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Independents and Methodists, Calvinists and Lutherans, all unite upon one common ground, that ground is the love of peace. It has been said, "It is a society of friends;" and it is a combination of friends to God and their country, lovers of peace and unity. Let it not be considered that it is a society formed exclusively of the people called Friends or Quakers; it is true, that Society, to their eternal honour be it spoken, had registered themselves, as a body, lovers of peace. Neither are the Friends, as had been supposed, the founders of the Society, the first institutor of which was a Churchman. The principle of the Society is contained in a few words: love peace and hate war." Any one, whose principles go to this extent, is eligible to become a member of the Peace Society, although he may not be opposed to all war. It is true that the tenets of the Committee of the Parent Society are, that all wars whatever, are unjust, unnecessary, impolitic, irreligious, and unlawful. But it is not necessary that the members of the Auxiliary Societies' Committees should go to this extent. If they dislike war and love peace, it is sufficient; even should they consider war occasionally expedient, if they go our road twenty miles, thirty miles, or fifty miles, we are prepared to take them by the hand, although they cannot go all the way. The reason why the Committee of the Parent Society are required to entertain a more strict abhorrence of war is obvious-the Parent Society issues tracts, upholding the principles of the Society; and if there were any division of sentiment amongst the Committee, the Society would come to nothing. The object of the Society is to turn the tide of public opinion. It has been in favour of war long enough already; and it is now desirable that they should endeavour to give it a turn in favour of peace. The means by which Peace Societies effect their object is by the distribution of tracts explanatory


of their views, and treating upon ferent subjects in connexion with them. Those silent messengers are distributed in all quarters of the globe, where they go to tell their peaceful errand, and court investigation of the prin ciples they spread amongst mankind. It is not going beyond the line of truth to say, that war is an evil in its origin: from whence does it spring? From the evil passions of men. It is a truth not to be disputed, that all contests whatever, from the tussle of two contending school-boys on the green, to the meeting of mighty and destructive armies on the field of battle, arise from the unsanctified feelings of our corrupted nature. Some territory is disputed, some insult is imagined, some punctilio unobserved, some injury is intended; these, it is true, are offered as pretexts, but they are only the colouring, in order to make the monster appear less hideous. Let us trace the spring from which it emanates— let us examine its origin, and we shall find it is the murky and malevolent passions of the human heart. View it in what light we may, war is undoubtedly an evil. There would be no great difficulty, he should imagine, in tracing the connexion between war and slavery, idolatry, immorality, and vice. The camp and tent, generally speaking, are nurseries of vice, not of virtue; the most servile discipline is observed. Let us for a moment review the progress of the thousands who go forward in battle array to fight as it were a public duel. What marks their progress? The fruitful vineyards are rooted up, the glorious cornfield is trampelled under foot, the fruits of honest industry are devastated, the happy cottage is desolated, the very produce of the high heavens is destroyed, the once cheerful abode now presents the darksome appearance of wretchedness. If we ask for the father, the husband, brother, son,alas! they are gone to risk life and limb in battle. Perhaps the relatives return to their home, but it is

only to display their mangled limbs and wasted frames; they can no longer toil; their victories are forgotten, and they are only destined to beg in the streets or starve. Let us look to the taxes of our country, produced by these wars-Aye! we feel this; I feel it, you feel it, and, alas! our posterity must feel it also. It is the result of war. Let us consider not only the sacrifice of life, but the sacrifice of souls. How many must have been totally destroyed! Is it too much to imagine that many of the souls of those trained to war fall into perdition? Think of these things; reflect on them; and then let us ask whether morally, physically, or politically considered, war is not the direst scourge that ever visited a fallen world? How different is peace! Peace springs from God; it is the source of happiness; the means by which the rugged paths of life are rendered smooth. Where is happiness to be found without peace? where is it to be found in the family, in the community? Can the labourer return contented from his toil, if he does not anticipate to meet a peaceful reception at his cheerful home? Has the merchant an inducement to leave the cares of the counting-house if nothing but wrangling and discontent, cross words and frowns, meet him in his home, instead of peace? It is peace that adorns life and endears it. Nay; what would Heaven itself be if it were not a place of peace? Hatred, strife, rage, revenge, and war, reign in the pit below; harmony, peace, and happiness above, in the high heavens. We seek to obtain our ends by the distribution of tracts-by the press; yes, we use that mighty and powerful engine. We send our tracts to all nations, and translate them into different languages, and we hope they will produce their effect; we court discussion; we invite it, and when persons of talent who write upon other subjects, reject our scheme as Utopian, and refrain from refuting our

arguments, we candidly confess we impute it rather to their inability than to their disinclination. We call upon every inhabitant of Bristol to come forward in aid of our Auxiliary Society. He knew of no greater obstacle to the conversion of the Jews to Christianity, than the toleration of war. The Jews believe that the Messiah has not yet come, because when he came, there was to be an end of war.

"The Lecturer then brought forward arguments from Scripture in opposition to war, and after some further observations, he concluded an eloquent discourse, which lasted upwards of two hours, amidst the profoundest attention, and of which, of course, the preceding is but an outline. He ended nearly as follows; God has said, "They that honour me, I will honour them." "I will be their crown and shield." I will not believe, said the Rev. gentleman, that God will abandon an individual, a family, or a nation. Let us therefore repose in him, love peace, and shun war, as a monster which all should execrate."

On Wednesday, the 17th of April, Mr. Hargreaves delivered a lecture at Bath, the following concise, but well drawn up, analysis of which was printed in The Bath and Cheltenham Gazette, a work to which the friends of Peace are much indebted, for its able advocacy of the Christian principles they feel it their duty to disseminate.

On Wednesday evening, the Rev. James Hargreaves (of Waltham Abbey, Essex,) delivered a lecture at the Friends' Meeting-house, Bath, on the principles, objects, and operations ct the Society established in London, for the promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace.

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Having, on various occasions, brought the subject of this Society before our readers, we feel the less hesitation to apologize, in the present instance, for not following the

talented lecturer through the details of an address which occupied about two hours in the delivery, and rivetted the attention of his auditors. We can only give the course of his argu


"After stating the nature and constitution of Peace Societies, and dilating on the moral and physical evils of war, he shewed that the object of those Societies was not Utopian-it was attainable: first, because the Almighty is both able, and has promised, to effect the abolition of war; and, secondly, because public opinion, by which the practice is perpetuated, may be changed-it had been changed on the subjects of the slave-trade, and persecutions for conscience' sake. Means for effecting this change of sentiment had been resorted to by the Peace Society, in the diffusion, at home and abroad, of tracts, calculated to disabuse the public mind on the long-cherished errors respecting the lawfulness of war. Those tracts challenged examination. The lecturer then shewed, at large, that the principles of Peace Societies and of the Bible were identical; and arrived at the conclusion, that war and Christianity were irreconcilable. The objections to the principle of the Peace Society were met with great ability. The Rev. lecturer contended that those objections were all founded in the passions of men, rather than in their judgment: hence he exhorted those who felt that war was justifiable, to search the Scriptures, prayerfully, for light on this important subject. causes which had contributed to uphold the practice of war came next under review: among these, he mentioned the false ideas of what was called martial glory, which boys imbibed from their school-books; the low tone of religion generally prevalent among the professors of Christianity; and, lastly, the backwardness of ministers to make the unlawfulness of war a prominent feature in their public addresses. The history and progress of Peace Societies


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was next adverted to. tract of the London Peace Society had been lately translated by a lady, into Dutch: and, at Geneva, the cause of the Society had found an influential advocate in the Count de Sellon, who had, by letter, submitted the claims of the Society to several of the potentates of Europe, who had replied to him in the most gracious manner. The Rev. lecturer also cited the public declarations of the Duke of Wellington, Earl Grey, and the present Lord Chancellor, in favour of a pacific policy among nations, in proof of the happy change of sentiment which had already taken place in the minds of statesmen upon war. The lecturer closed his address with a few solemn questions-Does war originate from God?-From which of His perfections does it arise ?-Has any man a right to sell his life?—Does war settle the differences between nations?—The matters in dispute must, after all, be referred to a congress or council-but why not do that at first, before the enormous expense of blood and treasure, which war involves, had been incurred?

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We leave these queries to the serious consideration of all who may still cherish the commonly received notions upon a practice which, as has been justly observed, is so abundant in misery, that it comprehends every kind of wretchedness within itself; so pestilential in its nature, that it loads men with guilt in proportion as it galls them with woe.""

On the 19th of April, Mr. Hargreaves delivered a lecture at Nailsworth: and on the 23rd, at Maidenhead. We have no account before us of that at Nailsworth. The Reading Mercury and Oxford Gazette, of April 30, gave a report of the lecture delivered at Maidenhead, which we would have presented to our readers, had not the substance of it been already anticipated in the previous lectures which we have reported. The reporter of this last meeting, and which was the last Mr. Hargreaves delivered on this journey,

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The Tendency of Christianity to Promote Universal Peace: a Sermon delivered at the Rev. J. Leifchild's Chapel, Kensington, Sept. 9, 1819, by the Rev. George Burder.

[As the character and station of the late Rev. George Burder must give weight to any sentiment he had deliberately formed, from a firm conviction of its truth, we we make no apology for republishing, in our for republishing, in our work, the following sermon of that venerable and esteemed servant of Christ. The subject of it has not, as its importance demands, arrested the attention of ministers of the Gospel: may they follow the advice of the venerable author, by fully informing themselves on the subject; if they do, with prayer to the Father of lights, we believe they will arrive at the same conviction as their late brother and fellow labourer, and know by their own experience, that "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God."-EDITOR.]

"And on earth peace." Luke ii. 14. THE subject proposed for our edification at this time is "The tendency of Christianity to promote universal peace;" and the words which have been read may furnish a suitable motto to the intended discourse. They form a part of that sublime, delightful, and comprehensive anthem, which was sung by the heavenly choir which visited Judea on the night of our Saviour's nativity. That grand event was first announced to the humble shepherds on the plains of Bethlehem. "And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were


sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord." This proclamation was followed by a celestial chorus-a multitude of the heavenly hosts praising God, and saying-Glory be to God in the highest heavens-let all the angelic legions. resound his praises in the highest strains, for through this new-born Son there shall be peace upon earth-peace with God, through his blood, with guilty men; and peace with each other,

instead of the horrible discord and destructive conflicts which have hitherto generally prevailed.

My design, on the present occasion, is to show that

The religion of Jesus Christ is calculated and designed to produce universal peace among mankind.

And here it may be proper, first, to notice the universality and perpetual continuance of war, with its horrible and lamentable evils-and then proceed to show that the religion of the Gospel is calculated and intended to counteract those evils, and to produce universal peace and harmony among the children of men.

Whoever is at all acquainted with history, must be aware that almost all nations have, in all ages, been engaged in bloody contests with each other. Of late years, nations before unknown have been discovered; and almost all of them have been found to practise war. However rude and barbarous, they have equalled politer nations in the business of destruction;

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and the greatest ingenuity they have discovered has been in the structure of their weapons, on which they have bestowed most abundant labour; they have also taken pains to render them ornamental-they have invented military baubles to deck their persons, military music to animate their armies, and have assigned the highest honours to their victorious chiefs.

In civilized and Christian countries, the art of war has been reduced to a system, and is generally deemed a great and noble science. Bearing arms is reckoned one of the most honourable professions, worthy of the greatest families; and many of our nobles derived their titles, honours, and estates, from their military exploits, or those of their ancestors.

In short, the history of the world is chiefly a history of war-a history of resentment, rage, ambition, cruelty, insult, and triumph over fallen foes. The finest poems ever composed, celebrate, chiefly, the prowess of warlike and successful captains, and their rising to popularity, wealth, and empire, by means of their military enterprises; and the grandest ornaments of sculpture, even in our Christian churches, are the monuments of distinguished warriors. In the meantime, all nations have contrived to keep out of sight the real horrors and evils of war, and to amuse unthinking men with the false glare of military pomp, and pride, and worldly glory.

But it becomes us, who are disciples of the "Prince of Peace," to take our estimate of peace and war from Him, and not from the world. 'My kingdom," said he to a great military officer, is not of this world-if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight," &c.-intimating plainly that war made no part of his system. And not only was his kingdom to be established by pacific means, but it was intended to " destroy the works and kingdom of the devil;' and among his works, war is undoubtedly one of the chief, contributing

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more than [any] one evil to answer his malignant purpose, as " Apollyon"— "the Destroyer," and combining in one almost all his evil works.

We must look for the origin of war in the sinful passions of men. Whence come wars and fightings?" asks the holy Apostle James-" come they not hence, even of your lusts, that war in your members?" Certainly, from our pride, covetousness, wrath, malice, and envy.

How soon did the father of men behold, in his eldest son, the dreadful effects of that sin which entered into the world by his own wilful transgression! Ferocious Cain is the murderer of pious Abel: and why slew he him? A strange reason is assigned-“ because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous." This was indeed a private, personal quarrel; it was murder: and public war is, we fear, for the most part, only legalized murder-murder sanctioned by the customs and laws of corrupted society. As its origin is evil, so are its


It is no small evil that men are tempted by the love of gold, or the finery of military dress, or the power of military music, or the hope of military glory, to forsake the peaceful village, the innocent employments of the field, or the useful labours of the manufactory, the house of a father, or the society of a wife, to go—they know not where, and to fight, they know not for what. Wives are deserted, and left to the care of a parish; children are forsaken, and deprived of a parent's arm to protect, and a parent's eye to guide the miserable prey, probably, of want, of beggary, and of vice.

It is no small evil that the idle, the dishonest, and the lewd, can find a ready refuge in the army and the navy, and so escape the disgrace and the punishment which the parish and the magistrate would otherwise inflict; such a sure retreat, is doubtless an encouragement to crime.

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