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for God giveth not the Spirit by measure a unto him.

35 The Father loveth the Son, b and hath given all things into his hand.

36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life; and he that believeth not the Son shall not see

a Ps.45.7; Is.11.2; 59.21; chap.1.16; Col.1.19. b Mat.28.18. c Ha.2,4; ver. 15,16.

Messiah. God.

Speaketh the words of The truth, or commands of God. The Spirit. The Spirit of God. Though Jesus was God as well as man, yet as Mediator God anointed him, or endowed him with the influences of his Spirit, so as to be completely qualified for his great work. By measure. Not in a small degree, but fully, completely. The prophets were inspired on particular occasions to deliver special messages. The Messiah was continually filled with the Spirit of God.. "The Spirit dwelt in him not as a vessel, but as in a fountain, as in a bottomless ocean," (Henry.)

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35. Loveth the Son. Loves him eminently, above all the prophets and other messengers of God. Hath given all things; see Note, Mat. xxviii. 18.

36. Hath everlasting life. Has or is in possession of that which is a recovery from spiritual death, and which shall result in eternal life in heaven. Piety here is the same that it will be there, except it will be expanded, matured, purified, made more glorious. It is here life begun--the first breathings and pantings of the soul for immortality-yet it is life, though at first feeble and faint, which is eternal in its nature, and which shall be matured in the full and perfect bliss of heaven. The Christian here has a foretaste of the world of glory, and enjoys the same kind of felicity, though not the same degree, that he will there. TShall not see life. Shall neither enjoy true life or happiness here nor in the world to come. Shall never enter heaven.¶ The wrath of God. The anger of God for sin. His opposition to sin, and its terrible effects in

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this world and the next. ¶ Abideth on him. This implies that he is now under the wrath of God, or under condemnation. It implies also that it will continue to remain on him. It will abide or dwell there as its appropriate habitation.

As there is no way of escaping the wrath of God but by the Lord Jesus Christ, so those who will not believe must go to eternity as they are, and bear alone and unpitied all that God may choose to inflict as the expression of his sense of sin. Such is the miserable condition of the sinner! Yet thousands choose to remain in this state, and to encounter alone all that is terrible in the wrath of Almighty God, rather than to come to Jesus, who has borne their sins in his own body on the tree, and who is willing to bless them with the peace, and purity, and joy of immortal life.


1. The Lord knew. When Jesus knew. How the Pharisees had heard. The Pharisees here seem to denote either the members of the sanhedrim, or those who were in authority. They claimed the authority to regulate the rites and ceremonies of religion, and hence they supposed they had a right to inquire into the conduct of both John and our Lord. They had on a former occasion sent to inquire of John to know by what authority he had introduced such a rite into the religion of the people; see Note, chap. i. 25. ¶ More disciples than John. The Pharisees, though many of them came to his baptism (Mat. iii.), yet those who were in authority were displeased with the The success of John, John i. 25. reasons of this were probably the

2 (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,) 3 He left Judea, and departed again into Galilee.

4 And he must needs a go through Samaria.

a Lu. 17.11.

severity and justness of his reproofs (Mat. iii. 7), and the fact that he drew many after him, and thus weakened their authority and influence. As they were displeased with John so they were with Jesus, who was doing the same thing on a larger scale, not only making disciples, but baptizing also without their authority, and drawing away the people after him.

5 Then cometh he to a city of Samaria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph.

6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied

b Ge. 33. 19; 48. 22; Jos. 24. 32.

mount Gerizim. It was one of the oldest cities of Palestine, and was formerly known by the name of Shechem, or Sichem; Gen. xxxiii. 18; xii. 6. The city was in the tribe of Ephraim, Josh. xxi. 21. It was at this place that Joshua assembled the people before his death, and here they renewed their covenant with the Lord; Josh. xxiv. After the death of Gideon 2. Though Jesus himself baptized it became a place of idolatrous worThe reasons why Jesus did not ship, the people worshipping Baalbaptize were probably because preach-berith; Judg. ix. 46. It was deing the gospel was his main and most important work, and because if he had baptized it might have made unhappy divisions among his followers: those might have considered themselves most worthy or honoured who had been baptized by him; compare 1 Cor. i. 17.


3. He left Judea. The envy and malice of the Pharisees he might have known were growing so rapidly as to endanger his life. As his time to die had not yet come, he retired to Galilee, farther from Jerusalem, and a country much less under their control than Judea; see Mark iii. 6; Luke iii. 1. Though Jesus feared not death, and did not shrink from suffering, yet he did not needlessly throw himself into danger, or provoke opposition. He could do as much good in Galilee probably as in Judea, and he therefore withdrew himself from immediate danger.

4. And he must needs go through Samaria. Samaria was between Judea and Galilee. The direct and usual way was to pass through Samaria. Sometimes, however, the Jews took a circuitous route on the east side of the Jordan; see Note, Mat. ii. 22.

5. Sychar. This city stood about fifteen miles south of the city called Samaria, between mount Ebal and

stroyed by Abimelech, who beat down the city and sowed it with salt; Judg. ix. 45. It was afterwards rebuilt, and became the residence of Jeroboam, the king of Israel; 1 Kings xii. 25. It was called by the Romans Flavia Neapolis, and this has been corrupted by the Arabs into Naplous, its present name. It is still a considerable place, and its site is remarkably pleasant and productive, (Geography of the Bible). The parcel of ground. The piece of ground; or the land, &c. ¶ That Jacob gave, &c.; see Gen xlviii. 22.

6. Jacob's well. This is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It was called Jacob's well probably either because it was handed down by tradition that he dug it, or because it was near to the land which he gave to Joseph. There is still a well a few miles to the east of Naplous, which is said by the people there to be the same. It is dug in a firm rock about three yards in diameter and thirtyfive in depth. ¶ Sat thus. Jesus was weary, and being thus weary, sat down on the well. He sat down weary on the well. The word translated on here may denote also by. He sat down by the well, or near it. The sixth hour. About twelve o'clock. This was the common time of the Jewish meal, and this was the reason why

with his journey, sat thus on the well: and it was about the sixth hour.

7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water. Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink.

8 (For his disciples were gone away unto the city to buy meat.) 9 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.

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his disciples were gone away to buy food, ver. 8.

7. Of Samaria. Not of the city of Samaria, for this was at a distance of fifteen miles, but a woman who was a Samaritan, and doubtless from the city of Sychar. ¶ Give me to drink. This was in the heat of the day, and when Jesus was weary with his journey.

The request was also made that it might give him occasion to discourse with her on the subject of religion, and in this instance we have a specimen of the remarkably happy manner in which Jesus could lead on a conversation so as to introduce the subject of religion. 40

8. Buy meat. Buy food.

9. No dealings with the Samaritans. For an account of the Samaritans, and of the differences between them and the Jews, see Note, Mat. x. 5.

10. The gift of God. The word gift here denotes favour. It may refer to Jesus himself as the gift of God to the world, given to save men from death (chap. iii. 16), or it may refer to the opportunity then afforded her of seeking salvation. If thou knewest how favourable an opportunity God now gives thee to gain a knowledge of himself, &c. And who it is, &c. If thou knewest that the Messiah was speaking. ¶ Living water. The Jews used the expression living water to denote springs, or fountains, or running streams, in opposition to dead and stagnant water. Jesus here means to denote by it his

10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.

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11 The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water?

12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle?

c Is. 12.3; 41. 17, 18; Je. 2. 13; Zec. 13.1; 14.8; Re.22.17.

doctrine, or his grace and religion, in opposition to the impure and dead notions of the Jews and the Samaritans; see ver. 14. This was one of the many instances in which Jesus took occasion from common topics of conversation to introduce religious discourse. None ever did it so happily as he did. But by studying his example and manner, we may learn always to do it. One way to acquire the art is to have the mind full of the subject, to make religion our first and main thing, to carry it with us into all employments and into all society, to look upon every thing in a religious light, and out of the abundance of the heart the mouth will speak.

11. Hast nothing to draw with. It seems that there were no means of drawing water affixed to the well as with us. Probably each one took a pail or pitcher and a cord for the purpose. And in travelling this was indispensable. The woman seeing that Jesus had no means of drawing water, and not yet understanding his design, naturally inquired whence he could obtain that water. ¶ The well is deep. If the same one that is there now, it was about thirty-five feet deep.

12. Art thou greater? Art thou wiser or better able to find water than Jacob was? It seems that she supposed he meant that he could direct her to some living spring or to some better well in that region, and that this implied more knowledge or skill than Jacob had. To find water

13 Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again:

a chap. 6. 35.

14 But a whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the water that

b chap. 17. 2, 3; Ro. 6. 23.

like a traveller wandering through such a desert. It is thirsting for happiness, and seeking it every where, and finds it not. It looks in all directions, tries all objects, but in vain. Nothing meets its desires. Though a sinner seeks for joy in wealth and pleasures, yet he is not satisfied. He still thirsts for more, and seeks still for happiness in some new enjoyment. To such a weary and unsatisfied sinner the grace of Christ is as cold waters to a thirsty soul. ¶ Shall never thirst. Shall not want for ever. He shall be satisfied with this; and will not have a sense of want, a distressing feeling that it is not adapted to us. He who drinks this will not wish to seek for happiness in other objects. Satisfied with the grace of Christ, he will not desire the pleasures and amusements of this world. And this will be for ever-in this world and the world to come. Whosoever drinketh of this; all who partake of the gospel, shall never thirst, but shall be for ever satisfied with its pure and rich joys.

and to furnish a good well was doubt-soul by nature is like such a desert, or less considered a matter of signal skill and success. It was a subject of great importance in that region. This shows how ready sinners are to misunderstand the words of Christ, and to pervert the doctrines of religion. If she had had any proper anxiety about her soul, she would at least have suspected that he meant to direct her thoughts to spiritual objects. ¶ Our father Jacob. The Samaritans were.composed partly of the remnant of the ten tribes and partly of people sent from Chaldea. Still they considered themselves descendants of Jacob. Which gave us. This was doubtless the tradition, though there is no evidence that it was true. And drank thereof, &c. This was added in commendation of the water of the well. A well from which Jacob and his sons and cattle had drank must be pure, and wholesome, and honoured, and quite as valuable as any that Jesus could furnish. Men like to commend that which their ancestors used, as superior to any thing else. The world over, people love to speak of that which their ancestors have done, become fond of titles and honours that have been handed down, even if it is nothing better than existed here, because Jacob's cattle had drank of the water.

13. Shall thirst again. Jesus did not directly answer her question, or say that he was greater than Jacob, but he gave her an answer by which she might infer that he was. He did not despise or undervalue Jacob or his gifts. But however great might be the value of that well, the water could not destroy thirst altogether.

Shall be in him. The grace of Christ shall be in his heart; or the principles of religion shall abide with him. A well of water. There shall be a constant supply, an unfading fountain; or religion shall live constantly with him. Springing up. This is a beautiful image. It shall bubble or spring up like a fountain. Not like a stagnant pool; not like a deep well, but like an ever-living fountain that plays at all seasons of the year, in heat and cold, and in all external circumstances of weather, whether foul or fair, wet or dry. So religion always lives, always shows its beauties, and amidst all changes of external circumstances: in heat and cold, hunger and thirst, prosperity or affliction, life, persecution, contempt, or death, it still lives on, and charms us by its beauty, and refreshes and The cheers the soul. ¶ Into everlasting

14. The water that I shall give him. Jesus here refers without doubt to his teaching, his grace, his Spirit, and the benefits which come into the soul that embraces his gospel. It is a striking image, and especially in eastern countries, where there are vast deserts and often a great want of water.

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ven, and prepared her to admit that he was the Messiah, ver. 29.

17. I have no husband. This was said evidently to evade the subject. Perhaps she feared that if she came there with the man that she lived with, the truth might be exposed. It is not improbable that by this time she began to suspect that Jesus was a prophet. ¶ Hast well said. Hast said the truth.

life. It is not temporary, like the supply of the natural wants. It is not changing in its nature. It is not like a natural fountain or spring of water, to play awhile and then die away, as all natural springs will at the end of the world. It is eternal in its nature and supply, and will continue to live on for ever. We may learn here: 1st. That the Christian has a never-failing source of consolation, adapted to all times and circum- 18. Hast had five husbands. Who stances. 2d. That religion has its have either died; or who, on account seat in the heart, and that it should of your improper conduct, have diconstantly live there. 3d. That it vorced you; or whom you have left sheds its blessings on a world of sin, improperly, without legal divorce. and is manifest by a constant life of Either of these might have been the piety, like a constant bubbling spring. case. Is not thy husband. You 4th. That its end is everlasting life. are not lawfully married to him. It will continue for ever; and whoso- Either she might have left a former ever drinks of this shall never thirst, husband without divorce, and thus but his piety shall be in his heart a her marriage with this man was unpure fountain springing up to ever-lawful, or she was living with him lasting life. without the form of marriage, in open guilt.

15. The woman said, &c. It may seem strange that the woman did not yet understand him; but it shows how slow sinners are to understand the doctrines of religion.

19. A prophet. One sent from God, and who understood her life. The word here does not denote one who foretells future events, but one who knew her heart and life, and who must therefore be from God. She did not yet suppose him to be the Messiah, (ver. 25.) Believing him now to be a man sent from God, she proposed to him a question respecting the proper place of worship. This question had been long disputed between the Sa

16. Go, call thy husband. We may admire the manner which our Saviour took to lead her to perceive that he was the Christ. His instructions she did not understand. He therefore proceeded to show her that he was acquainted with her life, and with her sins. His object, here, was to lead her to consider her own state and sin-maritans and the Jews. She subfulness a delicate and yet pungent mitted it to him because she thought way of leading her to see that she was he could settle the question, and pera sinner. By showing her, also, that haps because she wished to divert the he knew her life, though a stranger to conversation from the unpleasant her, he convinced her that he was topic respecting her husbands. Nothqualified to teach her the way to hea-ing is more common than for sinners

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