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sacrificed for political quarrels. And I conceive, that when Christian principles are generally received, and the peaceful, loving spirit of the Gospel imbibed, that men will not be found willing to sacrifice their lives for such purposes.

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It is certain that the primitive Christians refused to fight in the Roman armies-I mean in the first and second centuries. This has been abundantly shown by Mr. Clarkson, (the noble champion for the abolition of the slave trade,) in No. 3. of the Tracts published by the Peace Society. That tract is an Essay on the Doctrines and Practice of the Early Christians, as they relate to War." Justin, the martyr, as there quoted, says, the devil is the author of all war. Tatian, Clemens, Tertullian, Cyprian, Lactantius, and many others, all agreed that it was unlawful for Christians to go to war. Celsus, the great enemy of Christianity, who lived at the close of the second century, brings it as a charge against Christians, that they refused, in his time, to bear arms for the Emperor, even in cases of necessity, and complains, that

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if others were of their opinion, the empire would be over-run by barbarians."

This objection-the danger of refusing to fight-better became Celsus than it does a Christian. What! do we forget or exclude the providence of God, the great Governor of the world and of human hearts? Thrice in every year were all the males in Israel commanded to appear before the Lord in Jerusalem; but they might have objected, and said—the Philistines and the Syrians will invade our country. No; God promised, in Exod. xxxiv. 24. "Neither shall any man desire thy land, when thou shalt go up to appear before the Lord thy God, thrice in the year." And we have reason to believe that prayer and confidence in God, would be found "the cheapest defence of nations." The God who defeated, by his winds,

the Spanish Armada, when it menaced our coasts, would appear for Britain, if assaulted, and prove a surer defence than even her boasted "" wooden walls." It seems also probable, that, if the representatives of nations would meet for peaceful conference, prudent negociations and concessions might prevent war in future.

From what has been advanced, I presume it will be admitted by all, that true Christianity has a powerful tendency to promote universal peace. But let us not be satisfied with a cold assent to an undeniable proposition, but consider what we may and ought to do, in order that this blessing may be obtained.

1. We should inform ourselves fully on the subject. There are, besides several well written books, five or six excellent tracts already published, by the Peace Society, on this subject.* I wish they could obtain a wider circulation, and that ministers of the Gospel would promote their circulation in their respective congre. gations. I think them irresistibly convincing, and that the reading them would certainly produce a good effect.

2. It is desirable that ministers would occasionally preach on this subjectsay once a year. Many persons have never thought seriously on the subject, and need information, Too often the pulpit has been prostituted to a contrary purpose-it has been made “ the drum ecclesiastic;" and ministers have appeared rather as the priests of Moloch, than the ambassadors of peace.

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3. Parents should inspire the rising generation with an abhorrence of war. The contrary has often been the case; and the very toys of children have been imitations of the murderous weapons of war. But parents should rather teach their children that war is

There are now eleven Tracts of the regular series, besides some smaller Tracts. EDITOR.

inconsistent with the doctrine and example of Jesus Christ.

4. Above all, let us use our utmost efforts to diffuse, at home and abroad, the saving knowledge of Christ. In proportion as this is received, wars will cease. Public opinion on this subject will be altered, and public opinion will have its due weight with government. It had in the abolition of the Slave-trade; and it will have it in the abolition of the War-trade. When the love of Christ constrains the heart, the love of man will also predominate, and Christians will not endure the thought of plunging a sword or a bayonet into the heart of a brother man, though he be a Frenchman, a German, a Russian, or an American. Then we shall not gaze with delight on the marble monuments of departed heroes, now the chief ornaments of cathedral churches, but sigh, and drop a tear, when we reflect how sad was the occasion of their premature deaths.

In barbarous countries war is almost universal. The ferocious passions of men meet with little restraint. Private assassinations-cruel conflictsbarbarous treatment of prisoners, and even drinking their blood and eating their flesh is practised.* Already, by

* The Paumotu Islands (comprehending Anaa, or Prince of Wales's Island, Awura, the Pallisers, and numerous other small islands, all of them reported to be very populous,) are situated from about 20 to 40 or 50 leagues to the eastward of Otaheite. Until lately, the inhabitants of these islands

were considered as the most barbarous and hostile people known in the South Seas. Their wars were frequent and cruel in the extreme, and their treatment of captives approaching to cannibalism. They were frequently driven to Otaheite for refuge. Two parties arrived there some years since the conquering party following the conquered, if possible to exterminate them. Pomare separated them, and gave them land to reside on, but with difficulty restrained them from re-commencing hostilities. In person, appearance, and manners. they are far inferior to the Otaheiteans.

"An awful proof of the barbarous character of this people," says Mr. Eyre, "hapVOL. VIII. NEW SERIES.

the blessing of God on the labours of missionaries, these horrid practices, in Otaheite and other islands, are abolished; and it was chiefly the display of a Christian temper, in the king of Otaheite, in not pursuing the enemy, or destroying the prisoners, as had been the custom, that induced the people, on the very evening after the battle was fought, to declare for Christianity; for they thus reasoned, that that religion must be good, which made men good to one another.

In South Africa a similar effect was produced. Africaner, a Namaqua chief, who had been a notorious plunderer, the terror of an extensive district, was converted to Christianity : the tiger was transformed into a lamb; and he is become the preserver of peace, and the bond of union among the hostile tribes in the country. He has lately visited the Cape; and the man for whose destruction a large reward was once offered, has received from the colonial government a handsome present. And there is reason to believe, that had missionaries been sent a few years ago, into Caffraria, the present unhappy war waged by them with our Colonists might have been prevented.

Finally, let all our endeavours to promote peace on earth be accompanied by our fervent prayers to the Prince of Peace. He possesses all power in heaven and on earth; he calms the raging waves of the sea, and stills the more violent tumult of the people. "To him be glory, in all the churches, world without end. Amen."

pened whilst I was at Otaheite. The inhabitants of one of these islands were wholly exterminated by war, after which the barbarians proceeded to destroy all the fruits. That such a race of men (adds Mr. E.) should be brought to embrace the Gospel, and feel its power, is a striking accomplishment of the prophecy, that the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard lie down with the kid.'"

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On the Suppression of a Rebellion in Ireland in 1449, with a Review of previous and subsequent Events. [To the Editor of the Herald of Peace.] SIB, In the course of my reading I have lately fallen in with an account of the suppression of an insurrection in Ireland, in the year 1449, in the reign of Henry VI., which appeared suitable for insertion in your valuable Miscellany. It may be necessary to notice some transactions which occurred previous to the Rebellion, in order to explain the motives that influenced the parties concerned in that event. When Henry V. died, his son was only nine months old, which occasioned a long minority and the inconveniences consequent upon a government under a minor; and, unfortunately, when Henry approached to an age to take the reins, of government into his own hands, he manifested an imbecility which unfitted him for the duties of government: he therefore only enjoyed the shadow of royalty. His ministers, indeed, made use of his name, but retained all the power in their hands. During the first years of the king's minority, his uncle John, Duke of Bedford, was regent, a man of considerable talent and judgment; his death was a great loss to the nation. The Duke of Bedford, while living, had, by his authority and prudence, mitigated the inconveniences produced by the disagreements between his brother Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and their uncle Henry, Cardinal of Winchester. After his death, the dissensions between the Duke of Gloucester and the Cardinal of Worcester produced two parties in the state; and, unfortunately for the welfare of the kingdom, the Cardinal, who more consulted his own interests and ambition, than the good of the state, obtained the ascendency, and by his influence over the mind of the young King, alienated him from his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, who really consulted the good of the nation.

The Cardinal introduced to the court, the Earl, afterwards Marquis, and lastly Duke of Suffolk, a person devoted to his interests, and who soon obtained an unbounded influence over the King; which was not diminished by his negociating for him a marriage with Margaret of Anjou. This marriage, the Duke of Gloucester strongly opposed, as a dishonourable violation of a previous engagement with the Earl of Armagnac's daughter; but as every thing had been previously settled, without consulting him, his advice was disregarded, and the marriage consummated.

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Queen Margaret, not well pleased with a nobleman who had opposed her elevation to the crown of England, took into her confidence the Marquis of Suffolk, and the Cardinal of Winchester, who had promoted her marriage, and were the enemies of the Duke of Gloucester. They thus not only retained, but strengthened their power and influence over the King, which was their object in marrying him with Margaret of Anjou. But though the Duke of Gloucester had thus irrecoverably lost his influence at the court, he was the heir apparent to the crown, and as much beloved by the nation as the ministers were hated, so that he was called the good Duke of Gloucester." His enemies, therefore, seeing in him a formidable obstacle to their schemes of aggrandizement and arbitrary power, determined upon his ruin. Consequently, on the first day of opening the session of parliament, at St. Edmund's Bury, in 1447, the Duke was apprehended, and put into close confinement, without being allowed to keep any of his domestics. He was accused of conspiring to kill the King, in order to seize the crown; but he was allowed neither time nor opportunity to make his defence, being found dead in his bed next morning; and although his body was exposed for some days to public view, with no marks of violence upon it, it did not remove the suspicion

of foul play from the Queen and the favourites, against whom the people were more than ever exasperated. And as this tragedy, by removing the heir apparent, opened the way for the claims of the Duke of York, descended from Lionel, the third son of Edward III., and elder brother of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, from whom Henry was descended, the Queen and her party viewed the Duke of York with distrust and suspicion; and, to lessen him in the eyes of the people, they gave him several mortifications. Things were in this state when, in 1449, the rebellion broke out in Ireland. This gave some cause of uneasiness to the Queen and the Duke of Suffolk; but they endeavoured to reap some advantage by this circumstance, as it furnished them with an excuse for removing the Duke of York. This prince was sent to Ireland, under pretence that he was the fittest person to suppress the rebellion; but he had but few troops allowed him for the expedition, that he might either perish in the attempt, or forfeit his reputation. The Duke perceived their design; and, by his prudence, wisely turned against themselves the artifice by which they attempted his ruin. As the force assigned him was quite inadequate for its object, he substituted mildness, and the arts of persuasion, for coercion; and was so successful in this new mode of putting down a rebellion, that he not only brought the Irish back to their duty, but so effectually won upon them by his mild and gentle behaviour, that he made them his friends, and from that time they were devoted to the service of himself and family, in the midst of their greatest misfortunes. Such is the brief account which history gives of this rebellion, and of its suppression. It is to be regretted that the cause of the rebellion in Ireland does not appear; for had it not originated in some real grievances or misgovernment, it would scarcely have been put down with so much facility, with

out bloodshed. We are, of course, in similar ignorance of the particulars with respect to the means adopted to allay their discontent. That the Duke of York was compelled by policy, through the smallness of his force, to adopt mild and conciliating measures does not weaken the moral, yea political lesson, that is to be derived from this bloodless victory, over a people risen up in rebellion.

This remarkable historical record, respecting the state of Ireland in 1449, calls our attention to the present situation of that unfortunate kingdom. If we are rightly informed, the majority of the people of Ireland suffer, at the present time, the greatest distress; and if it were to goad them to attempt, by unlawful means, to obtain a redress of their grievances, it should not excite surprise. Every body must admit that such a state of things calls for a remedy; the remedy is not to attempt to quiet the discontents of a famishing people by military force, or by supporting one faction against another, but by inquiring into the causes of distress, and endeavouring to remove them; and by an impartial administration of justice to all classes of the community, without any distinction of party. Such are the bloodless means, by which Ireland may be converted from the most distressed to the most prosperous and happy country in the world. A victory thus gained, by removing as much as possible the causes of discontent, is much more permanent than the most decided victory in the battle-field, which would leave the minds of the vanquished rankling under the wrongs they considered they had endured, and waiting only for an opportunity to revenge themselves.

To return to the murder of the good Duke of Gloucester; a Divine retribution followed those who were implicated in it. The Cardinal of Worcester survived the tragedy only one month. In 1450, the short space of three years, the Duke of Suffolk was sent by King Henry out of the

kingdom, that he might escape the punishment due to his crimes; but he was pursued and overtaken by his enemies, when he was summarily executed without trial, and his remains ignominiously thrown upon the Dover sands. From the death of Gloucester, the presumptive heir to the crown, and beloved by the people, sprung the germs-of the bloody wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, which terminated in the assassination of Henry VI., and of his son the Prince of Wales; and the annihilation of all the house of Lancaster, except a single branch in the Earl of Richmond. The Queen survived this ruin of her family; but how embittered must have been her reflections on the state of desolation to which she was reduced by the murder of her husband and her only child; when she reflected that this ruin and desolation were the fruits of her ambitious attempt to rule England with absolute power, through the pernicious advice of bad counsellors!

These events shew, that however for a time the exalted rank of criminals may seem to secure them from the punishment due to their crimes, the just retribution of heaven finally awaits them. If historians, when recording historical events, were to keep their eye on the strong indications which events often give of the overruling providence of God in the affairs of men, and give it a place in their record, they would stamp a value upon their works beyond that of the mere historian, they would make them the medium for conveying to their readers the most important moral lessons, and useful auxiliaries to the volume of Divine Revelation.

Z.

The Woodman's Memorial, and The

Fatal Effects of Temper.

[To the Editor of the Herald of Peace.] SIR,It has not been unappropriately observed, that there must be two

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parties to a quarrel. If there were no retaliation, there would be no private fighting or duelling,-no public fighting or wars. He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty, and he that ruleth his own spirit, than he that taketh a city," is a truth too little appreciated by "the man of spirit,”

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the lad of mettle." True moral courage consists in forbearance, in patiently enduring wrong, rather than in retaliating by returning injury for injury. The difference between a patient bearing of wrong which results from a moral courage, and that forbearance which is the result of fear or cowardice, is, that the latter encourages a repetition of injury, the former commands respect; and is, under Divine Providence, not only a protection from renewed insult, but sometimes melts down the angry feelings of the aggressor, and converts him from an enemy into a friend. The following anecdotes of the fatal effects of retaliation practically enforce these principles of patience and forbearance.

N.

The Woodman's Memorial. [From the "Plain Englishman," published in 1821-2-3.]

I was once rambling in the most unfrequented parts of Windsor Forest, on a fine evening, during the season between the hay and the corn harvest. Every thing about me was verdant and beautiful. I had passed along a little green, skirted with cottages, on my way to an unvisited part of the forest; and I had remarked the healthful and innocent looks of the children, who were playing on the road-side, and had beheld, with an equal satisfaction, many an industrious labourer either reposing at his cottage-door, or cheerfully prolonging his exertions, to train the beans, or weed the potatoes, of his little garden. At the porch of one or two cottages, "the swink'd * hedger at his supper sate," as Milton has naturally expressed this characteristic

* Tired.

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