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tion. What poets and philosophers have dreamed, that we are trying day by day to do. Our stumblings, our blunders, our shortcomings, are many; but if we keep our hearts clean and our heads clear he who a thousand years from now writes the history of liberty and justice and happiness among men will be able to tell to those far-off generations a proud story of the rise and influence of the American nation.

We find here everything which is needed for a great nation. The task before us to-day is to make it. The task before the American people is nothing more nor less than a speedy continuation, and, if it be practicable, the completion of the process of nation-building. It is the problem of the integration of America about those great fundamental principles and purposes which the very name America itself brings to our minds and which this flag stirs to expression on every lip.

We know in our hearts what America means. The problem is to teach it to our fellows; to share with them an understanding and an appreciation of it; to unite with them in an expression of it. We wish to build a nation fit to serve; a nation that does not find its end in its own aggrandizement, however great that be; a nation that can not find its purpose complete in amassing all the wealth of Golconda, but that can only achieve its aim by carrying a message to mankind of what has been found possible on this continent. Saxon and Celt, Teuton and Slav, Latin and Hun, all are here not as aliens but as citizens; not as immigrants but as members of a body politic which is new in conception in human history, as it is new in its own thought of its high purpose. America integrate itself at this crisis; can it show that here is a nation which, out of various and varied ethnic elements, can be brought into a

Can

genuine unity by devotion to high principle and by moral purpose before the face of all mankind? Can we make an America that shall go down the corridors of time with a proud place on the pages of history?

We must remember that the greatest empires have fallen as well as risen. We must remember that the most powerful dynasties have passed away as well as come into existence. There is no reason to suppose that our America is going to escape the everlasting law of change. We know its history and its origin. We have seen its rise. We know its present state. Who can predict how many hundreds or thousands of years it will take before the forests will be felled and the streams will be dried, and this great fertile continent of ours, like the plains of ancient Iran where civilization began, will become a desert, fit only for the exploring parties of the archeologist? When that time comes, what do we want to have written on the pages of history of those who lived. for hundreds or perhaps thousands of years on this continent? What do we want to have said about the way in which America met the greatest crisis of the world's so-called modern history in 1916? Do we wish a nation weak, broken to pieces, irresolute, filled with conflicting and discordant voices, or do we wish for a nation unified, strong, sympathetic, and ready to respond to the cause of a common purpose to serve all humanity, even tho the rest of humanity be at war with itself?

The year 1916 is but one member of an infinite series. Countless eons will come after it. The physical forces of nature will go their way through indefinite time, performing their allotted functions, obeying their peculiar laws, and undergoing those manifold. changes and transmutations which make up the heavens and the earth. Not so with the reputation and the in

fluence of a nation. Opportunity will not knock forever at any door; it is knocking now at the door of the American people. If they are able to rise to an appreciation of their own part in the world, of their own controlling principles and policies; if they are able to put aside every selfseeking, every distracting, every brutal appeal, then no one can tell what light may illumine the page on which the history of our nation will yet be written.

It is nearly sixty years since Abraham Lincoln in his debates with Senator Douglas made much use of the Scriptural saying that "a house divided against itself can not stand"; and he added, "I do not expect the house will fall, but I do expect the house will cease to be divided." So, Mr. President, I say to-day to this influential company of Americans, we do expect, every one of us, that our

house will cease to be divided. We do expect that our America will come to full consciousness of its purpose; that the serene courage of Washington, the constructive genius of Hamilton, the keen human insight and sympathy of Jefferson, the patient wisdom of Lincoln, will not have been in vain in teaching us what our country is and may become. Shall we catch sight of that something higher than selfishness, higher than material gain, higher than the triumph of brute force, which alone can lead a nation up to those high places that become sacred in history, and from which influence descends in a mighty torrent, to refresh, to vivify, and inspire all mankind?

It is as true to-day as it was in ancient times that where there is no vision the people perish. We can make an America with a vision. can not make it without.

We

TOPICAL STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF THE

CHURCH'

THIRD SERIES

Professor HENRY H. WALKER, Ph.D., Chicago Theological Seminary, Chicago

XXI. Heralds of Religious Liberty.

Of the many general works dealing with this subject the following are especially suggestive: Schaff, The Progress of Religious Freedom as Shown in the History of Toleration Acts, New York, 1889; St. John, The Contest for Liberty of Conscience in England, Chicago, 1900; Cobb, The Rise of Religious Liberty in America (good), New York, 1902; Fenn, Pioneers of Religious Liberty, Boston, 1903; Ruffini, Religious Liberty, transl. by Heyes (very valuable), New York, 1912; Bury, History of the Freedom of Thought, New York, 1913.

1. Faustus Socinus and the Early Unitarians.

NSH, vol. 10 ("Socinus, Faustus; Laelius"); vol. 12 ("Unitarians"); Ruffini, pp. 66-73; EB, vol. 25 ("Socinus"); Allen, Unitarians, in American Church History Series, vol. 10, New York, 1894; Harnack, History of Dogma, vol. 7, pp. 119-167, New York, 1895-1900; Hurst, History of Ration

alism, New York, 1901; Fisher, History of Christian Doctrine, New York, 1909; McGiffert, Protestant Thought Before Kant, pp. 107-118, New York, 1911, and The Rise of Modern Religious Ideas, New York, 1915.

2. Roger Williams and the Early Baptists.

NSH, vol. 1, pp. 467 ff., and vol. 12; EB, vol. 28 ("Williams, Roger") Ruffini, pp. 166-172; Cobb, pp. 4-6, 181-188, 422-440; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 61, pp. 445-450; Williams, The Bloody Tenet of Persecution, reprinted, London, 1848; Lives by Knowles, Boston, 1834; Gammell, Boston, 1845; Elton, Providence, 1853; Straus, New York, 1894; Carpenter, New York, 1909; Arnold, History of the State of Rhode Island, vol. 1, New York, 1859; Lecky, History of the Rise of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, vol. 2, pp. 70-84, London, 1865; Guild, Biographical Introduction to the Writings of Roger Williams, Providence,

The table of abbreviations used is given in the number for November, 1915.

1866; Newman, Baptists, in American Church History Series, New York, 1894; Richman, Rhode Island, Its Making and Its Meaning, New York, 1902.

3. John Milton and the Contribution of Puritanism.

NSH, vol. 7 ("Milton"); EB, vol. 18 ("Milton"); Ruffini, pp. 177-179; Masson's Cambridge Milton, 3 vols., Cambridge, 1890 (cf. the "Areopagiticus"; also "On True Religion," "Toleration," &c.); Lives by Masson, 6 vols., London, 1859–80 (exhaustive); Brooke, London, 1879; Pattison, London, 1877; Johnson, Oxford, 1888; Garnett, London, 1889; Coleridge, Lectures on Milton, London, 1856; Scherer, Essays in English Literature, London, 1891; Cambridge Modern History, vol. 5, pp. 116 ff.

4. William Penn and the Quakers.

NSH, vol. 8; EB, vol. 21; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 44; Ruffini, pp. 190 f.; Penn, Works, as published by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, vols. 1-9, Philadelphia, 1826– 92 (Especially "The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience," London, 1671; also "An Address to Protestants," London, 1679; also "A Persuasive to Moderation," &c., London, 1686; and "Good Advice to the Church of England," &c., London, 1687); Lives by Clarkson, 2 vols., London, 1813; Weems, Philadelphia, 1835; Lewis, Philadelphia, 1837; Dixon, London, 1856 (reissued, New York, 1905); Janney, Philadelphia, 1852; Stoughton, London, 1882; Cooke, London, 1899; Buell, New York, 1904; Grant, London and New York, 1908; Rhodes, Three Apostles of Quakerism, London, 1885. 5. John Locke: An Appeal for Toleration.

NSH, vol. 7 ("Locke, J."); EB, vol. 16 ("Locke"); Ruffini, pp. 106-113, &c.; Locke, Works, best edition by Law, 4 vols., London, 1777 (cf. especially his "Letters on Toleration," 1689-90); Lives by King, London, 1829; Bourne, London and New York, 1876; King (Life and Letters), New York, 1884; Fowler, London, 1887; Fraser, Edinburgh, 1890; Worcester, The Religious Opinions of John Locke, Geneva, N. Y., 1899. NOTE: This list may be indefinitely expanded, as will be seen from consulting the works of Ruffini or Cobb, named above.

XXII. Modern Leaders of Great

Movements.

1. George Fox and the Rise of Quakerism.

NSH, vol. 4 ("Fox, Geo."; also "Friends"); EB, vol. 10 (“Fox"); Dictionary of National Biography, vol.

20; Fox, Journal, 2 vols., London, 1694-8 (Bicentenary edition, 1891); Autobiography, edited by Jones, Philadelphia, 1903; Lives by Janney, Philadelphia, 1852; Watson, London, 1860; Tallack, London, 1868; Hodgkin, London, 1898; Rhodes, Three Apostles of Quakerism, London, 1884; Budge, Glimpses of Fox and His Friends, London, 1893; Taylor, Cameos from the Life of Geo. Fox, London, 1908; Braithwaite, Beginnings of Quakerism, New York, 1912; Holder, Quakers in Great Britain and America, Pasadena, 1915.

2. John Wesley and the Rise of Methodism.

28

NSH, vol. 7 ("Methodists"), vol. 12 ("Wesley, J."); EB, vol. ("Wesley"); Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 60; Lives by Tyerman, 3 vols. London, 1870 (best); Coke and Moore, London, 1792 (popular); Moore, 2 vols., London, 1824 (trustworthy); Watson, London, 1831 (compact); Bevan, London, 1891; Telford, London, 1899; Pike, London, 1903; Green, new edition, London, 1905; Winchester, New York, 1906; Cadman (Wyclif, Wesley, and Newman), New York, 1916; Walker, Greatest Men of the Christian Church, Chicago, 1908; Butler, Ten Great and Good Men, New York, 1909; Burns, Revivals, Their Laws and Leaders, London, 1909; Overton, Evangelical Revivals in the Eighteenth Century, New York, 1886. 3. General Booth and the Salvation Army.

NSH, vol. 2 ("Booth, Wm."), and vol. 10 ("Salvation Army"-note the literature there given); EB, vol. 4 ("Booth"); Tucker, B., Life of General Wm. Booth, Chicago, 1898; Cooke, The Prophet of the Poor, &c., London, 1905.

XXIII. Great British Preachers and Pastors.

1. Jeremy Taylor.

NSH, vol. 2; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 55; EB, vol. 26; Taylor, Whole Works, edited by Heber, 15 vols., London, 1822; revised by Eden, 10 vols., 1847-52 (contains the best life); Lives by Barry, in Kempe's Classic Preachers of the English Church, 2d Series, London, 1877; Farrar, in Barry's Masters in English Theology, London, 1878; May, London, 1892; Collins (Typical English Churchmen), London, 1902; Gosse, London and New York, 1904; Merriman (Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty in the English Church), Worcester, Mass., 1906; Worley, London, 1907. 2. Hugh Blair.

NSH, vol. 2; EB, vol. 4; Dictionary

of National Biography, vol. 5, pp. 160 f.; Blair, Sermons, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1814; Hill, Life and Writings of Hugh Blair, Edinburgh, 1807.

3. Thomas Chalmers.

NSH, vol. 2; EB, vol. 5; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 9, pp. 449454; Lives by Hanna, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1849-52; A. J. (Symington), Ardrossan, 1878; Fraser, London, 1881; Watson, Edinburgh, 1881; Dodds, Edinburgh, 1892; Oliphant, London, 1893; Blaikie, Edinburgh and New York, 1897 (in Famous Scots Series); Oliphant, London, 1896.

4. Frederick W. Robertson."

NSH, vol. 10; EB, vol. 23; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 48, pp. 404-407; Robertson, Sermons, Brighton, 5 series, London, 1855-74, and often reprinted, e.g., 1906; Lives by Brooke (Life and Letters), 2 vols., London, 1873; Sawyer (Memoir),

Brighton, 1853; Arnold, London, 1886; Edgar, Edinburgh, 1887.

5. Frederick D. Maurice.

NSH, vol. 7; EB, vol. 17; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 37, pp. 97105; Lives by Maurice, London, 1884; Brookfield, in Cambridge Apostles, New York, 1906; Masterman, London, 1907. 6. Thomas Guthrie.

NSH, vol. 5; EB, vol. 12; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 23, pp. 380-382; Guthrie, Autobiography and Memoir by His Sons, 2 vols., London, 1875; Smeaton, Thos. Guthrie, Edinburgh, 1900; Brastow, Representative Modern Preachers, New York, 1904. 7. Norman Macleod.

NSH, vol. 7; EB, vol. 17; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 35, pp. 217218; Macleod, Memoir, London, 1876; Other Lives by Strahan, London, 1872; Watson, London, 1881; Japp (Good Men and True), London, 1890; Wellwood, Edinburgh, 1897; Macleod (Memorials of), Edinburgh, 1898.

8. Charles Kingsley.

NSH, vol. 6; EB, vol. 15; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 31, pp. 175-181; Kingsley, Letters and Memories, edited by his wife, London, 1877; Rigg, Modern Anglican Theology, with a Memoir of Canon Kingsley, London, 1880; Kaufmann, Chas. Kingsley, London, 1892; Stubbs, Chas. Kingsley and the Christian Social Movements, London, 1899.

9. Robert W. Dale.

NSH, vol. 3; EB, vol. 7; Dale, Life (by his son), London, 1898.

Note: Other noted names, such as B. F. Westcott, Geo. Matheson, J. H. Newman, &c., also deserve attention.

XXIV. The Pilgrim Faith.

1. Bibliographies covering Congregationalism are in NSH, vol. 3 ("Congregationalists"), and Walker, Congregationalists, New York, 1894, pp. ix-xiii. Only a few of the volumes which will be found useful are named here.

Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation, Boston, 1856; Winthrop, History of New England from 1630-1644 (Winthrop's Journal), best edition, Boston, 1853; Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, Boston, 1841, 1844; Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana, London, 1702, republished, Hartford, 1855; Punchard, History of Congregationalism, 5 vols., New York, 1865, and Congregationalism in America, Boston, 1880-81; Dexter, Congregationalism as Seen in the Literature of the Last 300 Years, New York, 1880; Walker, Congregationalists, New York, 1894; Dunning, Congregationalists in America, New York, 1899; Davis, John Robinson, Boston, 1903, and The Pilgrim Faith, Boston, 1913.

Suggested themes are found as follows in the chapter-headings in Davis's Pilgrim Faith.

1. The Pilgrim Fathers: Their Dreams and Achievements.

2. The Pilgrim Faith and the Free State. 3. The Pilgrim Faith and Education. 4. The Pilgrim Faith and Evangelism. 5. The Pilgrim Faith and Foreign Missions.

6. The Pilgrim Faith and the Extension of the Kingdom at Home.

7. The Pilgrim Faith and Its Contribution to Christian Theology.

8. The Pilgrim Faith and Its Leaders. Cf. Walker, Ten New England Leaders, New York, 1901.

The foregoing outline will suggest methods of treatment along denominational lines.

XXV. Great Preachers of Colonial Days.

1. John Cotton.

NSH, vol. 3; EB, vol. 7; Dictionary of National Biography, supplement, vol. 2; Mather, Magnalia, vol. 1, pp. 252-286, Hartford, 1855; M'Clure, Life of John Cotton, Boston, 1870; Walker, Ten New England Leaders, pp. 49-96, New York, 1901.

2. Thomas Hooker.

NSH, vol. 5; EB, vol. 13; Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, vol. 1, pp. 30-37, New York, 1859; Walker, G. L., Thomas Hooker, New York, 1891 (in Makers of America Series); Walker, W., History of the First Church in Hartford, Hartford, 1883, and Ten New England Leaders, New York, 1901.

3. John Davenport.

NSHI, vol. 3; EB, vol. 7; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 14, pp. 110-111; Dexter, Papers of the New Haven Colony Historical Society, vol. 2, pp. 204-238, New Haven, 1877; Mather, C., Magnalia, Book 3, vol. 1, pp. 321-331, Hartford, 1855; Brook, Lives of the Puritans, vol. 3, pp. 446451, London, 1813.

4. Cotton Mather.

NSH, vol. 7 ("Mather, C."); EB, vol. 17 ("Mather, C."); Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 38; Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, vol. 1, New York, 1859; Wendell, Cotton Mather, in Makers of America Series, New York, 1891; Marvin, Life and Times of Cotton Mather, Boston, 1892; Walker, Influence of the Mathers in New England Religious Development, New York, 1892, Ten New England Leaders, New York, 1901, and Congregationalists, New York, 1894; Dunning, Congregationalists in America, New York, 1894; Bacon, The Congregationalists, New York, 1904.

XXVI. Great American Preachers of the Nineteenth Century.

1. Horace Bushnell.

NSH, vol. 2; EB, vol. 4; Bushnell, Works, New York, 1903; Cheney, Life and Letters (by his daughter), New York, 1880; Munger, Horace Bushnell, Boston, 1899; Trumbull, My Four Religious Teachers, Philadelphia, 1903. 2. Matthew Simpson.

NSH, vol. 10 ("Simpson, M."); EB, vol. 25 ("Simpson"); Simpson, Sermons, edited by Crooks, New York, 1885; Crooks, Life, New York, 1890. 3. Henry Ward Beecher.

NSH, vol. 2; EB, vol. 3; Beecher, Sermons, edited by L. Abbott, 2 vols., New York, 1868, and Yale Lectures on Preaching, New York, 1881; Thompson, The History of Plymouth Church, New York, 1873; Lives by Abbott and Halliday, Hartford, 1887; Beecher (sons and wife), 1888; Barrows, New York, 1893; Abbott, Boston, 1903; Hillis, New York, 1913.

4. Phillips Brooks.

NSII, vol. 2; EB, vol. 4; Brooks, Sermons, 10 vols., New York, 18781905, and Lectures on Preaching, New York, 1877; Lives by Howe, Boston, 1899; Allen (Life and Letters), 2 vols., New York, 1900, 1 vol., 1907; Lawrence, Boston, 1903.

XXVII. Great American Evangelists. 1. Jonathan Edwards.

NSH, vol. 4; EB, vol. 9; Lives by Hopkins, Boston, 1765; Hawksley,

London, 1815; Dwight, New York,
1829; Iverach (in The Evangelical
Succession), Edinburgh, 1882; Allen,
Boston, 1889; Gardiner, Boston, 1901;
Walker (Ten New England Leaders),
New York, 1901; Sparks, Library of
American Biography, vol. 8 (10 vols.),
New York, 1848-51; Sprague, Annals
of the American Pulpit, New York,
1859, vol. 1, pp. 329-336; Dexter, Con-
gregationalism
as Seen in Its
Literature, New York, 1880; Walker,
Congregationalists, New York, 1894;
Foster, New England Theology, Chi-
cago, 1907; Beardsley, History of Amer-
ican Revivals, New York, 1904.

2. Charles G. Finney.

NSH, vol. 4; EB, vol. 10; Finney, Autobiography, New York, 2d ed., 1903, and Lectures on Revivals, Boston, 1835; Lives by Wright, Boston, 1891; Hills, Cincinnati, 1902; Beardsley, History of American Revivals, pp. 118-152, New York, 1904.

3. Dwight L. Moody.

NSH, vol. 7 (“Moody”); EB, vol. 18 ("Moody"); Lives of, by Moody (son), New York, 1900; Drummond, New York, 1900; Ogilvie, New York, 1900; Williams, Philadelphia, 1900; McDowell, New York, 1915.

4. William A. Sunday.

Lives by Brown, New York, 1914; Frankenberg, Columbus, O., 1914; Ellis, Philadelphia, 1914.

Note: This list of evangelists may be indefinitely increased: the Tennents, Nettleton, &c.

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NSH, vol. 2; EB, vol. 4; His Life (by J. Edwards, Boston, 1749) and Literary Remains were edited by S. E. Dwight, New Haven, 1822; also by J. M. Sherwood, New York, 1884; cf. Brainerd, Life of David Brainerd, Philadelphia, 1865.

2. John Mason Peck.

Babcock, Memoir of John Mason Peck, Philadelphia, 1864; Smith, The History of the Baptists in the Western States East of the Mississippi, Philadelphia, 1896; Strong, Our Country, revised edition, New York, 1904; Clark, Leavening the Nation, New York, 1903. 3. Marcus Whitman.

NSH, vol. 12; EB, vol. 28; Barrows, Oregon: The Struggle for Possession,

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