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France. In 1814, the son of a Protestant French clergyman (Martin) was brought over, and placed in the Borough Road School, in order to acquire a knowledge of the system; early in 1815 at his own request Martin was joined by a friend and fellow student, Frossard; before the close of the same year, three Schools were organized in Paris by these young men; and in the early part of 1816, the schools in France were directed to be established by a royal decree. In those which had been previously formed, the children of Catholics and Protestants were taught together, according to the liberal plan of the Parent Society; but the clergy soon had the influence to cause a separation between Catholics and Protestants; and it was decreed, that schools should be established for each: the King however set an example of enlightenened policy, which is even worthy of the imitation of England, he encouraged the Protestants to educate their children, and ordained that their schools should be equally supported with the Catholic: accordingly, although numerous applications have been made by the French Protestants to their government for pecuniary sup
port, it has never in a single instance been withheld.
Spain. In the year 1817, at the request of the Government, Captain Kearney, a Catholic, was admitted to learn the plan at the Borough Road. He then went to Madrid, and opened a boys' school, under the patronage of the Duke Del'Infantado. In 1819, the King issued a decree, directing Lancasterian Schools to be established throughout Spain. A Society, formed at Cadiz, has corresponded with the Borough Road Committee for advice. In 1820, Reports were received of the establishment of several schools, and the opening of a girls' school.
Italy. In 1817, the British System Mastroti adopted the plan in one of was introduced at Naples: the Abbé their public establishments. The Abbé Campbell also opened a school, and was supplied with a manual and instructions from London. Since that time a Society has been formed at Florence, and twelve or fourteen schools have been established upon the plan in Tuscany :—it is generally spreading throughout Italy, and the Committee at the Borough Road watches every opportunity, to encourage the formation of schools in that interesting country.
Russia.-When the Emperor of Russia was in England in the year 1814, the nature of the British System was explained to him. In the following year two Russian officers attended Martin's school, at Paris; and several schools were soon established in the Russian army quartered in France. In 1816, four Russian youths, travelling by order of the Emperor, to study the subject of education, learnt the system at the Borough Road. In 1817, Count Romanzoff opened his school at Homel, which is superintended by a young man trained at the Borough Road. In 1818 and 1819, the Treasurer, in his travels through Russia, visited schools for many thousands of the children of soldiers, established precisely upon the System of the British
and Foreign School Society. In 1820 a schoolmistress was sent by the Committee to St. Petersburg, to introduce the system for girls.
Poland.-Schools on the plan are now establishing in the neighbourhood of Vilna, in Poland.
Sweden. In 1818, the nature of the system was explained to the King of Sweden; and in the next year Adolphus Gerelius, Secretary to the King, spent some time in the Borough Road in acquiring a practical knowledge of the System: since he returned home, he has corresponded with the Committee, and two schools are now established at Stockholm. They have translated the manual into the Swedish language.
Denmark.-In Denmark the system is making progress as fast as circumstances will permit.
Brussels. At the instance of the late Duke of Kent, a society was organized the 29th of October 1819, patronized by the Prince of Orange, and liberally supported by the inhabitants; and in March 1820, a school on the British System was opened, in a hall granted by the Corporation.
In Germany, and in other European nations, the Committee are using every means in their power to promote the introduction of the British System.
Malta. In 1818, the Committee paid the expenses of a person who came from Malta, to learn the plan: he returned home in the following spring. A society is formed there, and they have now schools established upon the system for boys and for girls.
ASIA. The system was first introduced in India by the late Duke of Kent, who established it in one of his regiments. The gentlemen of the Baptist Mission having been furnished with an instrument by the Parent Society, they have done, and are doing, incalculable good. In the In the year 1816, they sent out to Serampore a young man trained at the Borough Road, who has not only formed a model school, but made it a
point from which the system has been widely diffused. But though the system has been thus happily planted for the boys in that district of British India, the poor girls there, as almost every where upon the Continent, have been deplorably neglected: the Committee of the Borough Road are therefore preparing to send out a female, to form a model girls' school at Calcutta, or some other place under the protection of those resident gentlemen who constitute the Calcutta School Society.
Ceylon. In 1819, two Wesleyan Missionaries, having studied the system at the Borough Road, left England for Ceylon; and interesting accounts of their successful proceedings have been since received.
The Mauritias.-A schoolmaster, a young man of colour, well qualified for the undertaking, is upon the point of going out to form a model school, under the protection of Governor Farquhar.
AFRICA. In the year 1815, several African youth, educated at the Central Establishment, and qualified for masters, were sent to Sierra Leone under the patronage of the African Institution, which appropriated a considerable part of its funds to the establishment of the system there; a model school was formed, and some thousands of black children are now taught in that colony. In 1815 a school was opened at Cape Town, and the Missionaries in South Africa have established schools at several of their stations.
AMERICA. In the remaining quarter of the world, America, the British System of Education has widely spread. Some schools were established prior to 1811, but they generally succeed very imperfectly, unless they are organized by a qualified master. Accordingly, in the year 1811 Robert Ould, one of Joseph Lancaster's early pupils, went to Maryland, and established a model school at George Town. A school was also opened at Washington for 350 children.
From this time schools continued to
spread upon the American continent; but the want of a general superintending committee being severely felt, application was made to the Parent Committee in London for assistance. Accordingly, in 1818 a young man was sent to New York to reorganize the schools. In this year too an act was passed in Pennsylvania, directing that the schools in the city and county of Philadelphia should be conducted on the Lancasterian system. In 1819, the New York school scontained 3600 children, and those in Philadelphia 3000. In 1820, very satisfactory reports of the moral effects of these schools were received both from New York and Philadelphia: the scholars in New York had increased to 4112.
Nova Scotia. In 1813 Walter Bromley opened a school upon the system at Halifax, which he reported to contain 637 girls and boys. In 1816 he further reported on the good effects produced; and this year the Government granted 2001. towards its support in 1820 the benefits resulting from the school were so apparent, that the House of Assembly granted money for new school rooms.
Hayti.-In 1816, application was made from Cape Henry to the British and Foreign School Society, for masters qualified to open schools upon their plan. This application was immediately complied with, and a young man was sent to the island, who soon established a model school for 200. In 1817, the Society sent another of their masters, who also gave great satisfaction; and soon after, a lad of colour was sent at the request of the Government. In 1818, six schools were reported, which continued to prosper in 1820 there were éleven, conducted by native teachers, and containing 1300 children. President Petion, in the year 1816, having requested a schoolmaster upon the British System, the Society sent out a young man, who established a model school at Port au Prince; but in the next year, 1817, he fell a
sacrifice to the climate. * The school was afterwards conducted by the Methodist Missionaries. On the death of Petion, his successor, President Boyer, patronized the schools; and one of the inhabitants reported, in 1820, that the schools were in good order, and that the President was engaged in establishing more. At his request, the Committee has recently sent out a well-qualified master.
The system is established in the Island of Dominica, under the protection of Governor Maxwell; and also in the Danish Island of St. Croix. The Committee is informed of a school in Antigua for 1000 persons, children and adults; and there are also schools in some of the other islands. It is worthy of remark, that in an insurrection which took place among the slaves in Barbadoes a few years ago, none of those who had received education were to be found among the insurgents.
A wide field is opening for the spread of the system in South America; two masters have been trained at the Institution, and are upon the point of setting out for Chili and Santa Fé Scripture Lessons in Spanish are now being printed for the use of these Schools.-A Scotch gentleman, who had studied the system at the Central School, has established several schools in the government of Buenos Ayres.
The Sun of Knowledge is thus "darting its beams across the gloom profound:" it is pouring light upon thousands, and preparing the way for the spread of those essential truths which are developed in the Gospel, and which, if universally acted upon, would convert the wilderness of this world into a paradise.
*His death was deeply felt by many of the inhabitants, who with tears followed the corpse to the grave: the children also mournful procession, and wept his loss as whom he had instructed joined in the that of a father and a friend.
Human Life; with reference to Learning and Knowledge.
deserve to be called learned and Reflections upon the Conduct of knowing, in comparison of another that is less so. But absolutely speaking, the most that any or all of us either know or can know, is of little consideration. What we know of God is but little; for as the apostle says, We see through a glass darkly:' what we know of ourselves perhaps is less, and what we know of
(Continued from p. 83.) REFLECTION III. Wherein the general conduct of human life is taxed with too importunate a pursuit of Knowledge in general.
1. HAVING past the two first stages of our Intellectual Conduct, that of the End and that of the Means, and reflected on the irregularities of each; I come now to the third and last, which consists not in the choice of the object, or of the method to it, but in the degree of affection wherewith it is prosecuted. And this part of our conduct is as irregular and faulty, if not more so, than either of the former: and the fault of it is, a too importunate pursuit of knowledge in general. 2. This charge is of a larger extent than either of the preceding: Those concerning such only, as either misplace the object, or mistake the method of learning. But not only they who err in the placing of learning, or in the way to it, bat even they who are right in both, come under this censure; they all agree in pursuing it too importunately.
3. In order to make out the truth of this charge, it will be necessary first to consider, how far it becomes man to employ himself in the prosecution of knowledge; and then it will be easy to determine, whether our general pursuit of it be immoderate or no. Now for the determination of the former, let us observe the present state of man, the posture wherein he now stands.
4. And, first, the utmost knowledge man can arrive at in this world, by his utmost endeavours, is very inconsiderable.
God indeed has given us reason enough to distinguish us from the brute creation, and we may improve it so far, as to distinguish ourselves from one another :- And so one man may
the world about us, is not much: "We have seen but a few of God's works," and we understand yet fewer. There are almost an infinite number of things which we never so much as thought of; and most things we conceive very darkly and uncertainly; and there is not one thing from the greatest to the least, which we do or can understand thoroughly. Those that apply their whole study to any one thing, can never come to the end of that; for not only every science, but every particular of each has its unmeasurable depths and recesses. It is confest by a great enquirer into the nature of antimony (as it is related by Mr. Boyle,)" That it is impossible for one man to understand thoroughly that single mineral only." And if a man cannot understand all of so little, how little must he understand of all? Suppose farther, that all the knowledge of all the learned were put together, it would weigh but light. For what one art or science is there that is brought to any tolerable perfection? And if the common stock be so little, how small a pittance is it that must fall to every particular man's share! And where is that man, who after all his poring and studying, is able to answer all the questions, I will not say which God put to Job, but which may be asked him by the next idiot he meets ?
5. It is superfluous, as well as endless, to display the particulars of our ignorance; though indeed, when all accounts are cast up, that will be found to be our best knowledge. This only in general, our life is so short, our progress in learning so slow, and learning itself so long and tedions,
and what we do or can know so very little, that the sceptics had much more reason to conclude from the disability of our faculties, and the slightness of our attainments, than from the uncertainty and instability of truth, that there is no knowledge.
6. But, secondly, if it were possible for us to attain a considerable measure of knowledge, yet our life is so short and so encumbered, that we could make but little of the enjoyment of it. All the morning of our days is spent in the preliminaries of learning, in mastering words and terms of art, wherein there is nothing but toil and drudgery. And before we can taste any of the fruits of the tree of knowledge, before we can relish what is rational, our sun is got into the meridian, and then it presently begins to decline, and our learning with it. Our light, our strength, and our time, make haste to consume; nothing increases now but the shadows, that is our ignorance and darkness of mind; and while we consider and look about us, the sun sets, and all is concluded in the dark shadow of death. But often the sun is intercepted by a cloud long before it sets, and we live backward again, grow weak and childish, silly and forgetful, and unlearn faster than we learned. Or if it chance to shine bright to the last, then we grow too wise for ourselves, and reject the greatest part of what we had learned before, as idle and insignificant.
7. Thirdly, there is no necessity of being so wonderfully learned and knowing here. It is neither necessary, as enjoined by God, nor as a means to any considerable end. We can be good and we can be happy without it. And lest any advantages in our after-state should be alleged, this makes it more unnecessary than any consideration besides. For though we are never so unlearned now, yet if we know enough to do our duty, we shall in a short time arrive at such a degree of knowledge, as is requisite to our supreme perfection, to which our present learning cannot add, and
which our present ignorance will not diminish. Perhaps not immediately upon our discharge from the body, though even then there must be a vast enlargement of our understanding ; but doubtless, when we are admitted to the vision of God, we shall then commence instantaneously wise and learned, and be fully possest of the tree of knowledge, as well as of the tree of life. For then that glass, through which we now see darkly, shall be laid aside, and the field of truth shall be clearly displayed before us. And though even then there shall be degrees of knowledge, yet the variety of this dispensation shall not proceed by the degree of our knowledge in this life, but by another measure. For,
8. Fourthly, though there is no necessity of our being so learned and knowing, yet there is of our being good and virtuous. This is necessary, both as commanded by God, and as a means of our final perfection. And besides, it is necessary now, there being no other opportunity for it. If we do not know here, we may know hereafter, and infallibly shall, if we are but good here. But if we are not good here, we shall neither be good, happy, nor knowing hereafter. The main opportunity for knowledge is after life; the only opportunity of being good is now and if we take care to improve this, we are secure of the other; but if this is neglected, all is lost. This therefore is indispensably necessary, and it is the only thing that is so: and it is necessary now; necessary not only to our happiness in general, but also to our intellectual happiness in particular. For,
9. Lastly, thus stands the case between God and man. Man was made in a state of innocence and perfection, in perfect favour and communion with God, his true good, and in a capacity so to continue. From this excellent state he wilfully fell, and by his fall so disabled himself, that he could not by his own strength repent,