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It seems to me that the words mas occasionatus, over which C. P. F. stumbles, are perfectly inexplicable, and arise from some error of the copyist or printer (he merely calls the work unpublished; was it printed ?) To suppose that a word signifying tributis gravitus, burdened with taxes," can mean "imperfect," " emasculated," is too great a stretch of imagination. Let me suggest that the author wrote mas succisionatus, which, being written masuccionatus, became corrupted as above. Succisio signifies "cutting away ; and

"succisa libido" is "emasculated lust "in Claudian. Or, with the same meaning, exsectionatus might be read, which might easily be changed into occasionatus by one copying from dictation. E. B. NICHOLSON.


Occasio-natus is a compound of two words. The passage in question reads thus: "He saith also, that the woman is born for the occasions [the wants, or uses] of the male,"-not complimentary, but strictly biblical. ATHEN EUS H.

DOLE (3rd S. xii. 7, 55, 79, 117.)-Your correspondent MR. ADDIS speaks of dole (= dolor) as being "of the very rarest occurrence in modern poetry." It seems quite familiar in this sense to myself: one passage not already cited in Tann-, häuser has it twice:

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SWATFAL HALL (3rd S. xi. 378, 463.)-Otherwise Swatchfield or Swatsall Hall. Is probably the house still known by that name in the parish of Gislingham, in the hundred of Hartismere, Suffolk. The noble proprietor, Lord Henniker, whose father purchased the estate about forty years ago, has informed me that the hall was built by Antony Bedingfeld according to the inscription on his monument; whereon also is recorded, among other virtues, that he was pious, loyal, hospitable— pλóleos, piλoßaσiλeús, pixógevos. This confirms the Lyra Elegantiarum, and the explanation given" by MR. JONATHAN BOUCHIER of the lines

"All you that e'er tasted of Swatfal Hall beer, Or ever cried roast meat for having been there." I should be glad to know if there are many other topographical references in The Country Wedding. W. H. S.


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SHEKEL (3rd S. xii. 92.)-It may interest GAMMA to know that I have a duplicate of his shekel. The Hebrew legends are the same-viz. (in English), "Shekel (of) Israel," and "Jerusalem the Holy." The "vase and smoke rising' (perhaps an emblem of the daily sacrifice) on the obverse, and the "branch" on the reverse (possibly a reminiscence of "Aaron's rod that budded "), are likewise identical.

I cannot think that these coins or medals are of nently modern. I shall venture to assign them any antiquity. Their style of execution is emito either a Warsaw or a Lisbon artist, those two capitals being the head-quarters of Judaism for centuries past.

The medals may be the expression of a national pride, or indicative of an expectation of their longed-for future glories; but that they belong to the true period of Jewish history, as a nation, would scarcely be allowed by any numismatist.


T. W. W.

KEATS AND "HYPERION" (3rd S. xi. 363.)—Had Keats had any classical education in addition to his undoubted high poetic genius, he would surely not have accentuated the word Hyperion as he has, but would have laid the accent on the penultimate syllable i (Hyperion) instead of on the antepenultimate vowel e; nor could he have coined such an epithet as Aurorian for morning clouds; nor could he have been guilty of such anachronisms as, for instance, where he says (in about the middle of the first book) that Hyperion


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Your correspondent MR. J. BOUCHIER says that Keats wrote Hyperion under the influence of Milton's sublime epic. To some small extent possibly he did; but Milton, with his classic lore, could never have committed such faults as I have above mentioned. Perhaps poor Keats would have corrected them had not his life been so prematurely ended as it was.


T. S. N.

THE FRENCH WORD "VILLE" IN COMPOSITION (3rd S. xi. 379.)-Your correspondent X. asks how it is that we have in England such names as Sackville, Pentonville, and Tankerville, though, as he says, the rule is, in the formation of compound words, that the constituent parts should be taken from the same language. I would, however, remind X. that our language abounds with exceptions to such rule: as, for example, "grandson," "valueless," "numberless," "because," "belabour," betray," "bewray," &c., in all which compound words one of the constituent parts is of Latin, and the other of Saxon, origin. I am aware that some think the words "betray" and "bewray" are entirely of Saxon origin; and not only so, but that they are also identical in meaning. I cannot subscribe to that opinion, as I think they involve ideas as essentially different; nay, as opposite one to the other as truth to falsehood, and light to darkness. T. S. N. NOSE-BLEEDING (3rd S. xii. 42, 119.) - Your occasional correspondent, MR. NOAKE, in his account of Hanley Castle, printed in the Birmingham Gazette, August 12, 1867, quotes at length a manuscript account of life in a Worcestershire baronial hall at the end of the last century, as described by the late Sir E. H. Lechmere, who, in his very interesting narrative, has not omitted to give full particulars of the in-door servants at Of the cook he says:Hanley Castle.

"She was very superstitious. A mole was found one day in the garden, having had three of its legs cut off, and bleeding at each of the amputated joints. This cruel experiment had been tried upon the poor little animal as a charm for the toothache by the merciless queen of the kitchen, and one of the requisitions to make the charm work effectually was that the victim should be turned out alive."


Two CHURCHES UNDER ONE ROOF (3rd S. xii. 105.)-MR. PIGGOT says that the churches of St. Margaret and All Saints in this place are under one roof. It is not so: true it is that they are only separated by arches, and now form the two aisles of the present church; but the two roofs are perfectly separate and distinct. The living was formerly in medieties, which are now united, and I suppose at the union the churches standing close together were thrown into one.

CHARLES F. S. WARREN, B.A. 6, Cliff Cottages, Pakefield, Lowestoft.

FALSE QUANTITY IN BYRON'S "DON JUAN " (3rd S. xii. 127.)-MR. BUCKTON has certainly not bettered the line by his addition of the word too. According to his copies the line possesses a redundant syllable, and he proceeds to correct the blemish by introducing another, and making a complete hash of the metre, which requires five feet, not sir. The true reading at once struck me as being,

"And Zoe spent hers, as most women do."

So crept in between the first two words clearly through its similarity to the first syllable in Zoe. volume edition (1846) I found that the line stood On afterwards referring to Murray's large oneexactly as I have written it above. I can only suppose that your correspondent's copy belongs to one of the early editions, which notoriously contain many typographical errors.


If MR. BUCKTON, instead of adding another word to the line in his copies, already too redundant, -and thus by the way increasing the false quantity had simply erased the superfluous word 66 SO " he would have brought the line to its original state, as it correctly appears in the onevolume edition published by Murray in 1837:

"And Zoe spent hers, as most women do." The error must have arisen from some careless or ignorant compositor scanning Zoe as a monosyllable; a stupid mistake, since the same name appears also in the second line of the stanza as a dissyllable. R. M'C.

The first octavo edition of Don Juan, published by Murray, but not bearing his name on the titlepage, has


"And Zoe spent hers as most women do." I submit that " so" is an error of the press. BUCKTON'S addition removes the false quantity, but makes an Alexandrine. H. B. C. U. U. Club.

[This luckless misprint has covered our table with so many replies, their name is " Legion."-ED.]

ROYAL CHRISTIAN NAMES (3rd S. xii. 131.)—A writer on polyonomous people (Delicia Literaria) gives the following extract from Camden's Remains, p. 44:

"Two Christian names are rare in England, and I onely James, as the prince his sonne Henry Frederic; and remember now his majesty, who was named Charles among private men Thomas Maria Wingfield, and Sir Thomas Posthumous Hobby."

The writer who quotes the above also makes the very just deduction that the fashion of three names can only have become prevalent since the close of the last century, if there were any grounds for the curious theory of an Irish peer mentioned by Moore (Fudge Family, Letter IV. note), who held that every man with three names was a

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BISHOP HAY (3rd S. xi. 427; xii. 136.) — I am not disposed to yield assent to the assertion of A. S. A., that the See of Bishop Hay in partibus was Daulia. I still maintain that it was Daulis. This city in Phocis had its name from the nymph "Daulis," (see Lempriere). I am old enough to remember when Bishop Hay was living, and to testify that he was always called Bishop of Daulis. In all accounts that I have seen of the Vicars Apostolic of Scotland he is so styled. In an account of Bishop Hay, written for the Catholic Magazine for June, 1831, he is styled Bishop of Daulis. In another account of him in the Ordo Recitandi for 1842, and on his portrait prefixed to it, he is called the same. So I prefer adhering to these authorities, and conclude with one of A. S. A.'s own quotations: "Ipsa nimirum est quæ Ptolemæo


F. C. H.

VENT: WEALD (3rd S. xii. 131.)-It is easy to see that seven vents may be taken to mean seven outlets, and the possibility of assigning it to this meaning may have assisted in corrupting the phrase. The true form, however, is went. Went, a course, way, is the noun formed from the verb wend, to go; so that, in fact, the three phrases, to gang one's gate (cf. Mar-gate, Rams-gate), to go one's way, and to wend one's went, mean just about the same thing. It is good old English, and may be found in Genesis and Exodus, ed. Morris (Early English Text Society). In line 63 occurs the expression "this walkenes turn;" i. e. "the course of the welkin," which in line 136 is changed for "this walkne went." Wild is also a corruption, of course due to an ignorance of the old meaning of weald, yet the two words are not connected in the slightest degree. Wedgwood gives " WEALD, A.S. weald, Ger. wald, wood, forest. The weald of Kent is the broad woody valley between the bare chalky downs which occupy so large a portion of the county." MR. WOOD calls it "wooded and remote," i. e. both a weald and wild; but we cannot call it both at once in a single word, any more than we can suppose wooded to mean remote. WALTER W. SKEAT.

The word went is frequently applied to a crossroad in Kent. Four wents is the common term

for "four cross-roads." Vent may be the proper form, for nothing is more common than to find the turned into a "wee" in Kent. Cooper, in his Sussex Glossary, gives both forms: vent in some places called went, at others throws-a place where several roads meet. He instances Flimwellvent. Halliwell also gives the word: "Went, a crossway, a passage "; but he assigns no locality for the use of the word.

To Huntington's rendering of weald may be added Dr. Johnson's

"Thou fliest for refuge to the wilds of Kent." London, 257.

At all events I understand him to mean the wealds or woodlands of Kent. Cooper's Sussex Glossary has the following remarks, s. v. "Weald:"

"Sax., a grove or wood: peculiar, says Dr. Leo, to almost all German dialects collectively. It is the name given in Sussex to the large woodland tract which extends from the Downs, with which it runs parallel, to It was formerly an immense forest, the Surrey hills. Andredes-weald. The word is also used for a like district called by the Britons Coit-Andred, and by the Saxons in Kent, but the term is rare in local names in the sense of woodland." J. M. COWPER.

In Essex roads crossing each other are called Want Ways. Thus, at Takeley, near Dunmow, the spot where the roads to that place and to Thackstead cross each other, is called Takeley Four Want Ways. There is another Four Want Ways near Epping.


FREDERICK, PRINCE OF WALES (3rd S. xii. 138.) In reference to the MSS. of the Rev. Henry Etough your correspondent H. P. D. observes that, if they are in existence, they may very probably supply an answer to the query with respect to the natural children of the Prince of Wales. Such an answer might, however, be undesirable as affecting the reputation of families of the aristocracy of the time. Sir Nathaniel Wraxall, in his Historical Memoirs, has a suggestive paragraph or two on this head. I quote one:

"The personal resemblance that existed between Lord North and Prince George [afterwards George III.] was so striking as to excite much remark and pleasantry on the part of Frederick himself, who often jested on the subject with Lord Guilford; observing, that the world would think one of their wives had played her husband false, though it might be doubted which of them lay under the imputation."

Query-Whom did Prince George and Lord North most resemble, Frederick Prince of Wales or Lord Guilford? In a picture in the National Portrait Gallery at Kensington, the former is represented taking part in a musical performance with two of his sisters, and his portrait is distinctly presented; but there is no trace of resemblance between his features and those of Prince George and Lord North. JAYTEE.

JOHN ARCHER (3rd S. xii. 109.)—Was not this the same person who was taken into custody on May 21, 1640, for being concerned in the attack on Archbishop Laud's palace at Lambeth, and who was the last person subjected to the torture in England? (Knight's England). Is not his will at Doctors' Commons? There is the will, in the Prerogative Court, of "John Archer Clericus," dated April 17, 1649, and proved in the same His wife's name appears to have been


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WILLIAM SHARP, SURGEON (3rd S. xi. 497; xii. 39.)-This person was perhaps hardly of sufficient importance to entitle him to much biographical record; but one or two slight errors exist in the notice of him which was obligingly sent to "N. & Q." by D., in reply to my query: and as it is always worth while to be right, even in small matters, I beg to forward a short rejoinder. Wadd's Nuga Chirurgica is one of the most slovenly and incorrect books I know of, and woe be to the portrait-collector who takes it for his guide! It swarms with mistakes of every kind. Names are wrongly spelt, facts incorrectly given, and dates are in a state of hopeless confusion. In the notice quoted by D. (xii. 39) Sharp's name has a superfluous e. The statement about Blicke is so confused, that the reader might fancy it was not he, but Sharp, who "remained principal surgeon at the hospital to the last day of his life." Sharp never became full surgeon at all. By the kind courtesy of the present treasurer of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, I have been enabled to ascertain that William Sharp was elected assistant-surgeon in February, 1755; and resigned that office, and quitted the hospital, in 1779. The pamphlet, which Wadd ludicrously describes as advocating the use of "paper splints," was really written to recommend splints made of pasteboard-a very different material. The full title is as follows:

"An Account of a New Method of treating fractured Legs, read before the Royal Society of London," &c. Pp. 16, London, 1767.

The change that a century has effected in the City of London is curiously illustrated by this pamphlet, which is dated from Mincing Lane. Sharp afterwards removed to the Old Jewry.


THE PROTESTING BISHOPS (3rd S. xii. 149.) A picture, similar to that described by your correspondent MR. WING, was formerly at the White Ladies in the suburbs of Worcester, while in the possession of the late Mrs. Thomas, to whose family it had been given by the Rev. Richard Meadowcourt, a prebendary of Worcester Cathedral in the early part of the last century. Dr. Meadowcourt is said to have received it as a gift from one of the bishops. It was an oil painting of very considerable merit. At her decease, some years since, it passed to some of her connections, and I am unable to trace its present position. I cannot say whether it was an original, or well

executed copy. I believe there is a similar picture in the National Portrait Gallery. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.

MORE FAMILY (3rd S. xii. 109.)—An answer about the family of Sir Thomas More ought to be made, as the question was asked, in "N. & Q." I send a copy of an inscription, which I have frequently seen, on a small monument at the entrance to the sacristy of St. Joseph's Catholic It was copied church, Trenchard Street, Bristol. for me by the late Rev. Father Knight, of the same order, who ended a life of austerity to himself, and unceasing care for others, by a serene and holy death in 1859.

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"THOMAS. MORUS. Sacerdos. integerrimus. pientissimus. Thomæ. Mori. Martyris. Magni. postremus. Abnepos, decessit. placidissimo. exitu. X.III. calendas. Junii. A. MDCCXCV. Hic. clarissimi. atavi. cognominis. sectator. rem. omnem. familiarem. tantique. nominis. splendorem. religiosa. professioni. posthabuit. Deo. obsecutus. Societati. Jesu. nomen. dedit. in. eaque . quadriennium. Sociis. per. Angliam. præesse. meruit. post. sublatam Societatem. opes. modicas. queis. casta.

pepercerat. Religio. partim. juvandis. Bristolii. Catholicis . partim . alendis. in. almo. Collegio. Missionis. alumnis . dicavit. Vixit. annos. LXX.III. in. Societate. Jesu. quoadusque. ea. mansit. annos. XX.II." Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells.

D. P.

MARRIAGE OF FIRST COUSINS (3rd S. x. 179.)— This is a very important subject, social and statistical. Allow me to mention a fact tending to disprove the generalisation of MR. LLOYD'S observations. There is a numerous tribe of Arabs, extending over a large portion of Western Arabia, where the marriage between cousins may be said to be the rule, and not the exception, as no girl can, by their customs, marry a man not her relation, should any of her cousins wish to have her, and to them is always offered the first bidding. This, of course, proves how common is the practice, and I am pretty certain that no inferences such as those made by MR. LLOYD have ever been drawn. On the contrary, the Arabs thereabouts are a very fine race. HOWDEN.

THE WORD "BEAGLE" (3rd S. xii. 113.)Campbell has used this word as a synonym for hunting-dogs generally. The beagle is a small dog that hunts by scent, and its cry is not a bay; but I think MR. KEIGHTLEY is unnecessarily hard on Campbell, who is entitled to the full stretch of the poetic license. The word "beagle" is in French bigle, with almost identical pronunciation. We may have taken the word from them, but with them it also means "squint-eyed," which has led me a chase to hunt down the word. The French

have three allied words: 1. Bige, a sort of chariot, or car (? Buggy) allied to Italian biga (from Lat. bis jugo), the Lat. biga, and Greek diphros. 2. Bigle, a sort of dog, a beagle. 3. Bigler (allied to Italian bieco? from Lat. bis oculus), squinteyed, or to squint.

The root here appears to be from the Latin prefix bis, applied to the yoke and the eye; and the French may have applied the word bigle to the hound from an analogy with its look or expression of eye; but I had hoped to trace a connexion with biga as a sort of carriage dog; part of the ancient equipage, adopted at first as a sporting dog of large proportions, but degenerated

into a smaller attendant.

In Eastern sculptures we see hunting carried on in chariots, where immense dogs pull down large and fierce prey. H. R. A.

GENERAL SMITH OF PRETTEWELL (3rd S. xii. 131.)-Beside the works, Wood's Athenæ, &c. named by your querist as giving information respecting Samuel Smith of Prettewell, Chalmers, in his Biographical Illustrations of Worcestershire, states he was born in Dudley in 1588, and gives some further particulars of his life, and a list of his works. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.

QUOTATIONS WANTED: POE'S "AL AARAAF " (3rd S. xi. 354.)-By referring to "N. & Q." 3rd S. v. 194, MR. JONATHAN BOUCHIER will find that the passage has already been sought for, whether successfully or not I cannot say, as my series of "N. & Q" is incomplete. A parallel passage is also there adduced. W. C. B.

TWO-FACED PICTURES (3rd S. xi. 257, 346, 423, 510; xii. 58.)-For similar ingenious devices, see "N. & Q." 3rd S. vi. 227, 276, particularly PROFESSOR DE MORGAN'S communication. The dramshop version mentioned by P. P. (3rd S. xi. 510) I was acquainted with, in two instances, in Hull, a few years ago. W. C. B.



MESSRS. LONGMAN & Co. announce for publication in the approaching season, the "Memoir and Correspondence of Sir Philip Francis, K.C.B." commenced by the late Joseph Parkes, continued and edited by Herman Merivale, M.A. in 2 vols. 8vo.-The late Mr. Joseph Parkes, whose literary tastes were as well known to those who were intimate with him as his political and public labours were to his contemporaries in general, devoted a very large portion of his time during the later years of his life to an inquiry into the life of Sir Philip Francis, and his alleged connection with the "Letters of Junius." In the pursuit of his investigation of these subjects, he became possessed of a large mass of original papers and correspondence of Sir Philip and members of his family: of the manuscript reminiscences and other memorials of

him left by Lady Francis, Sir Philip's second wife of a number of miscellanous papers which had been in possession of Henry Sampson Woodfall, the publisher of the Public Advertiser; together with a quantity of other MS.

materials, lent or given him by persons, members of whose families had been connected in various ways with Francis during his long career. The arrangement of these materials, and the completion of a Life founded on them, became an engrossing occupation with Mr. Parkes. But he commenced his operations on them upon a scale which the present editor found it impossible to maintain. Mr. Parkes left behind him eight chapters completed, conducting his hero only down to the year 1768, in which the first Letter of Junius appeared. At that point his labours were terminated by death. Had he lived to comseveral volumes, and would have contained a storehouse plete them, the work must have been extended through of information, not respecting its immediate subject alone, but concerning much of the intimate history of English public men through the whole reign of George III. Mr. Parkes left a very large quantity of materials as yet unused; but not in such order as to enable a successor to take up the thread of the narrative, and continue it on anything like the scale on which he had commenced it. The editor has therefore contented himself with completing the Life on a reduced plan, and leaving Sir Philip Francis to speak chiefly for himself, and the "Junian" portion of the subject to unravel itself, by extracts, as far scripts entrusted to him for the purpose by the family of as space would admit, from the great body of manuMr. Parkes.

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Notices to Correspandents.

B. A. Lewys Dunn's Heraldic Visitations of Wales were edited by Sir Samuel R. Meyrick, 2 vols. 4to, and printed by the Welsh MS. Society in 1846.

S. REDMOND. The lines on the Rule of the Road are by the witty Henry Erskine. See" N. & Q." 3rd S. x. 63.

CHR. COOKE. Under the word " Spires" in " N. & Q." 2nd S. vols. ii, iii. ix. x. are twelve articles on Crooked Church Steeples.

E. B. NICHOLSON. The passage quoted from Campbell's" Battle of the Baltic "has the same reading in the earliest edition of his Poems (1828), as well as in the latest, that of 1862.

S. JACKSON. The first volume of the Ballads and Romances of Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript has just been published by Trübner & Co.

T. The phrase" By the bye" has been discussed in " N. & Q." 1st S. ii. 424; iii. 73, 109, 193, 229, 433; 3rd S. viii. 348, 459; ix. 88, 168.

GEORGE LLOYD. The universal air of Home, sweet Home," which gives John Howard Payne, the American dramatist, a hold on the affections of the world, occurs in Clari, or the Maid of Milan. See "N. & Q." 2nd S. iv. 10; v. 506.

ERRATA. 3rd S. xii. p. 154, col. i. line 20, for "Lange" read "Jeanne Vaubernier;" p. 176, col. ii. line 15 from the bottom, for more than a breeze may "read" more than a brave man may."

A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. & Q." is now ready, and may be had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price la. 6d. or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for 1s. 8d.

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