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Boston, 1884; Craighead, The Story of Marcus Whitman, Philadelphia, 1895; Nixon, How Marcus Whitman Saved Oregon, Chicago, 1895, and Whitman's Ride Through Savage Lands, Chicago, 1905; Mowry, Marcus Whitman and the Early Days of Oregon, New York, 1901; Clark, Leavening the Nation, New York, 1903; Marshall, History vs. the "Whitman Saved Oregon" Story, Chicago, 1904; Ells, Marcus Whitman, Pathfinder and Patriot, Seattle, 1909; Dye, McLaughlin and Old Oregon, Chicago, 1900.

4. John J. Dyer, the Snow-Shoe Evangelist.

Dyer, The Snow-Shoe Evangelist: Autobiography, Cincinnati; Clark, Leavening the Nation, New York, 1903; Dorchester, Christianity in the United States, New York, 1888; Puddefoot, The Minute Man on the Frontier, New York, 1895.

5. Joseph Ward, Pioneer in the Dakotas.

Strong, Our Country, New York (revised ed.), 1904; Clark, Leavening the Nation, New York, 1903.

XXIX. Movements of Religious Thought in America.

1. The Religious Inheritance of New England.

NSH, vol. 9 ("Puritans "), vol. 3, pp. 232-236; Campbell, The Puritan in England, Holland, and America, New York, 1892; Brown, The Pilgrim Fathers of New England and Their Puritan Successors, New York, 1895; Gregory, Puritanism in the Old World and the New, New York, 1896; Byington, The Puritan as a Colonist and Reformer, Boston, 1899, and The Puritan in England and New England, Boston, 1900; Dexter, The England and Holland of the Puritans, Boston, 1905; Cockshott, The Pilgrim Fathers, London and New York, 1910. Also see above, XXIV.

2. Jonathan Edwards, America's Greatest Theologian.

See XXVII, 1, above.

3. William Ellery Channing and American Unitarianism.

NSH, vol. 3; EB, vol. 5 ("Channing, Wm. E."), and vol. 12 ("Unitarians"); Channing, Memoir of, with Extracts from His Correspondence and Manuscripts, 3 vols., Boston, 1848; Bartol, Principles and Portraits, Boston, 1880; Brooks, Wm. E. Channing, &c., Boston, 1880; Peabody, Reminiscences of . . . Channing, Boston, 1880; The Channing Centenary, ed. by Bellows, Boston, 1881; Fenn, in Pioneers of Religious Liberty in America, Boston, 1903; Allen, The

Unitarians, New York, 1894; Cooke, Unitarianism in America, Boston, 1902; Chadwick, Wm. E. Channing, Minister of Religion, Boston, 1903.

4. Horace Bushnell.

See his Works, &c., under XXVI, 1. 5. Modern Tendencies of Thought in America.

NSH, vol. II ("Theology as a Science," III, and "Theological Science, American Contributors to"); Fiske, The Idea of God, Boston, 1886, The Destiny of Man in the Light of His Origin, Boston, 1894, and Through Nature to God, Boston, 1899; Stearns, Present Day Theology, New York, 1893; LeConte, Evolution and Its Relation to Religious Thought, New York, 1894; Hyde, Social Theology, New York, 1895; VanDyke, The Gospel for an Age of Doubt, New York, 1896; Abbott, The Theology of an Evolutionist, Boston, 1897; Clarke, An Outline of Christian Theology, New York, 1901; King, Reconstruction in Theology, New York, 1901, and Theology and the Social Consciousness, New York, 1902; Brown, The Essence of Christianity, New York, 1902; Jefferson, Things Fundamental, New York, 1903; Foster, The Finality of the Christian Religion, Chicago, 1906; Brown, Christian Theology in Outline, New York, 1906; Mathews, The Church and the Changing Order, New York, 1907; Riley, American Thinking, New York, 1915.

XXX. Shepherds of the Modern Church.

1. Richard Baxter of Kidderminster.

NSH, vol. 2; EB, vol. 3; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 3, pp. 429-437; Baxter, Practical Works, collected by Orme, 23 vols., London, 1830, and Select Practical Works, edited by Bacon, 2 vols., New Haven, 1849; Lives by Orme, 2 vols., London, 1830; Stephen (Essays, vol. 2), London, 1860; Grosart (in Representative Non-Conformists, vol. 2), London, 1879; Boyle, (in Men Worth Remembering), London, 1883; Stalker, Edinburgh, 1883; Davies, London, 1887.

2. Jean Frédéric Oberlin.

NSH, vol. 8; EB, vol. 19; Lives by Atkins, London, 1829; Butler, London, 1882; Anonymous, Four Great Philanthropists: Shaftesbury: Peabody: Howard: Oberlin, London, 1896.

3. Nathaniel Emmons.

NSH, vol. 4; EB, vol. 9; Emmons, Works, 6 vols., Boston, 1860-1; Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, vol. I, pp. 693-706, New York, 1859; Dunning, Congregationalists in America, New York, 1894; Walker, Congrega

tionalists, pp. 280-308, &c., New York, 1894; Bacon, The Congregationalists, New York, 1904; Foster, Genetic History of New England Theology, Chicago, 1907; Park, Life of Nathaniel Emmons, Andover, 1861.

4. Hugh Price Hughes.

NSH, vol. 5; Lives by Mantle, London, 1901; Hughes (a daughter), London, 1904; Walters, London, 1907; Hugh Price Hughes as we Knew Him, by the Dean of Westminster and others, London, 1902.

5. Constans L. Goodell.

Life by Currier, New York, 1887.

6. William Stephen Rainsford.

NSH, vol. 9; Rainsford, The Church's Opportunity in the City To-day, New York, 1895, and A Preacher's Story of His Work, New York, 1904.

XXXI. The Music of the Christian Centuries.

General works are these, cited in following sections simply by author's


NSH, vol. 5 ("Hymnology"), and vol. 10 ("Sacred Music "); Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, revised ed., New York, 1907; Winkworth, The Christian Singers of Germany, London, 1869; Butterworth, The Story of the Hymns, New York, 1875; Stainer, The Music of the Bible, London, 1882; Duffield, English Hymns, New York, 1886, and Latin Hymn Writers and Their Hymns, New York, 1887; Glass, The Story of the Psalter, London, 1888; Neale, Hymns of the Eastern Church, London, 1888; Naumann, History of Music, London (no date); Curwen, Studies in Worship Music, 2 vols., New York, 1908; Morrison, Great Hymns of the Church, London, 1890; Palmer, Hymns, Their History and Development (comprehensive), London, 1892; Moulton, The Literary Study of the Bible, Boston, 1896; Parry, Evolution of the Art of Music, New York, 1896; Charles, Te Deum Laudamus, or Christian Life in Song, London, 1897; Barrett, The Earliest Christian Hymns, London, 1897; Warren, The Dies Irae, London, 1897; Barton, The Psalms and Their Story, Boston, 1898; Christophers, Hymn Writers and Their Hymns, reissue, New York, 1898; Campbell, Hymns and Hymn Writers, London, 1899; Horder, The Hymn Lover: Rise and Growth of English Hymnody (of unusual cellence), London, 1900; Smith, Hymns Historically Famous, Chicago, 1901; Breed, The History and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes, Chicago, 1901; Dickinson, Music in the History of the Western Church, New York, 1902;


Leask, Hymn Writers of the Nineteenth Century, London, 1902; Brownlie, Hymns of the Eastern Church, Paisley, 1902, Hymns from the Morning Land, London, 1911, and Hymns of the Early Church, London and New York, 1914; Benson, Studies in Familiar Hymns, Philadelphia, 1903; Jones, Famous Hymns and Their Authors, New York, 1903; Williams, The Story of Organ Music, New York, 1905; Moorsom, Rendering of Church Hymns from Eastern Office Books, London, 1901, and Historical Companion to Hymns Ancient and Modern, London, 1903; Reeves, Evolution of Christian Hymnology, Philadelphia, 1912; Mozley, Sequences and Hymns Chiefly Medieval, London and New York, 1914; Wright, Isaac Watts and Contemporary Hymn-writers, London, 1914; Mearns, Early Latin Hymnaries, New York, 1914; Benson, The English Hymn (important), New York, 1915.

1. The Music of the Bible.

NSH, vol. 10 ("Sacred Music "contains full list of works); Instruments (Stainer); Canticles and psalms (Moulton, Glass, Barton); Great Festivals (Dickinson).

2. Song in the Early Church.

NSH, vol. 5 ("Hymnology"), also Julian (as above); Testimony of the N. T. (Magnificat, Benedictus, Nunc Dimittis, Acts 4:24-30, Eph. 5:14, 19, I Tim. 3:16, James 1:17, Rev. 15:3, 1 Cor. 14:26, Col. 3:16); the oldest Christian hymn of the post-apostolic age,

Shepherd of Tender Youth" (Benson): early doxologies, and the Te Deum laudamus (Charles, Smith, Barrett).

3. Hymns of the Eastern Church.

NSH, vol. 5 ("Hymnology," IV, also the works of Julian, Neale, Barrett, Moorsom, Brownlie, and Mearns).

4. Hymns of the Latin Church.

(Includes the hymns of Ambrose, Hilary, Gregory the Great, Bernard of Clairvaux, Adam of St. Victor, Thomas of Celano.) NSH, vol. 5 ("Hymnology," V, and the works of Duffield, Mearns, Mozley, Morrison).

On individual hymns the following may be noted:

From a Monastery, "Art Thou Weary?" (Smith, Duffield); from a Prison Cell, "All Glory, Laud, and Honor" (Christophers); from the Smoke of Theological Controversy, "Christian, Dost Thou See Them?" (Charles); from Fair Valley, "Jesus, the Very Thought of Thee" (Charles; also Storrs, Bernard of Clairvaux, New York, 1912); from the Crusades, "Stabat Mater" (Duffield); from the Dark Ages and the

"End of the World," "Dies Irae" and "Jerusalem the Golden" (Smith, Duffield).

5. German Hymnody.

NSH, vol. 5 ("Hymnody," VI); Pre-Reformation Songs (Horder); Luther and the Reformation hymns (Dickinson, Smith); Post-Reformation hymnody (Gerhardt, Zinzendorf, Spitta, Winkworth).

6. Psalmody in England.

NSH, vol. 5 ("Hymnody," IX); the Old Singing Psalms (Curwen, vol. I); Puritan England and Psalm Singing (Dickinson); the different versions (Glass).

7. Isaac Watts, the Creator of the English Hymn.

NSH, vol. 12 ("Watts"); EB, vol. 28; also the works of Julian, Horder, Duffield, Smith, and Wright; Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 60, pp. 67-70.

8. The Wesleyan Revival and Christian Hymnody.

Consult XXII, 2; also Curwen (as above); and Tillett and Nutter, Hymns

and Hymn Writers of the Church, Nashville, 1911 (annotates the Methodist hymnal).

9. Women Hymn Writers (Campbell). 10. Hymns of Childhood (Horder).

11. The Story of the Great Modern Hymns.

This subject may be indefinitely expanded. Many interesting incidents are associated with the writing of hymns. Consult Smith, Benson, Butterworth, Morrison, Campbell, Leask, Jones, and Benson.

12. The Rise of Passion Music and Oratorio.

Early Miracle Plays (Naumann, vol. 1); Beginnings of Cantata and Oratorio (Dickinson); John Sebastian Bach (Dickinson).

13. The Evolution of the Pipe-Organ (Williams, Parry).

NSH, vol. 8 ("Organ," and the bibliography there indicated); Ordsley, The Art of Organ-Building (includes history), London, 1913; Locher, Dictionary of the Organ, New York, 1914.


May 2-Zeppelins raid the northern English and
the southeastern Scottish coasts.
3.-Austrian aeroplanes attack Ravenna, Italy.
Russians report repulse of Turks at Baiburt,
in the Caucasus, and capture of trenches before

4. New contingent of Russian troops lands in

5.-Italians claim to have inflicted heavy losses on Austrians in three sectors; Germans are repulsed at Dombrowka on the north Russian front.

6. Turks repulsed at Primorsky, in the Caucasus, and at Sermalkerind, on the Persian boundary toward Bagdad.

7. Steamer Cymric torpedoed without warning
138 miles from Fastnet. Russian transport
carrying soldiers to France sunk by a mine, 600
lives lost. British battle-ship Russell sunk in

8. Germans claim possession of Hill 304 near
Verdun as the result of four days' fighting.
Russian successes claimed against Turks toward
Erzingan, Diabekr, and Bagdad.



9. Russians capture Kasr-i-Shirin,
Persian border, 150 miles from Bagdad.
11.-Germans claim repulse of French at Dead
Man's Hill and capture of 1,658 prisoners since
May 4.

12.-Germans take 500 yards of British trenches,
part of which are again lost. Italians capture
Austrian trenches on Monte Cukla. Petrograd
claims repulse of German offensive near Jacob-
stadt. Berlin claims that Austrian steamer
Dubrovnik was sunk without warning; Paris
reports sinking of an enemy transport with

13. Russian force occupies Rowanduz, 82 miles North of Mosul. British monitor M-30 sunk by Turks.

14-A Zeppelin is reported destroyed off the Norwegian coast.

15. French capture German trenches north of the Meuse. Austrian offensive begins in the Tyrol, where 2,500 Italian prisoners are taken,

and on the Isonzo front. Russians seize Mona-
chatum, 50 miles from Erzingan. British gain
crest of Vimy ridge, commanding the plain of
16-Austrians claim new successes and 4,000
prisoners in the Tyrol. Dutch steamer Batavier
blown up in North Sea, one American lost.
17. Three German cargo boats sunk in the
Baltic by submarines.

18. Austrians make advance of five miles in
the Trentino, the Italians retiring.
19.-German sea-planes raid Kentish coast.
20.-Germans make important gains in Dead
Man's Hill sector. Austrians take Col Santo
ridge in the Trentino.

21. Germans claim capture of 1,300 French at
Dead Man's Hill, and of a mile of trenches
from the British.

22. Austrians win new success in the Trentino,
claiming a total of 24,000 prisoners, crossing
Italian frontier at several points. Italians assert
infliction of heavy losses on Austrians.

24. Germans drive French from Fort Douau-
mont and Cumières in the fiercest fighting of
the war. Austrians report capture of 200 guns
from Italians in the present drive.
26.-Austrians capture mountain ridge with
2,500 prisoners, guns, machine guns, and am-
munition. Italians admit retreat from Monte
Civaron. Bulgarians seize forts in Demir-His-
sar region.

27. French recover part of Cumières and Dou
aumont, claiming 2,000 prisoners in Douaumont
area in five days' fighting.

28. Austrians capture field works at Cornowo and a position in Asiago.

29.-Germans capture over 1,300 French near Cumières.

31.--Austrians cross Posina River and force evacuation of Punta Cordina by Italians. In naval battle in North Sea British lose 6 major vessels, 8 destroyers; German loss not fully ascertained.

June 1-Italians drive Austrians back from Posina River with heavy loss.

1 We will continue this digest till the completion of the war.



Clerical Sincerity and Worship

The question of clerical sincerity in relation to creed-subscription has been ventilated ad nauseam. In the columns of Everyman (London), edited by the distinguished Belgian publicist, Dr. Charles Sarolea, Canon Adderley discusses the same question in its bearing upon the Church of England Prayerbook. Most intelligent laymen, he says, would to-day be prepared to admit that a clergyman may remain in the ministry with perfect honesty, even tho he can not accept everything in the church's theological standards in its old traditional sense; and Parliament has accorded a certain degree of latitude in the matter of creedsubscription.

Now the same is asked in relation to the rest of the Prayer-book; and this is a more serious matter, for it is surely a far more perilous thing to recite a prayer unbelievingly than a creed. It is by our prayers' far more than by our creeds that we create the atmosphere of worship and form our ideas of God. As a matter of fact, both the "high" and the "evangelical" sections of the clergy, not to speak of broad-churchmen and modernists, do, in fact, use the same prayers with widely differing intentions and interpretations, and in many cases not one of these intentions and interpretations is that of the original framers of the respective prayers or liturgical sentences. To come to an even more obvious example, how many clergymen (or thoughtful laymen, for that matter) use the imprecatory psalms in the sense of their authors or that of the compilers of the Prayer-book? As Canon Adderley rightly points out, there is only one alternative in dealing with the difficulty. Either the authorities must realize that the Church has arrived at a transitional stage and accord the same liberty of interpretation as regards creeds, prayers, and ritual in general as it already accords with regard to the Thirty-nine Articles, or else it must pursue the hard and fast policy of the Roman Catholic Church, without the prestige and power of that Church to back it. One need not say which of the two choices is in accordance with common sense, and Canon Adderley is on that side.

"The Splendor of France"

In these words the former Berlin correspondent of the London Christian World characterizes the truly magnificent spirit of union, cooperation, and sacrifice which is distinguishing France to-day. At the call of common danger, but far more at the inspiring challenge of a high ideal, the whole French nation has rallied as one man. For sheer heroic devotion to duty her example stands supreme, and what gives an added touch of splendor is that this devotion is not confined to the fighting ranks. Men have gone to their death in France again and again during these past two years without the inspiring blare of trumpets and the dazzle of military glory. The army of industry has had its heroes by the thousand and its noble ranks of martyrs. When the call for increased munitions came, men were known to die at their work, dropping down never to rise again as the result of long and systematic overwork, willingly and gladly undertaken. Foremen have forfeited their health in toiling day and night to reorganize workshops which had been depleted by mobilization, and they made their sacrifice without a word of complaint. Workmen have gone on for nearly a year without either a weekly rest-day or a holiday, stopping only when the machinery gave way through sheer overpressure. Trade-union laws were put aside; strikes were declared utterly impossible-since the beginning of the war there has not been a single strike in France and Social Democrats are among the most self-sacrificing workers. "Our workmen," said one of them recently, "feel that they must make the fullest sacrifice to gain liberty for the whole world." There is a lesson in all this for the Christian preacher and teacher. If a community can be so indissolubly welded together in one passion of self-sacrifice by the compulsion of a mighty ideal; if a nation can thus be born in one day, why is it that the Christian ideal has been so comparatively inoperative all these years? In hew far is this due to the lack of a truly prophetic ministry-above all to the lack of a ministry in which that ideal has become incarnate? It is a pressing question for the Christian conscience of to

day and the responsibility rests with every individual believer.

The Religious Spirit of the Slav Lecturing at the famous Church of St. Margaret's, Westminster, London, Father Nicholas Velimirovich, a priest of the Servian Church, expounded the spirit of Slav religion, as mirrored not in its liturgies and symbols but in the great Russian novelists. He reminded his hearers that Gogol, Tolstoy and Dostoyefsky wrote at a time when the world had gone mad with the worship of the superman, Tolstoy's War and Peace synchronizing with Carlyle's Heroes and Hero-worship, and Dostoyefsky's The Brothers Karamazov with Nietzsche's Zarathustra. It took some courage for them to take the stand they did at such a time. German philosophy and literature especially had become frankly pagan, and in England Thomas Carlyle had caught the fever. Seneca and Petronius would have appreciated Goethe and Carlyle: they would have failed to understand Tolstoy or Dostoyefsky. After a long silence, the soul of the Christian Slav had risen up and hurled an eternal No against the current worship of force. Through its great novelists, it told a world that would not listen to priests and theologians that the ideal of Christianity is not greatness, but goodness; not might, but meekness; that Christianity came to bring not a new civilization but a new religious force; and that it was as determined to fight a pagan civilization as it had once been determined to fight a pagan barbarism. The lecture was illuminating and timely. We are living when the temptation is strong to fight the pagan spirit by imitating it. There is a tendency to forget that only one force-the force of a nobler, worthier ideal-can overthrow the fabric of evil which is the product of a vicious ideal. To recover belief in the dynamic power of the Christian ideal is our great task. Not the condemnation of force as tho it were evil in itself-a characteristic temptation of the Slav-but the substitution of a right for a wrong force is the secret of true victory.

With the Russian Wounded Among the most efficient and heroic Red Cross workers in Petrograd is Mme. Sophie de Bellegarde (née Princess Ourcussoff), who contributes to the London Church Times

a vivid account of life and work in the Russian military hospitals. "We live as in a furnace," she says, apropos of the ceaseless, intense, body- and soul-racking toil of which the day of a Red Cross worker is made up. "Personal life with all its interests seems to have vanished far away out of our reach. Little as we can do, our very surrender and devotion seem to alleviate the sufferings of the wounded. Every

one helps us. The priests invite all their parishioners to come and aid us. The church of our baptism is our friend through life." Among many pathetic and also inspiring stories of suffering nobly borne and sacrifice freely made, none reveals the wistful soul of the Russian peasant more strikingly than the story of the Siberian soldier who, when asked if he would care to learn to read and write while in hospital, beamed with joy. "I have wished it all my life," he exclaimed, "but there was no one to teach me. I was too far away from a school, and as soon as I was old enough I became a shepherd. Will you teach me?" "Certainly," replied the hospital worker. "Then I have gained much by my wound"-and his face was transfigured with the bliss of expectation. Next day the teacher came to give him his first lesson, but-he was dead. Such glimpses reveal that long-denied craving for mental and spiritual enlightenment which is at once the pathos and the hope of Russia.

Decorating a Ghost

One of the coronation honors conferred upon the occasion of the new Mikado's accession was awarded to "the ghost of the late Lafcadio Hearn." In these days we have become quite accustomed to posthumous honors, notably the Victoria Cross, but we can remember none that came so many years after the recipient's death. It is a wonderful tribute to the profound impression this strange and wayward genius made upon the people into whose very soul he had entered. "Hearn," says a writer in the London Pall Mall Gazette, is still talked of amongst the Japanese as the one foreigner who knew them." Here is an unconscious challenge, not only for the missionary but for the Christian minister at home. There is only one secret of true success-so to lose self in a view and substitutionary sympathy with one's flock as to come to know them "from the inside."

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