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The nation was in this respect like the gambler, who finds that after the heat and excitement of the game, comes the dull, cold, purse-wringing reckoning. He wanted something higher and nobler than this, something purer and better; and where was it to be found, but in the motives and principles of the Gospel? He considered, therefore, that the glory and strength of this Society consisted in this, that it appealed directly to those motives and principles, and he would add, to those alone. The moment it departed from this ground, it was shorn of its strength the moment it attempted to build upon any other foundation, it would prove like the house which the foolish man in the parable built upon the sand, baseless and insecure, the first torrent of opposition or temptation would sweep it away. If it appealed to any other motives than those which were sanctioned by the Gospel, it would do harm instead of good, by leading men away from the great source of all light and truth; but as long as all its tracts and arguments pointed to that common centre, he would hail it as an auxiliary. Whatever tended to estimate the value of life by the eternal destinies which were connected with it, whatever held up existence in this world as inexpressibly important and responsible, because of its connexion with another world-whatever brought out the principle, that because man goeth not down to the dust as doth a beast, therefore he ought not to be carelessly hurried out of existence at the will and pleasure of his fellow men-whatever led men to think seriously of the value of an undying soul, must be worthy of a Christian's support, for it breathed the spirit and spoke the language of the Gospel. But the Report had told us, that the question was often asked, and he doubted not most sneeringly, "What can you effect?" What can we effect? Why,

we can enlighten public sentiment, and if we effect that we gain our object. Surely, men did not now need to be taught, that he who was the master of the public sentiment did, in fact, rule. What was it that had shaken negro slavery to its base?— what but the strong, the powerful expression of public opinion? What was it, under God, that had gained us all our rights, both civil and religiouswhat but the liberty of delaring and influencing public opinion? What was it that was now exciting the country from one end of it to the other-what but the influence of public opinion? What was it which, across the Atlantic, had saved a free and happy country from becoming a land of drunkards-what but the voice of public opinion, speaking through a Temperance Society? And what was it that would yet save our country from the moral desolation which was fast coming over it, through its increasing intemperance what but a similar society, taking an equally firm hold of the heads and hearts, the reason, and the affections of British Christians? Nothing could resist moral opinion. With these views, he often regretted that men were SO backward in recognising this power. Nothing was more difficult than to get men to exercise the influence they possessed; nothing more difficult than to get them to see the force which might be brought to bear, by appealing simply to sound reason and Christian principle. To show what had been effected in other lands, he begged to read a short extract from a letter he received some time ago from a clergyman in Vermont, United States. After stating that the cause of temperance was taking the most rapid strides in the New England States, and that in consequence of these societies the consumption of spirits had decreased 75 per cent. within four years, he adds: "It is really marvellous, and has taught us, what we have been very slow to

believe, that the public mind, as such, may be moved by argument and sound reason. The fact is of inconceivable value in that respect, for no manner of legislative interference has been resorted to; it is altogether a matter of personal self-denial. Another important occurrence is (and it was to this he wished particularly to call their attention), that the legislature of this state (Vermont) have abolished their system of military reviews; and the belief of their uselessness, and even pernicious tendency, is fast extending in other states. The result will be, that a military and warlike spirit will have nothing to call itself forth. The Peace Societies are also extending their influence. I cannot but rejoice that the state to which I belong has been the first government, I believe, in the world, that has resolved to put its trust, under God, in the honesty and zeal of her citizens, in the day of need, without teaching them to kill their fellow-men as a professional business." This was a very encouraging fact. It was cheering newsit was an answer to the question, What can you effect? for this change had been brought about, in great measure, through the influence of the Peace Societies. Let them then go forward, persevere in the good work, and in due time they should reap, if they fainted not.

Mr. N. E. Sloper said, that most assuredly it was not for the love of making a speech, but for the love he bore to this Society, that he rejoiced in having an opportunity to say a few words on its claims, and to express the interest he felt in its welfare. He referred to Temperance Societies, for the purpose of directing their attention to a protest, printed in the Friends' Magazine, against intemperance. He thought intemperance the enemy of peace, and was borne out in that opinion by the Scripture: "Who hath wo? Who hath contentions? Who hath sorrow?

Who hath wounds without cause? They that tarry long at the wine; they that go to seek mixed wine.' By promoting temperance we should promote peace. He did not merely second the resolution with his tongue, but supported it in his heart. He trusted that this Society would be blessed by the King of Sion, and go forward and persevere. Let this be their motto, and this their motive, "That God alone may be exalted."

The resolution was then agreed to. The Rev. Isaac Mann, A. M. proposed the third resolution:

That as the principles of peace are derived from Divine Revelation, so we are assured by the word of prophecy, that the day will arrive when these principles will have universal dominion.

He said, he could have no doubt in his mind that the principle assumed in it was correct. The great leading principles of this Society were derived from Divine Revelation. Could he suppose that revelation was not most emphatically a revelation of peace, he should fail of confidence in it, and regard it as wanting one of the clearest and most substantial evidences of its divine origin. It could not but be in the mind of this meeting, that he who gave that Sacred Volume, had, prior to revelation being communicated, immediately after the fall of man, visited this world to publish peace, and to announce that Mediator, who, by his own sacrifice, should bring peace to rebels, and salvation to the ruined. It could not but be in their recollection, that from Moses down to the appearance of the promised Messiah, the various sacrifices of the first ages of the world were intended to remind men of the deserts of sin, and the mode by which peace should be established through the blood of the Redeemer. Every principle and precept of the Holy Volume was calculated to subdue and counteract the depravity of human nature, and promote peace; that man, the fallen, debased, corrupted, and irritated

child of sin, might become the meek, gentle, and holy follower of the Redeemer. The principles of that volume did not lead us to consider how expedient it was that a country should not be desolated and drained of its blood and treasure by war, but how near that man approximated to the likeness of a fallen spirit, who delighted in war, devastation, and ruin; while the child of God breathed the spirit of a son of peace and love, the image of the Prince of Peace. Thus much in illustration of the first part of the resolution. The second part referred to the general prevalence and spread of those principles, which Divine revelation inculcates and sustains. Could he believe that the cause of the Redeemer would ultimately perish before the rage of the prince of darkness, he should feel that the principles of this Society would perish with it, and perish for ever; but if the Gospel of Jesus Christ was to fill the earth, and the knowledge of his name was to spread throughout the world, and he had engaged that such should be the case, then the principles of this Society would triumph over all the malignant opposition of a lost, debased, tyrannical, and fallen world. He doubted whether there could be any hope or prospect of men desiring peace, until they became truly Christians. He had very feeble faith in the pacific feeling of a king or his courtiers, until he and they were Christians. The depravity of the human heart was too strong for ex. pediency even to correct, much less to destroy; and the cupidity and ambition of men could only be subdued or properly directed by the power of the Gospel. After remarking on the stability of the principles on which this Society was founded, he proceeded to encourage its supporters to perseverance, and observed, that if he were assured that for the next twenty years not a soul would be converted, nor one gainsayer's mouth

stopped, he should still hold it his duty to exhibit Jesus Christ, and publish his truth, whether men would hear or whether they would forbear; and so in regard to the labours of this Society, if men were not aroused to think of the evil and sinfulness of war, and of the important duty of securing the blessings of peace,-if men were not brought to view these things in a proper light, we must still labour unweariedly to promote these principles, or we shall sacrifice our Christian character. We are to labour; it is God's prerogative to bless, and he would not forsake his own work. A reference had been made to the small number of tracts put in circulation by this Society; he wished the number had been twice as large; but this Society did not allow half a score men on a committee to be at the expense of an extensive increase from their own means, as that would be injustice to themselves, and they had not means from others to do more than they had done. The funds had not permitted a larger number to be printed; and he trusted the simple mention of this would operate in a proper manner, and that the plates at the door would in some respect respond to the necessities of the world, and enable the committee to meet those necessities. Let the Christian give his help, and God would give him his reward.

The Rev. J. Hargreaves seconded the motion. He felt mingled emotions of pain and pleasure in rising to address this assembly; pain lest the cause which lay near his heart should suffer through the weakness attending his feeble speech, and lest the impressions already made should be weakened by his remarks; for he had read somewhere that "the full soul loathed the honey-comb;" and if so, how could he expect his dry morsel should be relished? But he threw himself on the candour of a people who would not make a man

an offender for a word. He referred then to war in its rise, and progress, and fatal consequences. It sprung from somewhere, but he felt that it could not have originated with the Parent of the Universe. In the creation all was peace, and it was sin that produced war against God, and made man the enemy of man. Jesus came into the world to make peace, and did make it by the blood of the cross; Christianity was a system of peace, and the principles of this Society, if he understood them, were identified with the principles of Christianity. "Let that mind be in you which was in Christ;" his mind exhibited an example of humility, lowliness, meekness, patience, nonresistance, and forgiveness; and in conformity to his temper and example, the early Christian had so imbibed the spirit of non-resistance, that he did not return evil for evil, but did good to those that injured him; thus exhibiting, in some feeble degree, the mind of Christ. Christianity says, love, bless, and pray for your enemies; war says, hate, injure, ruin, and kill them: no two things could be more irreconcilable, than the mind of Christ, and the spirit of war. Fire and water, light and darkness, love and hatred, heaven and hell, are not more opposite, than the spirit of the Redeemer, and the spirit that originated and propagated war. War revokes the Divine command, nullifies the Bible, and turns Christianity into a mere fable, When men have destroyed the Bible, they may go to war. View Christianity as exhibited in the page of prophecy, in the precepts and doctrines of the New Testament, and in the tempers and lives of real Christians, and it will be found designed to fill the world with peace. Christianity and peace are co-extensive, and identified in their nature and progress. This Society had published tracts, and these had been circulated, though not so widely as was desirable; let such as were VOL. VIII. NEW SERIES.

opposed to this Society procure, read, and carefully examine them, and then let them take pen and paper, and write a refutation if they could; when this was done, he would examine their productions, and if he were converted to their sentiments, he would freely acknowledge it. He ought not to make a challenge, or offer the language of defiance; but he called upon the Christian nations of Europe to come forward, like men, and if they could, to overthrow the principles of this Society. Christianity was always the same in principle; if Christians might lawfully go to war, why might not Christ become a general, and lead his followers to the field of battle? If Christians might consistently take the weapons of destruction in their hands, why did not the Redeemer instruct them by precept and example? No; his, were principles of peace; he came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them. Christianity was the same in its nature, though not in its degree, on earth as in heaven: if Christians might fight here, they might take their fighting principles to the upper world: but He maketh peace in the high places, and hath called upon us to follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man can see the Lord. If religion allowed the principles of war now, it would always allow them, because it is unchangeable; and if so, he saw no reason to expect the promised millennium, or to look forward to the period when men should beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: for if war was lawful now, it always would be so; but it was not consistent with true religion, and it never would be. Could a man, by becoming a soldier, shift off his individual responsibility, and commit theft, rapine, and murder with impunity? Was he not still accountable to him who giveth life? Can custom, numbers, example, and the authority of civil rulers exonerate


the soldier from blame? He might, indeed, barter his liberty, his reputation, his limbs, and even risk his life, but he could not shake off his responsibility as an accountable being, for every man must answer for himself. It was not in the power of one man to take the responsibility from another; nor was it possible for a man to be judged by proxy at the last day. It would be well if this were engraven on every heart, that we must die, and give an account to God of our conduct here. If there was one truth more clear than another, it was, that the spirit of Christianity and war were naturally incompatible and irreconcilable, and could not both exist and have dominion in the same heart at the same time. It behoved us then to find the line of duty, and pursue it. War is either right or wrong. Peace is either the cause of God, or it is not. Persons would often say, "What are you doing?" especially when some strife occurred among the nations. When the Russians and the Poles have been inhumanly slaying each other, it has been said, "There is work for your Society now; why don't you stop the bloody contest?" But did we ever pretend to overturn public opinion at once? All we pretended to do was to discharge our duty, in endeavouring to diffuse the leaven of peace among the mass of mankind; and, as was said before, the duty was ours, success belonged to God; our business was to go on in the path of duty, and leave success or non-success to him who rules the universe. He would accomplish it in his own time; he would make bare his holy arm in the sight of all the people, and all the nations should see the salvation of God-a salvation from war, devastation, and every thing that spoils the happiness of men. When some have said, "Why don't you stop the sword?" he had been half tempted to reply, "There is the Christian Instruction Society,


why are not all men wise? There are Temperance Societies, why are not all men sober? There are societies for the reformation of morals, why are not all honest?" This Society never pretended to have circumstances under its control, but to discharge its duty, and leave God to give it success with his blessing. Some talked of holy wars for the cause of religion; he believed there had been wars for religion, but they did not originate in holiness; were they conducted in it, nor was it promoted by them. Did religion need fighting for with carnal weapons? The Lord could carry on his own work. Our object was not to fight for religion, or liberty, but to escape evil if possible, and leave the issue with God. He might dwell upon the evils of war, and the charms of peace, and on Divine protection. God had protected, and would protect those who put their confidence in him. Were we to send a soldier, with a sword by his side, and the Bible in his hand, to propagate religion, he might meet with the reply which a Mahometan priest once made to a missionary (Sault): "The book is good, very good; go home, learn it yourself, and teach it to neighbours." He hoped this Society. would be like a trumpeter in the British army, of whom he had read, who, when asked to sound a retreat, said, "He knew of no such piece :" let the motto be, "Go forward." The largest oak was once a little acorn, and the rising sun gradually proceeded until he attained his meridian glory; so might it be with this Society, until it should enlighten the whole universe. Let us go on with the watch-word, "The sword of the Lord, and of Gideon;" the first expressive of Divine, and the second of human agency. Despise not the day of small things. Let men unite and work together, and, with the blessing of God, great would be the result. The little


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