methodism. The fol lowing account is extracted from his Journal, and relates to the year 1744:

"On Friday, as I was hewing stone, it was in my mind that trouble was near at hand; but the words of Isaiah were a stay to me, I, even I, am he that comforteth you. Who art thou, that thou shouldst be afraid of man, that shall die, or of the son of man, which shall be made as grass?' At night I went to Adwalton, and expounded at John Booth's, to a well-behaved congregation. When I had done, Joseph Gibson, the constable's deputy, an alehouse keeper, who found his craft was in danger, pressed me for a soldier. I asked him," By whose order?" He said, "Several of the inhabitants of the town, who did not like so much preaching." He caused me to go to the White Hart, and Mr. Charlesworth offered 500l. bail for me till the next day. But no bail was to be taken for a Methodist, so called. Next morning I went to Bristol, to my house, and after I had changed my clothes, we set out for Halifax. When I was brought before the commissioners, they smiled one at another. Then they called Joseph Gibson, and said, "How many men have you brought?" He said, "One." "Well, and what have you against him?" "Why, gentlemen," said he, "I have

nothing to say against him, but he preaches to the people, and some of our townsmen don't like so much preaching." They broke out in laughter, and one of them swore I was fit to go for a soldier, for there I might have preaching enough. I said to him, "Sir, you ought not to swear." 'Well," said they to me,



you have no licence to preach, and you shall go for a soldier." I answered, "Sir, I have surely as much right to preach, as you have to swear." He said to the captain, "Captain, is he fit for you?" "Yes," he answered. "Then take him away." But I said, "Here are several of my honest neighbours; you ought to give me the liberty of another man, and hear what they say of me." After much conversation, I said, "Mr. C—, what do you know of me that is evil? Whom have I defrauded? Or where have I contracted a debt that I cannot pay?" He said, "You have no visible way of getting your living." I answered, "I am as able to get my living with my hands, as any man of my trade, in England is, and you know it; and have I not been at work yesterday, and all the week before?" But they bade the captain take me away; so he came, and said, "We will take you off preaching soon." I answered, first ask my Master's leave." But he said, "We will make you give over."

"You must

I replied, "It is out of your power." Afterwards, several were brought to the commissioners, and three condemned to go with me, and four or five acquitted. Then the captain read the articles to us that were condemned, and said, "You hear your doom is death, if you disobey us." I answered, "I do not fear the man that can kill me, more than I do him who can cut down a dog-standard; for I know my life is hid with Christ in God; and he will judge between you and me one day, but I beseech him not to lay this sin to your charge." Then we were

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