The principles of economical philosophy, Volume 2,Partie 1

Couverture
 

Table des matières

Error of Malthus on Rent
10
Smith on Rents in Shetland
13
De Fontenay on Rent
15
The essence of Lawism is that money represents commodities
16
Examination of the modern opinions on Currency
17
Rent an example of the General Law of Value
20
Land reclaimed during the Revolutionary War
21
Cost of Production of Corn
22
Moderate farms let better than very large ones
23
Ricardo on Rent of Mines
24
Absurdity of the RicardoMill Theory of Rent
25
Rent of Mines and Shops
27
Selfcontradiction of Mill on Rent
28
Anderson Ricardo and Mill on Rent
29
Selfcontradiction of Ricardo
30
Smiths error on Labour as a Standard of Value
31
Exchangeability the sole essence of Wealth and Value
32
CHAPTER XII
35
Erroneous definition of Rate of Profit by Economists
36
Ricardos error on Rate of Profit
37
Error of Malthus on Rate of Profit
38
Error of Mill on Rate of Profit
39
Further examples of this
40
Examples of Rates of Profit
41
Examples of variations in the Rate of Profit
42
Examples of Rate of Profit
43
Smith on Apothecaries Profits
44
Value of pictures statues
45
Profits in country shops
46
Bacon on trade Profits
47
Cabs in London and provincial towns
48
Gradual separation of employments
49
Definition of Labour
50
Mill controverts Smith
51
Examples of Value regulating Cost
52
Smith right Ricardo McCulloch and Mill wrong
53
Origin of demand for Banks and Paper Money
54
Examples of the Division of Labour
55
Selfcontradiction of Mill
56
Examples from Babbage
57
Explanation of a difficulty raised by Say
58
Large Capitals give smaller Profits than small Capitals
59
Smith wrongly calls Agricultural Labour the most productive
60
On Mills fourth proposition on Capital
61
Seniors description of Profits inadequate
62
Error of Physiocrates and Mill on Productive Labour
63
The Droit au Travail
65
Error of Mill on Productive Labour
66
On Interest
68
Prejudices against Interest
69
Calvin on Interest
70
Final abolition of Usury Laws in England
72
Confusion of Mill on Value of Money
73
Value of Money has two meanings
74
Difference of Profit between Interest and Discount
76
On Rate of Interest
78
Rent and Interest analogous
79
Differences in Rate of Interest
80
Smith and Hume on Rate of Interest
83
Effect of increase of Money on Interest
87
How an increase of Money affects Prices and Interest
88
Hume on Rate of Interest
89
Effects of Banking on Interest
91
The Popes on Usury
93
4
102
ON RIGHTS OR INCORPOREAL WEALTH
201
Rights are Wealth 202 2 Smith classes Credit as Capital 206 3 Smith admits that abstract Rights are Wealth 208 4 Say classes abstract Rights as Wealth
209
Mill admits that Credit is Capital 6 Different kinds of Transferable Property 7 Transfer of Incorporeal Property by means of INSTRUMENTS 8 Same...
211
On Rights of Obligation
219
On Annuities 12 On the Funds 13
227
Errors of Mill
229
Refutation of Mill
234
The Funds are Property
239
On Tithes
241
221
242
227
243
Origin of Tithes in England
247
Interest of the Clergy in Tithes
249
Tithe Commutation Acts
255
Policies of Insurance
257
On Rights of Expectation
258
Property in Ideas
269
No patent in a general principle
270
PATENTS
276
PAGE
278
GOODWILL of a business
279
TOLLS FERRIES and STREET CROSSINGS
280
CHAPTER XV
281
Error of Mills doctrine of International Values
284
ON THE THEORY OF THE EXCHANGES 1 DEFINITION of the Exchanges
286
Definition of PAR of EXCHANGE
288
Depreciation of the Coinage causes a Fall in the Foreign Exchanges
289
This disturbance of the Exchange expressed in two ways
290
The NOMINAL EXCHANGE and the REAL EXCHANGE
291
Rule to ascertain the true state of the Exchange when the Currency is depreciated
292
Par time of Exchange
294
On FOREIGN EXCHANGES
295
On Fixed and Variable Price
296
On the LIMITS of the VARIATION of the EXCHANGES
298
On EXCHANGE OPERATIONS
304
CHAPTER XVI
338
The same continued
352
Fourth example of LawismThe Bank of Norway
358
This refutation incomplete
365
Judicial decisions as to the meaning of CURRENCY
387
Bank Credits are Ready Money
403
Mr G W NORMAN on Currency
411
14
417
Colonel TORRENS on Currency
423
CHAPTER XVIII
433
The Bank suspends cash payments in 1696 and 1797
446
Peels doctrines in 1819
457
The Banks Monopoly of Banking
463
22
471
Explanation of this failure
477
The Monetary Crisis of 1793
484
Stoppage of the Bank in 1797
486
The Bullion Committee condemn the RESTRICTIVE Theory
488
Peel adopts the RESTRICTIVE Theory in 1844
490
Failure of the RESTRICTIVE Theory in 1847 1857 and 1866
491
Uniform failure of the RESTRICTIVE Theory
492
Fundamental differences of Principle between the Bullion Report and the Bank Charter Act of 1844
493
Examination of the Arguments alleged in favour of main taining the Bank Act
495
The Rate of Discount the supreme power of controlling the Exchanges and the Paper Currency
501
Mr Lowe on Commercial Crises
503
Errors of Peel
504
The Bank Act of 1844 has made all English Banking illegal
507
The Cheque Bank
511
An Inquiry into the Banking System necessary
515
CONCLUSION OF PURE ECONOMICS
520

Expressions et termes fréquents

Fréquemment cités

Page 163 - ... Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Page 173 - In the progress of the division of labour, the employment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is, of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations, frequently to one or two. But the understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments.
Page 162 - ... it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.
Page 103 - The property which every man has in his own labour, as it is the original foundation of all other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable. The patrimony of a poor man lies in the strength and dexterity of his hands; and to hinder him from employing this strength and dexterity in what manner he thinks proper without injury to his neighbour is a plain violation of this most sacred property.
Page 270 - But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and cast their seeds in the minds of others, provoking and causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding ages...
Page 173 - He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. The torpor of his mind renders him, not only incapable of relishing or bearing a part in any rational conversation, but of conceiving any generous, noble, or tender sentiment, and consequently of forming any just judgment concerning many even of the ordinary duties of private life.
Page 156 - As it is the power of exchanging that gives occasion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in other words, by the extent of the market.
Page 109 - The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.
Page 170 - This great increase of the quantity of work, which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of ' performing, is owing to three different circumstances : first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman ; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another...
Page 170 - A common smith, who, though accustomed to handle the hammer, has never been used to make nails, if, upon some particular occasion, he is obliged to attempt it, will scarce, I am assured, be able to make above two or three hundred nails in a day, and those too very bad ones. A smith who has been accustomed to make nails, but whose sole or principal business has not been that of a nailer, can seldom, with his utmost diligence, make more than eight hundred or a thousand nails in a day.

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