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Conscious of the tacit, and sometimes avowed, incredulity that is entertained of the efficacy of all that Peace Societies can do towards promoting the pacification of the world, your Committee, in their former Reports, adverted to the declarations and conduct of statesmen and governments, so far as they were connected with the object of your Society, in order to expose a prejudice as unfounded as it is mischievous, in its tendency to paralyze every attempt to banish war from the earth. They would therefore call the attention of all who take upon them the name of Christ, to the principles which are now at work, and to which is to be attributed the present unprecedented position of Europe. Ambition, and the lust of power, no longer reign uncontrolled in the councils of nations; a new political principle, called the peace principle," has recently arisen, which has been opposed to the war policy, and with what success will appear by the following sketch of the events of the past year. Upon the opening of the Chamber of Deputies, in July 23, 1831, the King of France, in his speech, intimated that it was his desire, and that of the governments of Europe, to maintain the relations of Peace. The policy and conduct of the French ministry, consistently with this speech, have been decidedly pacific. This excited the opposition of the war party in France; and, in September last, this party mustered their forces in the Chamber of Deputies, to overpower a ministry hostile to their views. The result is thus given in one of our journals: "M. Perrier has carried his point in the Chamber of Deputies, and obtained a strong proof of the stability of his power. The point at The point at issue was the pacific policy of France, and the conduct of the ministry in regard to Belgium and Poland, particularly the latter. In the course of the debate, M. Perrier set the war

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party at defiance, and proclaimed boldly and manfully the necessity of Peace, for the security of France and the well-being of Europe. The decision of the Chambers, therefore, combines the adoption of the peace principle, with the stability of the present ministry." Such is the language of a popular journal, by which it recognizes a new principle that has arisen and opposed itself to the mania of war. England has not been less guilty than France in her pursuit of the phantom of glory; but the heavy imposts produced by her wars, at this moment, press so heavily upon her, that she seems little disposed to involve herself in such ruinous contests, or to seek after such dear-bought glory. The views of our own government, we trust, will always correspond with the pacific feelings of the nation; and the good understanding which subsists between this country and France, gives additional confidence that the peace of Europe will not soon be disturbed by those restless spirits who seek to aggrandize themselves without regard to the misery of their fellow men. But the fell fiend of war has found his advocates even among ourselves, through whom he has attacked the pacific policy of our government; which attacks drew from Lord Brougham, on one occasion, the following defence of a pacific, and reprobation of a war policy: Nightly did he [the previous speaker] make war upon France. Now France was our neighbour, peace and war with the world depended on her. We should not truckle to France; but that statesman would deserve to lose his head, who would needlessly plunge into a war with France, and involve Europe and the world in hostility. Many of England's best wishers, at this moment, trembled for peace. shall not regret having troubled your lordships, if my words give comfort to the party who are friends of peace, of France, of England, and of the world. I solemnly, and in my conscience,


believe, that the breaking of the peace of Europe, will, over England, Ireland, and Scotland, be the most hated act that any government could be guilty of, and it would draw down universal, loud, and unsparing execrations on the government; and I do in my conscience believe, that those execrations could not be more loud, universal, and unsparing, than, accord. ing to the soundest view of the interests of this country, and the honour of the crown which I serve, and which I think I the more faithfully serve, the more I give utterance to these opinions, would be merited by the advisers of so insane and criminal a course. And Earl Grey, on another occasion, adverting to the principles which influenced the conduct of himself and his colleagues in their foreign policy, said—” He entertained a sanguine, he might say, a perfect hope, that the peace of Europe would be preserved. He fully agreed with those who thought that the time had passed away, when we should be induced to think that any two nations could regard each other as natural enemies. He hoped that impolitic, unwise, and unchristian maxim was giving way to that enlightened policy which would suggest to us notions that each was interested in the prosperity of the other, and that the only rivalry which ought to subsist between them, was an emulation in the arts, and an anxiety to surpass each other in the improvement of every social institution. From the hour he came into office, to the present moment, every thing that had occurred, confirmed the hope that these anticipations would be realized."

These pacific sentiments are not confined to England and France; but, as the king of France observed, extend to the other governments of Europe, as may be seen by the following extract from the king of Prussia's letter to the Comte de Sellon; in which, alluding to the establishment of the Geneva Peace Society, he says, "The undertaking of

which you inform us, should obtain the approbation and encouragement of all who feel an interest in the happiness of man. It is, doubtless, difficult to triumph over the errors and passions which are opposed to the noble design at which you aim; but it is delightful to reach after, and to labour for it, without intermission. Peace is more than ever the duty of governments, as well as the interest of the people. Both have need of it; for it is the first condition of the happiness of every state." We have here essentially the same views as those of Earl Grey and Lord Brougham, with the addition of the king of Prussia's approval of the object of Peace Societies, that, "it should obtain the approbation and encouragement of all who feel an interest in the happiness of man." Of this object, M. Perrier also in his letter to the Comte, says, "The honourable object at which it (the Geneva Peace Society) aims, gives it a claim upon the gratitude of nations." [See Appendix, No. II.]

Notwithstanding the pacific dispositions thus evinced by the great powers of Europe, it cannot be denied that circumstances have arisen of a threatening and hostile aspect, which excite fearful forebodings of an approaching storm; and which, at any former period, would probably ere this have lighted up the flames of war : the preservation of peace, under these circumstances, constitutes the present unprecedented state of Europe, a state, for the parallel of which we shall in vain search the annals of nations. is thus evident that a new era has commenced, which the Comte de Sellon, in one of his letters, has not unaptly compared to " the establishment of Christianity, and that of the Reformation ;" and, as he observes,

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we have the press to second our efforts, whereas, during the first era, it did not exist at all, and only imperfectly at the second; this press," he adds, " God grants to us in this third era of regeneration, wherein the Holy Spirit manifests itself. Now, if this

Holy Spirit is to act, it must be for the abolition of [war] the most dreadful of all scourges."

When this illustrious foreigner is thus animated at the consideration of the momentous period in which we live-when governments themselves evince an anxious solicitude to prevent the recurrence of war-and when kings and ministers of state express their approval of the object of the Peace Societies, -shall British Christians close their eyes to the light that surrounds them? Shall they, regardless of the passing events, indulge in a criminal apathy, in the midst of a contest between the peace and war principles? Every dictate of humanity and goodness forbids it. Let then every friend of the Redeemer rally round the standard of Peace, and fearlessly maintain the contrariety of War to the Gospel of Christ, that the political advocates of the Peace principle may know, that Christianity, no less than a humane and sound policy, favours their efforts; indeed, without the aid of Christian principle, operating on mankind, their benevolent endeavours must fail to give permanent peace to the world.

An exception to the general tranquillity in the sanguinary contest between the Russians and the Poles, is to be deplored: it was more a civil than a foreign warfare, and the result has taught the useful, but dear-bought lesson, that the battle-field is not to be relied on for the redress of wrongs, or as an equitable arbiter of differences.

While your Committee rejoice in the accession of new allies abroad, and the approval of their measures to promote the establishment of permanent Peace, by persons in the most distinguished stations, they have to lament the inroads that have been made by death, in their ranks at home. It has pleased the great Arbiter of life and death to remove in the vigour of his days, and in the midst of his usefulness, from faithful labour to eternal rest, the Rev. Isaac Mann, whose un

compromising and energetic advocacy of the Christian pacific principle, you have heard from the platform, and whose services, short as they were, your Committee cannot but highly appreciate. In less than a month, he was followed by Daniel Sykes, Esq., the President of the Auxiliary Peace Society lately established at Hull, whose public station, moral worth, and disinterested benevolence, will make his loss felt by every part of the community. The precarious tenure by which man holds existence in this world, has also been evinced by the sudden removal of your aged and worthy treasurer, John Scott, Esq. He was a labourer in the cause of peace, long before the establishment of a Peace Society was in contemplation, being the author of a tract entitled, “War Inconsistent with the Doctrine and Example of Jesus Christ, in a Letter to a Friend," which was published in 1796, and has since been adopted as one of the tracts of the Peace Society. Mr. Scott's whole life and conduct displayed a Christian meekness and lowliness of heart, corresponding with the cause he had so long advocated.

In the foregoing review of our prospects and of our labours, it will be seen that the Christian principle, to promote which we are associated together, is only so far making its way in the world as to animate, not supersede, the exertions of Peace Societies. If the facts we have adduced do not speak home to the conscience, and impress upon Christians the imperative duty of making a decided stand in support of the pacific principle, we despair of any eloquence of ours supplying the defect.

Your Committee cannot conclude their Report more appropriately than with the following excellent remarks: "In the strength of the Prince of Peace, let us go forward. His promises will not fail. His kingdom of universal love will be yet established throughout the earth. Let us account it a high honour and privilege to be employed

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The Ninth Report of the Ross


Auxiliary Peace Society.

THE approach of another anniversary, reminds your Committee of the task which it imposes. In reviewing the progress of the pacific principle, they are gratified in seeing that the opinions of a distinguished prelate * are in accordance with those of onet whose uniform and undeviating patriotism must insure him the gratitude of the latest posterity. "I have yet to learn," said this illustrious man, 'that it is either the duty, or the interest of a statesman who bears a sincere love of peace, and a deep rooted hatred to war, to precipitate those measures which must produce the greatest of all evils, I mean war, whilst there is a chance of averting it, by firm, prudent, and deliberate counsels." They-doubt not, but "the spirit of Christianity had exerted its proper influence over the mind of this individual in his public capacity," and they earnestly hope that it may extend throughout the different cabinets, till its blessings shall have been felt, Wherever the footstep of man is


In perusing the local reports, as well as those of the American Continent, they derive much pleasure from the belief that the good cause, which pre-eminently recognizes the glory of the Creator for its basis, and

* Watson.

the happiness of the creature for its end, is gaining ground; that the ruler, the student, the recluse, and the active citizen, are led to consider the ONE GREAT CRIME," as opposed to the will of the SUPREME, and as inimical to the best interests of mankind.


It is also, satisfactory to them to witness the numerous institutions formed and forming, under the auspices of those who are actuated by Christian benevolence-whether the specific purpose be a Temperance Society or an association for allotting portions of land to the labouring poorwhatever designation it may bear, it has the concurrence of your Committee, who rejoice in every attempt.

made to raise the humbler classes

above the level of mere sensuality; to inspire them with industrious habits, to give them a stake in the property of their country, to attach them to its soil. All these they consider as the means to effect their end, viz. the greatest good for the greatest number.'



One probable result arising from an endeavour to benefit our fellow

men, is the improvement of the persons so engaged; by daily habit they approximate to the example of Him,

who did not content himself with abstract theories of benevolence, but "went about doing good;" their acquaintance partake of the same feelings, and encouraged by example, exclaim, "Teach us of your ways, and we will walk in your paths." Thus, by communication of ideas, and by interchange of thought on plans of general good, the hands of those engaged therein are strengthened, and a reciprocal benefit is experienced; the barriers of prejudice, intolerance, and superstition, are removed, till at last, communities will perceive that the precepts of their Omniscient Saviour are not less imperative on them than on individuals, and that the persuasive

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+ Vide Earl Grey's Speech, Times, language of I say unto you, Love Aug. 10th, 1831.

your enemies," is as authoritative as

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their impenitence, appear gradually to disperse; and the superior influence of the Gospel, which breathes " peace on earth and goodwill to men," is apparent. Public opposition to this noble principle does not assail us, as heretofore, from the press: it is now seen, that defensive war is revenge, and is incompatible with the christian principle.* But instead of our dilating on this theme, we have the satisfaction to refer to the visit of one of the Secretaries of the London Peace Society on his way to the principal towns of the west of England, as extracted from the Southampton Advertiser, dated April 7, 1832.

"Permanent and Universal Peace.

"On Wednesday last, (April 4th,) the Rev. James Hargreaves, one of the Secretaries of the London Peace Society, delivered two Lectures at the Archery Rooms on Permanent and Universal Peace, to a numerous and respectable audience. His design was to show that all war is inconsistent with the spirit of the Gospel; and therefore, that it is unlawful for Christians to engage in it under any pretext whatever. We have not space to follow the eloquent lecturer through his candid and interesting discussion of this important topic; but we feel assured that the whole of his numerous auditors must have been gratified and instructed." We now therefore trust that many more of the several ranks of society in this town and its vicinity, will acknowledge their accordance with this christian principle of Peace, when waited upon by a deputation of the Peace Society, as being evidently the truth, and disinterestedly promoting the happiness of man. The quarterly publication, entitled The Herald of Peace, for the use of subscribers, &c., is now become very interesting; this is the case

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