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satisfaction. It was sound in its principles, cogent in its arguments, lucid and happy in its illustrations, and was delivered with unusual propriety and force.

The Annual Report was then read by the Corresponding Secretary.

After the benediction, a large number of tracts were distributed, and several gentlemen joined the Association; among whom were five of the ministers of the county.

The Society then proceeded to the choice of officers for the ensuing year, and made the following elections. George Benson, Esq. President.

Rev. Ezra B. Kellogg,
Ebenezer Thompson, Esq.

Rev. Daniel Dow,

Vice Presidents.

Rev. Samuel J. May, Cor. Secretary.
Dr. William Hutchins, Rec. Sec. and Treas.

Rev. Roswell Whitmore, Killingly.
Wm. M. Cornell, Woodstock.
Danl. G. Sprague, Hampton.
Richd. J. Cleaveland, Windham.
Darius Mathweson, Esq. Pomfret.
Amos Paine, Esq.

Mr. Fitch Adams, Canterbury.

Elisha Lord, Abington.
Joseph Scarborough, Pomfret.
Samuel Scarborough, Brooklyn.
Samuel Perkins, Esq. Windham.
Thomas Baccus, Esq. Killingly.
Rev. Reuben Torrey, Eastford.
Mr. Sylvanus Shepard, Canterbury.
Edward Clark, Plainfield.
Philip Scarborough, Brooklyn.
Dr. Orin Witter, Chaplain. -

It was voted to change the times of the meetings of the Society; and hereafter to hold the annual meeting in October, and the semi-annual in April.

Rev. Mr. Torrey was chosen to deliver the Address at the meeting in

April next, then to be held at South Woodstock ;-and Rev. Mr. Dow, the Address at the next annual meeting.

Extracts from the Sixth Annual Report of the Windham County Peace Society.

In looking back through the past twelve months for those items of in

telligence which may be appropriate to our Annual Report, our attention is forcibly arrested by certain events in this country and in Europe, which, at first view, seem most inauspicious to our cause. The downfall of Poland. We deprecated that catastrophe as fervently as any could have done, although that ill-fated nation sought her deliverance by an appeal to arms. While the issue of her contest was undetermined, we cordially united in the wish that she might throw off the yoke of her oppressor. But now that the Sovereign Disposer of all things has permitted her to be brought under a heavier bondage, we presume not to doubt the wisdom of the dispensation. "His ways are not as our ways, neither are his thoughts as our thoughts." He can bring good out of evil, and often does convert into signal mercies, what may at first seem to be the greatest calamities. In the present instance, he has allowed the ruthless tyrant to triumph; and short-sighted mortals deem it an event of unmingled ill. But may it not be that he is thus teaching the nations of the earth a lesson of inestimable value? dispelling that delusion which has been the cause of more bloodshed and misery than have flowed from all the other sources of human woe? Although he is so often appealed to as the "God of battles," is this a title which the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ chooses to wear? him who "is Love?" Indeed, is it not impious thus to address

The downfall of Poland is but another striking illustration of the fact so plainly manifest from the whole his

tory of war, that success in battle is is not the means appointed by our not always to the injured party. War heavenly Father for the redress of any of our grievances. Not a promise can be found throughout the New Testament to incite or encourage us to fight for our rights. All weapons of

death are the evil devices of men. They are carnal-they are devilish.— Those, therefore, who resort to them,

commit their cause, however just and holy, to the chance of battle. There is no certainty that the injured party will be victorious. God promises his grace to the humble, not to the valiant -his support to those who put their trust in him, not to those who trust in human strength or stratagem. Oh how much will be gained to the cause of humanity, when men shall have lost all their confidence in war, and come to regard it as it is, a desperate game of doubtful issue! And what could have taught this more impressively than the result of the contest which unhappy Poland dared with her cruel oppressor! Did ever any people have a juster cause for war? Did any people ever fight more valiantly? How intently did the nations behold her struggle! How deep was the sympathy expressed by millions in her cause! How ardent the hopes, the prayers which ascented for her deliverance! But she has fallen, fallen perhaps to rise no more. We deeply lament that she had not learnt the more excellent way of overcoming evil. But if her calamity teach the nations of the earth that war is not the right way, while we weep for her, we will rejoice for them. Her calamity will prove a blessing to the world. Again. The frequent commotions in France and other parts of Europe have often been referred to by those who take little pains to acquaint themselves with the principles and expectations of Peace Societies, as if they were certainly tending to perpetuate that custom which we oppose. We think otherwise. We consider these agitations as the temporary accompaniments of the dissolution of those old political systems of Europe, which have ever been, and would of course always be unfriendly to the progress of knowledge, and therefore to the progress of peace. Evidently the mass of mind is not now, as formerly it was, swayed by a few of hereditary or usurped authority. The people there, somewhat as in our own country, and

for the same reason, are divided into parties and factions. More of them than formerly have come to read, think, and speak for themselves. In all parts of Europe the people are crying for knowledge, and many are fearlessly lifting up their voices to give them understanding-understanding of their rights, of their interests, of their duties. May we not, therefore, say with confidence, notwithstanding the angry clouds which hang over that continent, that the prospect is brightening even there? "The schoolmaster is abroad;" and he will ultimately bring his pupils to the knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus. Nothing less than this can satisfy the human mind. And on the power of this truth we rely for the permanent establishment of universal peace. The desire no less than the right to liberty of body and mind, is inalienable from men; they will therefore never tire, nor cease from their pursuit of it; and they can obtain it only through the power of the Gospel. That men are born equal, and that they should be free, is not the discovery of any human moralist, nor the invention of any wise statesman. No: it is a heaven-inspired, a Christian truth. We therefore hail every indication of increasing knowledge among the people (however it may be attended by temporary commotions) as auspicious to the cause of peace; for we know that one inquiry suggests another. Truths course each other. One step in knowledge leads to another; and as no wisdom but that which is from above can supply the wants of the human mind, so we believe men will come at length to the feet of Jesus; and when all men are taught of the Lord, great shall be the peace of the nations.

The knowledge of Christian truth is not yet enough diffused among the inhabitants of any land to prevent the angry collisions of political factions. But it is observable that in those nations where there is the most of this knowledge, there are sanguinary conflicts most readily averted. It is, we

think, no injustice to the other nations of Europe, to say 'tis probable there are more true Christians in Great Britain than in any other. Guilty, woefully guilty as that nation is in some respects, we certainly have reason to believe that she embraces, among her subjects, more intelligent disciples of Christ, and more fervent philanthropists, than can elsewhere be found. To this, we think, it must be ascribed, that the great political changes of the past and the four preceding years, have been effected without a sanguinary conflict. Those leading men who have been most zealous for reform, have been most careful to urge only pacific measures; and however violent in their opposition to each other, the champions of both parties have exerted their influence to punish outrage, and restrain the people from a resort to




The aspect of our own dear country, it cannot be denied, is more threatening than it ever has been. Still we cling to the hope that there is a redeeming spirit in the land. True, when we look over the catalogue of our national sins, the cry of Ezra comes unbidden to our lips, O God, I am ashamed, and blush to lift up my face to thee, my God; for our iniquities have increased over our head, and our trespass is grown unto the heavens." Of some of the occurrences of the past year we may not venture to speak, lest we should seem to be interfering with the measures of government. We will not, however, withhold the expression of that deep regret we feel for the honour of our country, that she has refused to abide by the award of an arbiter to whom she agreed to leave the question with England respecting our N. E. boundary. Not that we dissent from those who insist that the decision was not made wisely, perhaps not impartially. But the loss of territory would have been a trifle; and the example, had we submitted, would have been noble, worthy of all praise. As it is, how

ever, there is very little cause to apprehend a rupture with England in con. sequence of this dispute. It will doubtless be adjusted in some pacific way.

The alarm which many feel for the peace of our country arises from another quarter. Discord seems to be springing up every where among ourselves.

The unhallowed strifes of the religious sectaries have loosened many of the bands of society, and have weakened not a few of the restraints upon human passion. But these evils we think can be but temporary.

The fierce contests of our political partisans, and the bitter jealousies which have taken root in the different sections of our country, are fast bringing us, 'tis thought by some, to a fearful crisis, if we have not already reached it. One State refuses submission to our highest judicial tribunal; and another stands forth in open defiance of the legislative authority of the Union. These things we have often heard adduced, in proof that the efforts of Peace Societies have been and can be of little avail. As reasonable, however, would it have been to have argued from the destruction of Jerusalem and the calamities of the Jewish nation, that the Gospel of Christ could have no power. Probably but a very few of our fellow-citizens have even so much as heard of Peace Socie ties and their principles. Although these are the peculiar, distinctive principles of Christianity, yet have they been overlooked and disregarded ever since the fourth century of our era. That a Christian cannot lawfully fight," would be considered by most persons in Christendom, we suppose, as a novel doctrine. But the converts to our religion, for two hundred years after Christ, could not be, by any means, induced to bear arms. The warlike maxims and spirit of the heathen, however, soon supplanted the pacific principles of the Gospel, after the Emperor of Rome became nursing father" of the Church; and in

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no respect has our religion been so thoroughly corrupted as in this. In our own country, the success of our fathers in their struggle for independence has tended to perpetuate among us the woeful delusion, that war is the appropriate means of national aggrandisement, and hostile weapons the only instruments for the redress of national grievances. It must therefore needs be a long time before public sentiment will be duly corrected upon this point. But what should quicken our diligence in disseminating the truth, if not the present appearances of angry conflict among ourselves? Instead of alleging the commotions in our land as evidences of the imbecility of truth, every friend of peace and concord should feel himself called on to make peculiar exertions to disseminate the truth, knowing that this alone can allay these commotions and avert the evils which they seem to : threaten.

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Notwithstanding the unpropitious circumstances to which we have alluded, there are we think many things to encourage us in the belief that the knowledge and influence of the Gospel are increasing in our land. The collisions of the different religious sects, however unhappy in their immediate effects, have awakened very generally the spirit of investigation. This spirit seems to be searching into every thing that concerns the well-being of man. And benevolence is more active than ever, in her endeavours to effect what is shown to be for the general good. What a marvellous change has been wrought in the opinions and habits of our people respecting the use of ardent spirits! Though much indeed remains to be done, yet a vast deal more has been accomplished than the most sanguine dared to predict.

A determined assault has at length been begun upon the system of slavery, that abomination of our land. At the South, no less than at the North, facts have been disclosed, and sentiments uttered, which have laid open the whole subject to the most thorough


It is impossible that it should ever be covered up again, and kept out of sight, or be regarded as a topic upon which we may not speak and write freely. Several plans have already been devised; and these or better ones must be, will be pursued, to the entire abolition of that which is the source of so much sin and misery in the slave-holding States; and animosity and strife between them and other portions of this republic.

Much attention has of late years been paid to the discipline of prisons, and to the punishment of capital crimes. During the past twelve months, the legislatures of some of our States have had these subjects under their consideration, and the results have shown a great improvement in public opinion and feeling in relation to criminals. Christians are coming to understand and do their duty to this unhappy class of our fellow beings.

The institution of "a ministry for the poor of our cities" is another of the delightful proofs (of which we would make a grateful mention,) that the benignant spirit of our religion is diffusing its influence in our land. If continued, extended, and prosecuted as it has been begun, this institution cannot fail to accomplish much for the cause of peace, and love, and Christ. It will bring down the proud, and raise up the depressed. It will exalt the valleys, and make low the mountains. It will lead the rich to feel a deeper interest in the welfare of the poor, and cause the poor to rejoice in the abundance of the rich. And thus will it be the means of drying up the source of that envy, hatred, and malice, which are apt to arise in those communities where the inequalities of property are great, and the high and the low are strangers to each other.

We could mention other things which encourage within us the belief that the knowledge and spirit of the Gospel are increasing in our land. But we need not enlarge upon this point. No one can have observed the move

ments of the last five years, and not have perceived that Christian benevolence has devised liberal things. Still how little has even yet been done to bring our people to the feet of Jesus, that they may learn Christianity from its author. The truth has been imparted to them only in connection with human systems of ethics, and " philosophy of doctrines." If then the influence of our religion (thus diluted and obscured) has produced among us such beneficial effects as we have mentioned, what may we not expect it will accomplish, when the people shall be brought to drink of its "living water" at the fountain, and be guided in the path of duty by the pure light of the Sun of Righteousness! What less can we expect than that they will do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly, and therefore of course live in peace?

We have rejoiced, therefore, with exceeding joy, to hear it asserted and insisted on, by one whose voice will not be unheeded, that "the Bible should be the text book of duty and usefulness in every scheme of education, from the primary school to the university." The propriety of this has, we know, been repeatedly pointed out by others; but it will probably be the distinguished honour of Mr. Grimke of Charleston, S. C., so to have fixed the attention of the public upon this point, as to have induced the adoption of measures that will result in the greatest improvement in education that has ever yet been proposed.

It is a happy circumstance that Mr. Grimke is a citizen of the metropolis of that State which has set at defiance the legislative authority of our Union. He is probably not alone. There are in South Carolina many ardent lovers of their country, and, we trust, many who, like himself, are deeply imbued with the spirit of the Gospel. They will not be inactive in this hour of peril. They will exert a soothing, healing influence. And if the friends

of union and of peace in other parts of the land act as the occasion demands, the impending evil will be averted.

As much has been done during the last twelve months, both in this country and in Europe, for the direct dissemination of the pacific principles of the Gospel, as in any previous year. We are happy to bear testimony to the peculiar activity of the Connecticut and the Hartford County Peace Societies. Several others have done well, but these have excelled them all. Their annual reports are before the public, so that we shall not give a detail of their proceedings. We would also refer you to the like document published in June by the National Peace Society, for all we know of what has been done under its auspices. The devoted agent of that association will never tire in his good work, but will abound in his labours, so long as his capacity for labour shall endure.

It gives us especial pleasure to state, what is confirmed by all the reports we have read or heard, that the ministers of the Gospel appear to be waking up to their duty in the cause of peace. One would suppose they would have been the first to come forward in this behalf. But it has been otherwise. We hope they will make amends for their past indifference by their future fidelity and zeal.

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Our friends on the other side of the Atlantic have not remitted their exertions; but we have not received any recent intelligence from them. In the last letter from the secretary of the London Society, he says. Qur Committee have under their consideration the subject of a prize essay on the congress of nations for the amicable settlement of national disputes; but, till the Reform Question is settled, of which there is now a prospect, also the dispute between Holland and Belgium, we do not think it would be advisable to propose the premium. A memorial or petition to the govern ment of Great Britain, when the time comes for such a measure, we con

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