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MORRIS-DANCE. -In Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, vol. i. p. 223, ed. Hone, 1834, is the following:

"The word morris, applied to the dance, is usually derived from Morisco, which in the Spanish language signifies a Moor, as if the dance had been taken from the Moors; but I cannot help considering this as a mistake, for it appears to me that the Morisco or Moor dance is exceedingly different from the morris-dance formerly practised in this country; it being performed by the castanets, or rattles, at the end of the fingers, and not with bells attached to various parts of the dress. I shall not pretend to investigate the meaning of the word morris; though probably it might be found at home." He also thinks that the Morisco was a dance for one person only.

Can any one tell me what Strutt was probably thinking off, or what other derivation there is of


Cotgrave says, "A morris-dance, Morisque." The game of nine men's morris, or five-penny morris, may either mean the nine men's dance (which any who has played it would readily understand), or it may be a mere corruption of merelles, from the French mereau, a counter. Most likely morris (a dance) was substituted for merelles, as being better understood. A Morrispike is a Moorish pike. WALTER W. SKEAT. Cambridge.

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PETTING STONE (2nd S. iv. 208.)-Hutchinson, in his History of Durham (vol. i. p. 33), speaking of a cross near the ruins of the church in Holy Island, says:

It is now called the Petting Stone. Whenever a marriage is solemnised at the church, after the ceremony the bride is to step upon it; and if she cannot stride to the end thereof, it is said the marriage will prove unfruitful."

Brand, in his Popular Antiquities (vol. ii.), says:

"The etymology there given is too ridiculous to be remembered; it is called petting, lest the bride should take pet with her supper."

My query is, What is the date of the latest use of this custom in the North of England?



THE PROTESTING BISHOPS.-A friend of mine has recently purchased an oil painting consisting of the portraits of Archbishop Sancroft (in the centre), surrounded by those of Bishops Turner, White, Lloyd, Ken, Lake, and Trelawney. I judgei t to be a well-executed copy of an original,

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ARMS OF PROUY.—I shall be much obliged to any correspondent of "N. & Q." who will inform me what are the arms of Prouy, or Provy, who commanded the Angoumois regiment, raised by Louis XIV. about 1685. JOHN DAVIDSON.

QUOTATION WANTED.-"Natura in operationibus suis non facit saltum." Can the true source of this be pointed out? I am aware that it has been ascribed to Leibnitz, and also to Linnæus. In the ninth volume, however, of Fournier's Variétés historiques et littéraires (p. 247), he prints a piece which appeared in 1613, entitled "Discours véritable de la vie et de la mort du géant Theutobocus,"-and in it this expression is given as a citation. It can scarcely, therefore, be ascribed

to either Leibnitz or Linnæus. C. T. RAMAGE.

"SAWNEY'S MISTAKE." - Can any of your readers give me any clue to the whereabouts of a poem, published about 1783, called Sawney's Mistake? I fancy that it is written in illustration of an old Scotch legend. C. C. B.

FAMILY OF SERLE.-Can you assist me in discovering who are the representatives of a family named Serle, who formerly lived at Testwood, Hants? Peter Serle of that place, according to Burke's Landed Gentry, married Miss Dorothy Wentworth, apparently towards the close of the last century, for no date is given; and this lady died, according to the obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine, in Berkeley Street, Manchester Square, of Peter Serle, late of Testwood, Hants. Another on December 15, 1809. She is described as relict Peter Serle, Colonel of the South Hants Militia, died in the Regent's Park in December, 1826. E. WALFORD.

Queries with Answers.

STE. AMPOULE.-On the reverse of a medal of Louis XIV (Menestrier, Histoire du Roy Louis le Grand, p. 5), above the view of the city of Rheims, is a dove descending, holding a flask in its beak, and surrounded by rays of light. The explanation given is ("SACRAT. AC. SALUT. RHEMIS IVNII. VII")—

"Sacré et salué à Rheims le 7 juin, 1654 - Le revers est la S. Ampoule qui descend du Ciel, avec la ville de Rheims, où se fit le Sacre, et où il fut salué Roy par les Princes," &c. &c.

Again, Froude's History of England, v. 454, I, find in a note

"The Cardinal of Lorraine showed Sir William Pick

ering the precious ointment of St. Ampull, wherewith the King of France was sacred, which he said was sent

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Will some correspondent of " N. & Q." kindly give me some account of the Ste. Ampoule and the sacred oil, or references by which I may be able to find it out for myself?

JOHN DAVIDSON. [The Holy Vial, the Ste. Ampoule, anciently made use of at the coronation of the kings of France, was kept in the venerable abbey of St. Remi at Rheims. There is a tradition that this vial, filled with oil, descended from heaven for the baptism of Clovis in the year 496. It was formerly brought in great ceremony from the Abbey of St. Remi to the metropolitan church of Rheims by four men of rank, who were styled the Hostages of the Holy Vial, preceded by the abbot of the convent, where it was deposited upon the high altar, and the oil contained in it applied to anoint the breast, the hands, and the head of the new sovereign. The Ste. Ampoule, says the Encyclop. Catholique, was impiously broken to pieces by Ruhl, a member of the National Convention, in 1794. Certain inhabitants of Rheims, however, collected the fragments, and ultimately restored them to their place in the cathedral. There is an engraving of this Holy Vial in the European Magazine, xxiii. 246. Consult also "N. & Q." 2nd S. viii. 381.]

M. DE LAMOIGNON'S LIBRARY.-When was the Bibliotheca Lamoniana sold, and where did it exist? Several of my books bear its mark, and also that of the Pinelli Library, of which I possess the catalogue, but have no knowledge of the former collection. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.

[The library of the celebrated M. de Lamoignon, Keeper of the Seals of France, was purchased by Thomas Payne, the bookseller, and brought to London in 1793. The Catalogue consists of three volumes, 8vo, and was printed at Paris in 1791-2. A great many volumes from this library are in the British Museum.]

T. K. HERVEY.-In Chambers's Cyclopædia of English Literature, vol. ii. p. 583, I find the following:

"Mr. Hervey, a native of Manchester (1804-1859), for some years conducted the Athenæum literary journal, and contributed to various periodicals, &c."

In Dr. Angus's Handbook of English Literature, p. 271, occurs the following:

"T. K. Hervey (1804-1859), native of the neighbourhood of Paisley, and for some time editor of The Athenaum, &c."

Which of these statements is the correct one? D. MACPHAIL.


[The account of Thomas Kibble Hervey in the Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1859, appears carefully compiled. It is there stated that "Mr. Hervey was born in Paisley on the 4th of February, 1799. He left Scotland

in his fourth year with his father, who settled in Manchester as a drysalter in 1803."]

PLAYING CARDS.-Moguls, Harrys, Highlanders, Merry Andrews. Can any of your readers inform me the origin of any of the above terms as applied to the different qualities of playing-cards? ROBERT H. MAIR.

65, Ludgate Hill.

[These strange technical names are simply given to distinguish the four qualities into which the cards are sorted, and which bear respectively a portrait of the Great Mogul (the best), of King Henry VIII., a Highlander, and a Merry Andrew. We believe these names were first adopted in 1832 in the improved mode of manufacturing cards by the Messrs. De La Rue.]

RICHARD CORBET, Bishop of Oxford, 1628, of Norwich, 1632, was a distinguished wit in his time. By his writings he appears to have been a poet and a traveller. Can you tell me the best edition of his works? W. H. S.

[The best edition of the Poems of Bishop Corbet is the fourth, with considerable additions, edited, with biographical notes and a Life of the Author, by Octavius Gilchrist, F.S.A., post 8vo, 1807. A notice of this witty poet will be found in the Retrospective Review, xii. 299322.]

"SONGE D'UN ANGLAIS."-"Songe d'un Anglais [un Français ?], fidèle à sa patrie, et à son Roi. Traduit de l'Anglais. A Londres; et se vend chez M. Elmsley, Strand, 1793. 8vo." Not translated, but originally written in French by the author. This book seems unknown to French R. T. bibliographers. Is the author known?

[This spirited work was first printed in French; but to give it a wider circulation it was translated into English in the same year. See the Gentleman's Magazine for August, 1793, p. 734.]

"A VISION," ETC. - In Davidson's Biblioteca Devon, there is a piece named "A Vision; or the Romish Interpretation of 'Be ye Converted," a dramatic poem. What is the date, and where was the book printed? Can any Devonshire reader inform me who wrote this squib, which seems to be of an ecclesiastico-political character from the title ? R. I.

[This work was printed and published by the Messrs. Seeleys of Fleet Street, in 1851, 8vo, pp. 30.]

"VENELLA," unde derivatur? Verb. occ. in antiquâ chartâ terrier nuncup. QUÆRE.

[Ducange has the following: "Venella, et Venula. Veculus, angiportus, via strictior, Gallis Venelle, quod vene, ut ruga rugæ in corpore speciem referat, alii a venire deducunt."]



(3rd S. xii. 6, 39, 94.)

arrive at the conclusion that it is a pirated edition, and that the "brief" prefix is the ignorant compilation of some Ned Purdon of the day. I am quite certain that no such edition and memoir were ever authorised by Dr. Wolcot. Piratical and even used that nom de plume for poems that booksellers made very free with Peter Pindar, oftentimes were the most wretched doggerel never issued from the real Simon Pure, and which imaginable. One of these spurious poems was a "Hymn to the Virgin [Joanna Southcott], by small 8vo pamphlet. It was not without merit. Peter Pindar, Esq." This composition filled a It may probably be found in the 4 vols. 12mo discovered by E. S. D. It will thus be seen that "the compilers of the catalogue" have every they were about when they said that Dr. Wolcot authority "for their statement," and knew what "took orders." E. S. D. may rest assured that the Catalogue of the National Portrait Exhibition of 1867 is carefully compiled; and that the for Promoting Christian Knowledge," and also editors, and also the Committee of "The Society the acute and accurate Robert Chambers, and also the editors of a French Cyclopædia, are not misleading the literary world when they describe Dr. Wolcot as "Rev." and in "holy orders." but he was never degraded or "inhibited,"Wolcot was perhaps no honour to the church;

Since my last note, I have made a search. The following is the result:-Wolcot was born in 1738, as stated by J. B. DAVIES. He was apprenticed to a surgeon. I cannot find that he was ever an L.S.A. or an M.R.C.S. The probability is, that he practised "before the Act." became intimate with the old Cornish family of He Trelawney; and, along with Sir W. Trelawney (? Sir Harry), he went to Jamaica in the capacity of domestic surgeon and medical adviser to the baronet's family and estate. His patron, after inducing Wolcot to act as an unordained teacher of religion, persuaded him to take holy orders. He accordingly returned to England. He was ordained priest and deacon by Bishop Porteus. He then went back to Jamaica, where he had a living given to him by the baronet. This he resigned: not because he had committed any irregularities, canonical or otherwise, but in consequence of the death of his friend rendering the island no longer an agreeable residence. He is Isaid to have been neither in dress nor manners particularly clerical; but in those days Jamaica churchmen were anything but ritualistic; they were not "particular to a shade or two!" Certain it is that his conduct as a clergyman did not As connected with Peter Pindar, I can state as give any offence to the Trelawneys, for he left Jamaica and returned to England with the baroa fact that, during his residence in Camden Town, net's widow, Lady Trelawney. He then obtained Scales, better known as "Alderman Scales." Mr. he became acquainted with the late Michael a physician's degree, and practised at Truro. I Scales was a wholesale butcher in Whitechapel, cannot discover where he got his diploma. It or rather a salesman. He was a man of good eduwas probably a Scotch one. His poetical pub-cation and gentlemanly manners; and being an lications range from 1785 to 1808. He died, as stated by MR. DAVIES, in Jan. 1819, at Camden Town. He was blind for some years. He was buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, in a vault close to that of Butler, the author of Hudibras. The two resembled each other in many respects, but not in their worldly prospects. Butler died in extreme poverty. Wolcot left a fortune of 20007.


When E. S. D. speaks of an edition of Peter Pindar's Works, 4 vols. 12mo, 1809, "with brief memoirs of the author prefixed," he astonishes me. I should like to have the title-page in full. I would know the publisher's name, and also that of the brief biographer. I know no such edition. I will not assume that it is a myth.* I can only

[* This edition in 18mo is entitled "The Works of Peter Pindar, Esq. with a Copious Index. To which is prefixed some Account of his Life. In Four Volumes." Printed by S. Hamilton, Weybridge, and published by J. Walker, Paternoster Row; J. Harris, St. Paul's Churchyard, and the other principal booksellers of the time. It❘


once a clergyman, always a clergyman." E. S.D. cannot unfrock Peter Pindar.

excellent stump-orator, he became a violent democrat, and one of the most popular civic agitators. Mr. Scales was thrice elected alderman for refused to swear him in. Every frivolous objeca City ward, but the Court of Aldermen always tion was raised. One ground of objection was, that Mr. Scales had in public recited an immoral poem. The piece thus characterised in aldermanic affidavits was a MS. poem called "The Fleas," written by Dr. Wolcot, and by him presented to Mr. Scales. In the expensive litigation that ensued between Scales and the aldermen, the poem was produced in court by Mr. Scales himself; and the judges decided that, although "The is what is usually called a trade edition. To each volume is prefixed two engravings. The Memoir of the Author is anonymous, and makes seven pages. The writer states that as the Bishop of London refused him ordination, "he declined applying in any other quarter for admission to the church, and reverted to a profession for which, it is no great disrespect to say, he was far better qualified.”— ED.]

Fleas" was a little legère, it was not enough so to disqualify its possessor or reciter from filling a civic dignity! Mr. Scales once showed me the MS. in the doctor's handwriting, but at this distance of time I have not the slightest recollection of what the fleas did, or said, or saw. The poem was never published. Dr. Wolcot published a medical work-I think, on Tinea capitis.



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(3rd S. xii. 66.)

Baptisteries were exedræ or exterior to the church (see the authorities in Bingham, iii. 117), with distinct apartments for men and women (Aug., Civ. Dei, xxii. 8). But "the place was immaterial so long as there was water, whether a sea or lake, river or fountain, in Jordan or in the Tiber, as St. Peter and St. John baptised their converts (Tertul. De Bapt., c. iv.). After the sixth century, according to Durant (De Ritibus, i. 19, n. 4), on the authority of Gregory of Tours, baptisteries were included in the walls of the church, and some in the church porch, where King Clodoveus was baptised. The baptistery of St. John Lateran at Rome is still after the ancient model. They were large, and the name μéya pwTIOT PIOV, "the great illuminary," was given to them. Councils sometimes met and sat therein.

Baptism itself was originally administered by immersion (see Rom. vi. 4, Col. ii. 12, compared with St. Chrysostom, Homil. xxv. in Joh.), and indeed generally by trine immersion (Tertul., Adv. Prax., xxvi., and De Cor. Mil., iii.), either in symbolical allusion to the Trinity (as was the opinion of Tertullian, Adv. Prax., ib., and St. Jerome, Ad Ephes. iv.), or perhaps to the three days of Christ's lying in the grave (according to St. Cyril of Jerus., Mystagog. Catech. ii. 4), or, as is the opinion of Gregory (Epist. i. 43), to both. In case of sickness the church, even in ancient times, administered this sacrament by sprinkling (St. Cyprian, Epist. lxxvi.). Baptism was a Jewish custom, to which our Lord adhered. New institutions, according to Jewish practice, involved baptism by water, as a sign of initiation. Hence John's baptism was different to Jesus's.

With reference to the bread used at the Lord's Supper, it was unleavened, and not unlike the oat cakes eaten in Lancashire, that is, thin and brittle from the many holes with which it was pierced; that is, it was passover-bread. The external celebration of this supper consisted in eating the bread and drinking the wine, which were part of the offerings of the congregation; and thereupon the bishop, in the name of the people, again offered them to God (poσépeper, àvépeper, offerebat). On this account the Lord's Supper was called first of all a poσpopά, oblation, and subsequently also by

the adoption of a kindred notion, which, however, had a tendency to modify the original one, sacrificium, ovoía. (See, for instance, Justin Mar., Dialog., p. 210; Irenæus, Adv. Hæres., iv. 18; Cyprian, Epist. xxviii. 9, 11, 77, &c.; and also Concil. Namnetense, A.D. 896, c. 9). The bread used, being common bread, was leavened (Kowòs apros, according to Justin Mart., Apol.; and Irenæus, Adv. Hær., iv. 18; Ambros. De Sacramentis, iv. 4; Innocentius, Epist. xxv.; also Vita Gregorii Mag., ii. 41, by John the Deacon, in the fourth century). The first notice of the use of unleavened bread is in the ninth century, by Rabanus Maurus. T. J. BUCKTON.

Streatham Place, S.

W. H. S. represents, in a rather invidious way, that the exceptional practice of affusion has become the rule in the English church, as if in it only. If he will turn to the Catechism of the Council of Trent, ii. 17, p. 326 of Donovan's edition, he will find it stated that affusion was the "general practice" in the middle of the sixteenth century. So at least Dr. Donovan has translated "vel aquæ effusione, quod nunc in frequenti usu positum videmus." Has W. H. S. ever tried baptising a few children by immersion, after the second lesson?


(3rd S. xii. 78.)

J. H. B.

P. A. L. is informed that I do not reside at Florence. I am too great a traveller to say that I have any fixed residence. I presume, however, that such an unnecessary remark as P. A. L. commences his "reply" with is to make my ignorance of Italian unde derivaturs more remarkable. I maintain what I have stated at 3rd S. xi. 455. P. A. L.'s reply is to "Brignole," which may be and probably is the same name as "Brignoles." As Brignole terminates with a vowel, it certainly more resembles an Italian name than one ending with an s. Italian names rarely end with a consonant; genuine Italian names never do so. I have met with a few ending with consonants, such as Dominus, Fabricius, Livius, &c., but I have always regarded such names as of Roman rather than Italian origin. Brignoles and Brignole cannot rank with this last-named class. The learned Italian Professor Arpeggiani of Lausanne, to whom I showed the reply of P. A. L., says that neither Brignoles nor Brignole is Italian. He is of opinion that they are French names. The "distinguished person" in P. A. L.'s communication, it appears to me, was no Brignoles or Brignole, but one who bore the surname of "Sale." This is not an uncommon Italian name; it signifies "Salt." We have families so called in England, ex. gr. that of Titus Salt of Bradford,

M.P. Our name may have originated with the my orders to you."-"Why not, Sir?"—"I don't Puritans, and been first assumed by some pious know who you are."-"I am a lieutenant."--"I man who considered himself one of "the salt of should not judge so from your dress."-"I am the earth." But what about "Ct. Brignole- aware of no defect in my dress."-"You have no Sale" and "Antony Julius Brignole-Sale, Mar- buckles in your shoes!" The lieutenant dequis Groppoli"? What signifies the hyphen be- parted, supplied the omission, and returning, again tween Brignole and Sale? P. A. L. is not presented himself upon the admiral's quarter-deck, M. A. L., or he would be aware that in some prepared to take his revenge. The first formalities parts of Italy, in French Switzerland, in many having been gone through, Sir John was proGerman districts, and in other parts of the Con- ceeding to give his instructions, when, to his tinent, it is customary to add the wife's surname great surprise, the lieutenant said he could not to that of the husband. When this is done, the take his orders. 66 Why not?" inquired the name of alliance is, by a hyphen, separated or startled Jervis.-"I don't know who you are," joined to that of the husband, for either expres- was the reply."I am Sir John Jervis, Comsion may be used. Sometimes the female name mander-in-chief of his Majesty's Fleet, &c."comes first; sometimes it is last. A distinguished "I cannot tell by your dress" (for in truth the Professor in Florence is "Signor Ristori-Taylor." admiral wore a simple undress). Sir John, withThe Pastor of Orsière (Canton de Vaud) is "Pas-out another word, for he was fairly caught, reteur Dixon-Gaudin." In both these instances tired into his cabin, whence he soon emerged in the wife's name is added. I could collect in the full costume of an admiral, and the officer, Lausanne alone a hundred instances of this con- having expressed his satisfaction, received his tinental custom. "Brignole-Sale seems to me orders. to fall in with this class of names. The surname of the ambassador, and of the marquis and priest, was Sale, and Brignole is an added name, originally one of alliance. The perpetuation of such assumptions or adjuncts is very common. had the genealogy of the Marquis of Groppoli, we should probably find that at some period or other one of his race married with an English or Norman-French lady who bore the name of Brignole or Brignal. Brignoles is so truly Saxon, that I cannot yield it up to Italy. It signifies the bridge (brig) of the knoll, i. e. a level verdant mead. P. A. L. may be a better Italian scholar than I am. I defy him, however, and he may

If we

take all the Italian dictionaries and vocabularies
to assist him--to make either good or bad Italian
out of Brignoles, Brignole, or Brig Nole! Should
he succeed, I shall expect the result of his labours
in "N. & Q." Can P. A. L. give the arms of
the marquis?



(3rd S. xii. 106, 137.)

Lord St. Vincent was exacting upon minute points of etiquette to a degree which was irksome to his subordinates. It was the custom for a lieutenant from each ship in the fleet to go on board the admiral's ship, daily I believe, for orders, but the office was always fulfilled unwillingly. On one occasion, and in a particular vessel, a dispute arose among the lieutenants, each trying to show that the duty was not his; until, to the great relief of the others, a spirited young fellow volunteered. He went on board and introduced himself to the admiral, then Sir John Jervis, who after scanning his uniform, said, "I cannot give

The story goes that speedy promotion followed in this, as well as in the case related by J. S., for Jervis had the good sense to appreciate the spirit of the one as well as the wit of the other. I have heard both anecdotes from one who served in the navy during nearly the whole of the war; and he added that one of the two officers became an especial favourite of the chief whom he had so fittingly rebuked, insomuch that orders were given for the ship commanded by him to sail near the admiral's, for the sake of the personal intercourse which this arrangement would facilitate. S. F.


(3rd S. xii. 52, 99.)

The Parc-aux-Cerfs was established in 1753 by the Duchess of Pompadour. Richelieu, the profligate duke, suggested the scheme to her. It had aleady become a fashion amongst the aristocratic roués. The girls received fortunes, and married "à la haute bourgeoisie des fermes et de la finance"; and if any had children by the king, these were provided for in the army or in the church (Capefigue, Louis XV., xxxi. 257). The Queen Maria Leczinska and the dauphin (married and having a family) opposed this ignoble depravity ineffectually; but other members of the royal family paid court to Pompadour (id. 259). Pompadour, with dark and freckled skin and speckled teeth (id. 208), died at the age of forty-two, on April 14, 1764. As duchess, she was entitled to a stool in the presence of royalty, whilst inferior orders stood; sitting on hams, as at the Turkish court, or on the heels, as in the Siamese court, not being allowed. The French aristocracy carried their assumption of servile power to such an extent, that the king could not

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