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Spirit is meekness, gentleness, peace." Let the same mind be in you which was also in Christ." If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." These principles were also compatible with the practice of religion; for what was the practice of religion but the returning good for evil? "If thy enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink." It was thus seen that the principles, on the behalf of which he appeared the humble advocate, were compatible with the doctrines, the experience, and the practice of Christianity. Religion and war were totally irreconcilable, and thus it was that the primitive Christians would not fight: they were subjected to every species of insult, because they would do no violence to their faith. If Christians may fight, why not Christ?-Had he set the example? When he was betrayed into the hands of his enemies, one of his followers with a sword smote the servant of the high-priest, and cut off his ear. Did our Lord encourage the use of this weapon? "Jesus answered, Suffer ye thus far. Put up again thy sword into his place; for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. And he touched his ear and healed him."
The lecturer then referred to the conduct of Capt. Thrush, who having entertained some scruples respecting the lawfulness of war, determined to give the subject, if he should live, three years' consideration. He did so, and in the end resigned his commission, accounting for his conduct in a letter to George IV. There were a great many objections against the principles of the Society, and it would be comparatively easy to refer them for an answer to the New Testament. A few, however, from their frequent recurrence, he would notice. One was that war was divinely sanctioned under the Old Testament dispensation. But it should be remembered that there were a variety of things permitted under the old dispensation, which were
prohibited by the new. That dispensation was a divine theocracy-God himself was king. His enemies had filled up the measure of their iniquities, and he himself marshalled his army to the conflict. The ark, the symbol of his presence, invariably accompanied the Jewish army, and while it struck terror to the hearts of his enemies, it inspired his host with confidence in the certainty of future success. But as there had transpired a change in the priesthood, there had necessarily transpired a change in the law; and accordingly the New Testament withheld its sanction from war, as inimical to the progress, and opposed to the principles of the dispensation introduced by the advent of Christ. The lecturer then proceeded at great length to expatiate on what is usually termed the law of self-defence, contending that it was in general very much misunderstood. Persons ought to consi der whether expostulation was not a safer or more effectual weapon than the sword or pistol. It was said, that "a soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up anger." In confirmation of this maxim, he instanced the cases of Mr. Cecil, and of Archbishop Sharp, with which our readers no doubt are familiar. The Tuscans determined to offer no opposition to the army of Camillus, who penetrated to their capital, when the invader was forced to acknowledge that the Tuscans alone had acquired the true art of war, and immediately left their territory. Under all circumstances it would be much better to place confidence in the Divine arm. Those that honoured God he would honour; he would not suffer the righteous to be moved. He (the lec turer) should rejoice to see England the first to set an example to the rest of the nations of a determination to maintain peace with the whole world; but he thought America would lead the way. He then proceeded to no tice the obstacles which were in the way of this desirable attainment.
Among others, custom was a very powerful one; then the false glory which was attached to the military profession; and lastly the injudicious use which was made of the classics in our public schools.
Our limits do not allow us to give the reflections of the lecturer in detail: less, however, we could not have said in justice to the subject. After the lecture was concluded, the following gentlemen enrolled their names as a
provisional committee, preparatory to the organization of an Auxiliary Peace Society in this town:-Messrs. Charles Steggall, Robert Hurnard, William C. Hurnard, Thomas Bolton, James Hurnard, Joseph Herrick, Henry March, David Morris, George Francies, J. C. Eisdell, Joseph Monds, Richard Patmore, William Cross, William Rouse, Thomas Rouse, Robert Hayward, Francis Bridge, John Rudkin, James Coppin, and Henry Lewis.
THE ALLOTMENT SYSTEM.-At a late Meeting of the Warwickshire Agricultural Association, it was agreed that a premium, to be fixed by the Committee, should be offered to the occupier of land who should employ the greatest number of labourers, according to the quantity of land, not being less than fifty acres, between Michaelmas and Ladyday such labourers not receiving parochial relief during the term of such employment.
At the same meeting, Sir Eardley Wilmot, after having stated that the Society had at first been established principally with the view of improving the condition of the agricultural labourer; and, after having dwelt on the advantage of granting allotments of garden-ground to them, requested the Society would do him the honour to accept the following pre
1. To the gentleman who shall let the greatest number of cottages with allotments of garden-ground, a gold medal.
2. For the second greatest number of ditto ditto, a silver medal.
3. To the gentleman who shall let the greatest number of garden-allotments to cottages, which shall be occupied either by the owner, or held under others, a gold medal.
4. For the second greatest number of ditto ditto, a silver medal.
5. To the parish which shall let the greatest number of garden-allotments to the labouring poor of such parish, ten guineas.
6. For the second greatest number of ditto ditto, five guineas.
He begged to offer these individually,
VOL. VIII. NEW SERIES.
(without any expense to the Society,) to be adjusted by the Committee; and it would be a great gratification to him if the Society should do him the honour of accepting them.
Such things as these will merit insertion in our Agricultural Herald. We should be glad to see the munificent example of Sir Eardley Wilmot followed here.Agricultural and Commercial Herald in The East Anglian; or Norfolk, &c. Herald for July 24, 1832.
THE FACTORY SYSTEM.-We have been favoured with a sight of the following letter, addressed to the Leeds General Committee, by a clergyman residing in the West Riding of Yorkshire, describing the effects, witnessed by the writer, of the present factory system. The statement, it will be seen, is confined to one village:
I herewith transmit you a few fatal cases, which I had the pain of mind to witness, as the consequence of the present factory system; and also to name a few others, who are most shocking objects, and labouring under the most dreadful deformity, and must continue to do so to the day of their death. I can only, in a single sheet of paper, very briefly allude to these cases.
1. Hannah Binns lived in this township, (Great Horton,) and was a fine healthy girl till she began to work in the factory. She was sixteen years of age when she went to work in the mill. She left home at half-past five in the morning, and had to walk nearly two miles; she
continued to labour in the factory until seven in the evening. She first began to complain of great lassitude and general debility, looked pale and emaciated. She continued to go to her work till she sunk under it; and has frequently, on her arrival at home in the evening, fallen on the floor, or thrown herself upon a bed, in a state of total exhaustion, and remained so for half an hour, or more. She fell into a decline; and died in the nineteenth year of her age.
2. Adah Binns, sister to the above, worked in the same mill. She was sent at eleven years of age; was perfectly healthy, and continued to work a year or two without much interruption to her general health. She then became affected in a similar way to her sister, and began to complain of exhaustion and general debility. She lingered a considerable time, and died in the eighteenth year of her age. I had an opportunity of regularly seeing these poor girls to the day of their death.
3. John Smith was a healthy boy, and was sent to the factory at nine years of age. He began to complain first of pain in the feet and ankle joints. He was several times taken from his work; and immediately, on having rest and proper attention, recovered. His parents were poor people, and the boy was extremely anxious to continue his work, in order to render them some assistance. He consequently persevered, till a violent inflammation of the ankle-joint confined him to his bed; his health gradually declined, the ankle-joint became carious, several large exfoliations of bone supervened above the joint, and the poor boy continued to suffer the most extreme pain, and died in the seventeenth year of his age, and, in my opinion, a victim to the factory system.
4. David Hartley is a shocking spectacle, being crippled in both knees, and crooked in both legs. He was sent to the factory at seven years of age, and very soon began to complain of pain in the ankles and knee-joints; and being unable to support himself in an erect position, he used to lean against the frame, with one knee in a bent position, alternately changing them, until he became most shockingly deformed, and irreparably crippled. This poor boy is an illegitimate child, entirely deserted by both father and mother, and is still compelled to work in the factory, or starve; but he is unable to stand upon
his feet, and is obliged to kneel at his work from morning to night.
5. Jervis Hartley was sent to the factory at six years of age. He worked fourteen and a half hours daily. He was a remarkably stout healthy boy. He became so dreadfully deformed at sixteen years of age, that he was taken from the factory, and sent to the Leeds Infirmary, where his general health was restored, but he remains to this day a pitiable object; he is in the twenty-fourth year of his age.
6. George, Benjamin, and Mary Storey, brothers and sister, were all sent to the mill at a very early period, and worked fifteen hours a-day: every one of them is crippled. Mary has a protrusion in the back, Benjamin is lame in one knee, and George is dreadfully crippled in both legs and knees.
7. Benjamin Clough was sent to the factory at eight years of age, is crippled in both legs and knees, and presents a shocking spectacle.
8. Samuel Storey was sent to the mill at eight years of age, and worked fourteen hours a-day. The knee-joint is enlarged, and he is now suffering in a similar way to the above.
These are some out of many cases in this village which I have seen. The moral evils are no less dreadful, and are more deeply to be deplored than the physical ones; but I have no room for enlargement in detail. Excuse this brief sketch. -The Patriot, July 18, 1832.
RATIONAL HUMANITY. The public are either very indifferent to the labours of the Association for the Promotion of Rational Humanity to the Brute Creation, or Englishmen are really guilty of that love of cruelty which Hazlitt used to say was inherent in their character. The last quarterly publication of the society is now before us; and, although its contents are highly honourable to the hearts of the writers, and the exertions it records are constant and well directed, it does not appear that the list of subscriptions are equivalent to the great merits of the main design. How is this? Are people afraid of being ridiculed for zeal on behalf of cows and horses? Do they really think that their interposition on behalf of dumb animals would be either puerile or unbecoming? We hope that we have all outlived that sort of weakness; and that,
however we shrink from declaring our convictions in public, we do not the less feel the necessity of checking the progress of brutality in our own species in private. But, independently of the demands of humanity, there are other reasons why we should interfere-reasons, too, that have a chance of being attended to, because they address themselves to our selfishness. The existence of slaughterhouses, and of such a public nuisance as Smithfield-market, is obviously injurious to the health, as well as the mere convenience, of the inhabitants of London. Abattoirs, such as the Parisians have constructed, are recommended, in which cattle would be killed with less cruelty, and in such situations as to offer the least offence to the immediate neighbourhood. By this means, all the immorality, and all the physical evils, now daily taking effect under our eyes, would be completely removed, and we should be spared not only the pain of witnessing excessive cruelties, but the danger of contagion in manifold forms. If people do not heed this address to their comforts, then let them go eating white veal that has cost unspeakable agonies, and risking cholera and putrid fever for the sake of delicate meat.
DUEL.-At five o'clock on Wednesday evening se'nnight, Messrs. O'Brien and O'Mahony, both of Michelstown, and both of anti-tithe notoriety, met in Castle Hyde demesne to settle a dispute which originated in a motion respecting the mob assemblies denominated Anti-tithe Meetings. They were just placed on the ground by the seconds, when Mr. Corban, a neighbouring magistrate, appeared in sight, and the hostile parties had only time to fire one round, which nearly proved fatal to Mr. O'Mahony, he having received the ball in his back parts, somewhere below the hip, where it lodged; but Dr. Downing extracted it on the spot. -Cork Constitution.
HEROISM IN SAVING LIFE.-Wednesday morning, between six and seven o'clock, Mr. Taylor, a gentleman residing in Northcote - place, Pentonville, was walking near to the Regent's Canal, by the tunnel at Islington, when he heard the cries of a person calling for help. On running to the water-side, he found a boy between ten and eleven years of age, who
was undressed, and had been bathing, crying and wringing his hands in the greatest distress of mind, saying that his brother was drowned. Mr. Taylor, who is a most expert swimmer, immediately threw off his clothes, and the spot being pointed out where the youth had sunk, he plunged in after him, and, after diving to the bottom several times, he succeeded in bringing up the body and carrying it ashore. The boy was apparently dead, and had been under water for at least twelve or fourteen minutes. Mr. Taylor only waited to put on the lower portion of his apparel, and directly ran with the boy in his arms to the nearest house, the residence of George Parkwell, Esq. who with the most praiseworthy humanity, promptly afforded every assistance in his power. Mr. Daly, a surgeon in the neighbourhood, was quickly in attendance, and by their joint exertions, for upwards of three hours and a half, the child showed symptoms of returning animation, and eventually he was restored to his father, Mr. John Mason, a respectable tradesman in Nottingham-street, Paneras - road. Mr. Taylor was principally instrumental in saving a young woman, who threw herself into the Lea river last summer, and in the early part of his life rescued two other persons from drowning.—Christian Advocate, July 30,
INDIAN WAR.-We have read with the greatest disgust the accounts, in the American papers, of a "glorious victory," by a General Dodge, who, with twentynine mounted men, succeeded in overtaking eleven Indians, and, after a short conflict, killed and scalped them all; and of a "bloody battle" achieved by a certain Captain Stephenson, who, with some dozen of men, pursued about an equal number of Indians, and either scalped them or cut their throats. We thought that such horrid barbarities were only practised by the red men of the woods, and that when they were called in as auxiliaries, every attempt was made by those in command, to restrain them in their excesses, and to mitigate the horrors of savage warfare; but here the persons guilty of these shameful barbarities are not Indians, and we find vapouring generals of militia, and demi-savage captains of irregular corps, talk composedly in their official reports, of deeds at which
humanity shudders, and which seems as if intended to prove how far they can surpass their barbarian foes in cruelty and ferocity.-Montreal Gazette, July 17.
[The Baptist Missionary Society have recently published some "Facts and
Documents connected with the late Insurrection in Jamaica," from which we give the following extracts, unaccompanied with remarks, for the reason stated in our Notice to Correspondents.]
The following extracts exhibit the conduct and sentiments of the colonists towards the British government and the sectarians :
"Our primary ardour has been unabated. We have never allowed these deluded wretches time to rest. Night and day have we been at them, and have made terrible slaughter among them; and now, at the end of a six weeks' campaign, we are neglected-not thought of, because the Governor must have a little fun with Tom Hill and his yacht. The few wretches who are now out, are hiding in the cane-pieces, and we occasionally get a bullet or two at them. Sunday morning, five were shot, who were fallen in with and attempted to escape. I shall not consider that we are safe, although all this havoc has been made among the rebels; although they may have now found the inutility of opposing the strong force which can be opposed to them, until we can fall upon some plan of getting rid of the infernal race of Baptists, which we have so long fostered in our bosoms, and of demolishing their bloody pandemoniums."
"I cannot allow the post to start, without saying that I have remained long enough at Falmouth to see the Baptist and Methodist chapels pulled down. This good work was accomplished this day, by the troops after their return-conquerors from the seat of war. Lots of groans, as you may imagine, from the saints and their followers. It is impossible for me to give you a description of the appearance of our brave militia men on their arrival in this town. The poor fellows cut a miserable appearance; you could not actually tell whether they were black, white, yellow, or any other colour."
"Let Bruce know that the great and
glorious work has commenced. It is now ten o'clock, and all hands at work, demo. lishing the Baptist and Wesleyan chapels. The Methodist chapel is down, and the men are hard at work at the Baptists.' The roof of the latter is not yet off, but so much injured, as to make it as well off as on. It is standing, true, but supported by a few posts only. The men have gone for fire-hooks to complete the work they have undertaken. There is the devil to pay here to-day (as you may suppose) among the saints and their followers; weeping and wailing, and gnashing of teeth-wringing of hands, and groans, interrupted at times, with curses and imprecations on the soldiers."
"I write in the hopes of this reaching you through the way-bag, as the postoffice has long since been shut. Some truehearted Jamaicans have truly ennobled themselves this night, by razing to the earth that pestilential hole, Knibbs's preaching shop. Verily, friend, they have not spared Box's also. He no more will be able to beat the roll-call to prayers, nor the tatoo upon the consciences of the subscribers at macsour poor deluded slaves. In plain English, not one stone has been left standing-nay, not even the corner one; and I hope that this goodly example will be followed from Negril to Morant."
"I trust there will be no occasion for apology in a stranger addressing you, as no doubt you will feel the same pleasure in perusing this as I did in witnessing the act which forms the subject of my communication.
"There is no longer a hive for the drones; the bees have beat them away, and destroyed their hives; no longer have they a shelter to collect maccaronies in, and away they must go. With what pleasure did I witness the conduct of the brave and intrepid men of the St. Ann's regiment, while performing that which ought to have been done by the Trelawney regiment-demolishing the Baptist and Methodist chapels. This work commenced at eight o'clock, and is still going on; by morning there will not be a stone left standing. I trust the example thus set in Trelawney, will be followed throughout the island; with this difference, that the inhabitants of every parish will do their own duty, and not require others to perform it. It was highly amusing to see the Cobblers' flocks in the streets, groaning and wondering where their