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HISTORY OF MAN.
IN FOUR VOLUME S:
Author of ELEMENTS of CRITICISM, &C.
Printed for the United Company of BooKSELLERS.
to Francis- OF THE Panton Panton Jun
HISTORY OF MAN.
BOOK I. Continued.
Progrefs of MANNERS.
HERE are peculiarities in the appearance, in the expreffions, in the actions of fome perfons, which, in oppofition to the manners of the generality, are termed their manners. Such peculiarities in the bulk of a nation, by which it differs from other nations, or from itself at different periods, are termed the manners of that nation. Manners therefore fignify a mode of behaviour peculiar to a certain perfon, or to a certain nation. The term is not applied to mankind in general; except perhaps in contradiftin&tion to other beings.
Manners are difinguished from morals; but in what refpect has not been clearly explained. Do not the fame actions relate to both? Certainly; but in different respects: an action confidered as right or wrong, belongs to morals; confidered as characteristical of a perfon, or of a people, it belongs to manners.
Manners, peculiar to certain tribes, and to certain governments, fall under other branches of this work. The intention of the prefent sketch is, to trace out the manners of nations, in the different ftages of their progrefs, from infancy to maturity. I am far from reA z gretting,
gretting, that manners, produced by climate, by foil, and by other permanent caufes, fall not under my plan: I fhould indeed make but a poor figure upon a fubject that has been learnedly difcuffed by the greateft genious of the prefent age (a).
I begin with external appearance, being the firkt thing that draws attention. The human countenance hath a greater variety of expreflions than that of any other animal; and fome perfons differ widely from the generality in these expreffions. The fame variety is obfervable in human geftures; and the fame peculiarity in particular perfons, so as to be known by their manner of walking, or even by fo flight an action as that of putting on or taking off a hat: fome men are known even by the found of their feet. Whole nations are diftinguishable by the fame peculiarities. And yet there is less variety in looks and geftures, than the different tones of mind would produce, were men left to the impulses of pure nature: man, an imitative animal, is prone to copy others; and by imitation, external behaviour is nearly uniform among those who study to be agreeable; witness people of fashion in France. I am acquainted with a blind man, who, without moving his feet, is conftantly balancing from fide to fide, excited probably by fome internal impulfe. Had he been endowed with eye-fight, he would have imitated the manners of others. I reft upon these outlines: to enter fully into the subject would be an endless work; difproportioned at any rate to the narrowness of my plan.
Drefs must not be omitted, because it enters into external appearance. Frovidence hath clothed all animals that are unable to clothe then felves. Man can clothe himself; and he is endowed befide with an appetite for drefs, no less natural than an appetite for food. That appetite is proportioned in degree to its ufe: in cold, climates it is vigorous; in hot climates, extremely faint. Savages muft go naked till they learn to cover themfelves; and they foon learn where covering is neceffary. The Patagonians, who go naked in a bitter cold climate, must be woefully ftupid. And the Picts, a Scotch tribe, who, it is faid, continued naked down