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appellations and glittering vanities. In his eye nothing is stamped with the character of glory, but that which gives to the spirit of liberty a higher elevation and wider range of action which enlarges and beautifies the temple of knowledge, strengthens the fortress of justice, and surrounds with fresh ramparts the citadel of truth: To him there is no national glory, but in the movement of the national mind in the direction of wisdom, integrity, virtue, and humanity. That all war is unlawful, and without the accompaniment of actions that may justly be styled glorious, he is not, perhaps, prepared to maintain; but he sees nothing for admiration to dwell upon in the beat of the drum,-the sound of the trumpet, the proud trampling of horses, or the fierce clashing of arms. From spoils and blood, and tyrannies and tyrants, he turns away his eyes to the peaceful triumphs of truth and righteousness, and inclines his ear to the "still small voice of reason."


Address delivered at the Fourth Anniversary of the Massachusetts Peace Society, Dec. 25, 1819, by John Gallison, Esq.

Address delivered at the Fifth Anniversary of the Massachusetts Peace Society, Dec. 25, 1820, by Hon. Josiah Quincy.

An apology is due to our readers, for not having sooner introduced the first of these Addresses to their notice. The second has just reached this country. We are sorry to learn by it the death of Mr. Gallison, on the day before the last anniversary of the M. P. Society. Mr. Quincy's honourable tribute to his memory will be given to the conclusion of our extracts from his Address. We shall quote largely from both, as each is excellent, though in a different way. Mr. Gallison's is in a pleasing strain of calm and persuasive reasoning. His object is to account for the fact, that the Gospel has, as yet, done apparently so little towards the abolition of War.

Mr. Quincy's Address is in a bolder style of eloquence, sometimes bordering, if not more than bordering on turgidity; but frequently very powerful and commanding. It pairs well with the last. Mr. Gallison dwells on past times; Mr. Quincy on the future: the one ex plains the causes which have hitherto

checked and limited the benignant agency

of Christianity, the other indicates the powers now called into operation, by the extension of its blessed results, till which our hopes are encouraged as to the earth be filled with the fruits of peace.


WHY is it, that Christianity, a religion of peace, still dwells with violence and war? Is it, that her spirit is not, in truth, opposed to the spirit of revenge? Is it that she lays no restraint upon angry and contentious passion? Or is her influence too feeble to restrain the enmity of men? Has she no commands of power to stay the hand of desolation, and set bounds to murderous rage e?

To these questions the Christian, deeply interested in his religion, anxiously seeks an answer. He will find it, in part, in the unsearchable counsels of him, "who will bring the blind by a way that they knew not." The world had long remained under the imperfect light of the Jewish, and the darkness of Pagan theology, before the messengers of God proclaimed, "on earth peace, good will A long series of protowards men." phecies and political events prepared the way for that brightest expression of divine goodness. And when, in the fulness of time, the Messiah came, was it to be expected that all the blessings of his peaceful reign would at once unfold themselves? Was it to be expected, that the truths he revealed, and his sublime lessons of virtue, would in a moment_triumph over selfishness, cruelty and pride? To us, indeed, the time may seem long, but to the Infinite Mind, "a thousand years are but as yesterday when it is past."

A rapid glance at the history of the world will convince us, that the continuance of war, with its attendant evils, is owing to causes entirely foreign to our religion itself; to causes, which God in his wisdom has permitted to obstruct and counteract its progress. Let not then the Christian despair. The influence of the gospel has already been great; enough to justify the persuasion, that the time is not far distant when wars shall be made to cease "unto the end of the earth."

In the infancy of Christianity, the number of disciples was too small, compared with the rest of the world, to produce any sensible effect upon the habits of society. They were neglected and despised, or remembered only to be persecuted. They were contented to exhibit in themselves the mild virtues, which their religion taught them; they were charitable, forgiving and patient of injuries. They sought not the honours and distinctions of the world; the crown of martyrdom was to them far better than any earthly glory. To extend the knowledge and the blessings of the gospel was the object which they had most at heart. To this their efforts were unceasingly directed; for this, they cheerfully encountered danger, and endured the sharpest sufferings. But they were far from aspiring to controul the counsels of princes, or to change the laws by which states were governed. By a silent and almost imperceptible process, they gained men, one by one, from the worship of false gods to a pure and irreproachable faith; and in this way only they wrought on the character of human institutions. But they were not all, even of those who yielded to the preaching and the miracles of the apostles, exempt from those infirmities which so often cloud the judgment and mislead the practice even of sincere believers. They brought with them, into the bosom of the church, more or less of the errors

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of their former religions."*
versies arose, and forgetting the gentle
and benign spirit of their Master,
Christians exchanged the unity and
love which he had enjoined, for divi-
sion and discord. They came from a
world that was full of errors and
vices. The mighty works which they
saw, the direct testimonies of heaven
to the truths which were declared,
compelled the assent of those who
attended to these evidences, and whose
hearts were not too depraved to allow
the free exercise of reason. But,
though assent could not be refused,
error and prejudice might be par-
tially retained. There minds were en-
lightened by the truth, and that truth
had power to guide them into the path
of wisdom and of peace; but it was to
guide, not to impel. Man was still
left, by the free exercise of his
powers, aided indeed but not con-
trolled, by new and sublime views of
God and of his own nature, to ap-
proach nearer to his Creator, and to
conform himself to that moral image
which in the character of the Saviour
was so strikingly set before him. He
was exhorted to contend with his evil
passions, and an immortal crown was
proposed as the reward of faithful
exertion. But no where was it pro-
mised him, that his mind should at
once be unchained, and soar to a
height of heavenly virtue; no where
was it promised him, that the clouds
of ignorance and delusion should at
once be scattered, and the Sun of
righteousness and truth shine forth
with mid-day brightness. * * *

In the second century of our era, the double morality of the Platonic philosophy was introduced among Christians; that unhappy distinction was adopted between precepts and counsels, which prescribed one rule of conduct for those who dedicated themselves to retirement and religious meditation, and another, more indulgent and complying, for the busy and

* Mosheim.

active; * which banished religion from the common concerns of life, and allowed many things to the secular man, which were forbidden to the sage. Thus all the glowing declamations of heathen writers, which placed valour in the first rank of virtues, and admitted no obligation so strong as the love of country, became authorized codes of morals to common Christians. Thus all the praises, which poetry and history had lavished on real or fabulous heroes; the imperishable glory awarded by them to actions inspired by cruelty and revenge; the brilliant light, which fancy had shed about the head of the warrior, and the promises of participation in the honours and happiness of the gods, which were held out to lawless courage, were permitted still to warm the imaginations and deceive the understandings of the disciples of a crucified Master, and to close their hearts against the influence of his instructions. But for this cause, perhaps, there had not been in the Roman army those Christian soldiers, who at an early period appear to have served in it. + ****

In the ages of ignorance and barbarism, which succeeded the overthrow of Roman greatness, every thing in the west was unfavourable to the growth of Christian benevolence; and in the east, the alarm and danger of the state, added to the dissensions in the bosom of the church, forbade all hope of improving the condition or restraining the passions of men. The temporal power and dominion of the Pope, and the union in every country of the civil with ecclesiastical authority, counteracted the pacific influence of religion. In the reign of Charlemagne, the discordant materials seemed first to gather into a regular and powerful empire. But the invasion of Saracens and Turks kept Christendom in a state of continual tumult. And here we discover a new

* Mosheim, Cent. 2, part II. ch. iii. + See Mosheim on the Thundering Legion, vol. i. p. 152.

principle of wars. Whatever might be the obligations of the Christian towards other Christians, he believed that the infidel, an enemy of religion, had no claim to compassion, or even to common faith. Against him it was thought piety to be animated with the most deadly hostility. Unsparing cruelty was deemed acceptable to heaven, and the warrior, in taking up arms, believed that he fulfilled a sacred duty. It was then that chivalry arose; chivalry, that mysterious product of barbarian fierceness and superstitious zeal, that powerful agent, which gave a new form to the manners of Europe, new events to history, new themes for the fancy of the poet and the study of the philosopher; which pervaded all ranks, and changed the thoughts, the feelings and the habits of men; proud, and insolent, and fierce, yet brave, and generous, and humane; jealous of dignity, and quick to resent the smallest affront, yet cherishing no hatred, boasting of courtesy, sparing, but despising whom it spared; prodigal of life and greedy of adventure, yet asking no reward but praise; trained from infancy to the endurance of hardship, yet gay, voluptuous and soft; governed more by the sense of shame, than by the love of right, yet of unshaken truth, and scrupulous fidelity; frivolous, almost to childishness, yet in the pursuit of trifles displaying a hardihood and patience which we cannot refuse to admire. It dealt in abstractions, but imagination gave to those abstractions an importance beyond the most serious realities. It mingled religion with every thing; but it was a religion, superstitious, sensual and gross. It was the attempt of chivalry to supply the want of a purer religion for restraining the passions of men, and moving them to acts of kindness by a romantic feeling of honour and an extreme sensibility to censure and applause. The effect was a character extravagant, unnatural and inconsistent; practising some duties with

enthusiastic devotion, while others were violated without remorse.


We owe to chivalry much of that refinement, which has given occasion say. of modern times, that unlike the ruder ages, "they give their applause only to intellectual power, and to those virtues, which, raising man above his condition, make him conqueror over his passions, and teach him to be beneficient, generous and humane." Though this praise is far too unqualified, it is still true, that the institutions of chivalry have in some degree softened the character of wars. But we may trace to the same source many errors in opinion and practice, which the world has had cause to lament. Of these, the unnatural union between religion and war is not among the least. The youth, whose education destined him to the honour of chivalry, received his first armour, after many solemn and imposing rites, at the altar dedicated to God; and the sword, which he was to wield in battle, came to his hands consecrated and blessed by the priest of religion. How powerful must have been the association, which the imagination thus formed between valour and piety! How long must its effects have continued! And may we not, among the effects of chivalry, which are still apparent, discover some remains of this fatal delusion? +

* Works of Frederick III, vol. i, p. 14. +"Severe fastings; whole nights spent in prayer attended by a priest and sponsors, in some church or chapel; a devout reception of the sacraments of penitence and the eucharist; baths, indicative of the purity, which was required in the character of a knight; white garments, worn, in imitation of new converts, as a symbol of the same purity; a full confession of all the faults of his life; a serious attention to discourses explaining the chief articles of Christian faith and morals; these were the preparation for that ceremony, which was to invest the novice with the sword of knighthood. These rights duly performed, he entered the church, and advanced towards the altar, the sword being suspended from his neck. He there presented it to the officiating priest, who

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There has been a sacredness at

tached to the name of “ country," which has caused men to overlook the injustice of actions in their supposed disinterestedness. Patriotism has been esteemed a social virtue. That, which would be wrong and disgraceful, if done for private good, has been thought praiseworthy, when the actor has gone out of himself, and through suffering and danger has achieved soms pube advantage. But, in truth, does not patriotism, even in its purest form, include a large mixture of selflove? We love our country, because we connect with it our past enjoyments and our future hopes; all that can give animation to our joys and solace to our griefs; the scenes, that our morning sun brightened, and on which we have trusted that its evening beams would linger. When we name our country, we name ourselves, our friends, the schools of our instruction, the temples of our worship, the tombs where our ancestors repose. All that we love, and all that we venerate; all that affection values, and all that memory regrets, is included in that one word. How then

pronounced over it his blessing, in the same manner as it is now usual to bless the standards of our regiments. The priest then restored the sword to the neck of the novice, who proceeded, in the most simple dress, to fall on his knees at the feet of the person, of either sex, by whom he was to be armed. This imposing scene passed commonly in some sacred edifice; but often too in the hall or court of a palace or chateau; and sometimes in the open field." M. de St. Palaye's Memoir on Chivalry-Hist. of the French Acad. of Inscrip, &c. vol. xx. p. 615.


ean we refuse to love our country? And let it not be thought, that I would exclude that love. It is just and rational in itself; but, like other passions which have our own good, in whole or in part for their object, it is prone to pass the bounds of justice, while its connexion with our country too often procures pardon to its excesses. A Christian, whose moral views are enlightened and pure, governs his affection to his country by the same rules which restrain him in the gratification of every passion that seeks principally his own benefit or pleasure. He loves his country much, but virtue more. He desires her prosperity, but desires more fervently that she should ever be found in the path of honour and uprightness. Her misfortunes give him pain, but he would be more deeply grieved, if her riches or ter ritory were increased by rapine or unjust war. His wisdom, his talents, his best services, are ever at her disposal, to promote her welfare, and to secure her peace. But to a national enterprise which his conscience condemns as unjust or oppressive, he will no more lend his aid, than he will sully his private reputation by injustice or fraud. He loves his country's glory, but it is a glory not cousisting in splendid victories, nor in giving the law to conquered provinces. It is that true and only glory which springs from moral and intellectual worth. He is the same in neglect and obscurity, as in the brightest sunshine of popular favour. Nay, he hesitates not to do good to his country, though he foresee from his countrymen, misled by passion or prejudice, no reward but suspicion, no distinction, but the miserable one of being hated, accursed, persecuted.

I have thus attempted to point out some of the causes which have made the pacific influence of Christianity partial and incomplete. Are they such as must continue to operate? Are they such as forbid us to hope for the attainment of that moral purity, which the principles of our religion,



rightly understood, and faithfully practised upon, are fitted to produce? Are they such, that our consciences can justify us in slumbering, effortless acquiescence? That Christians may look idly upon prevailing corruption, and yet hope to be accounted faithful servants in that day which infinitely concerns us all! Our own hearts, the good which Christianity has already done, and the gospel itself, which we profess to follow, answer, No! Let us then, at last, dare to be wise, and to make use of the light which has shone upon us. Let us no longer be satisfied with the erring wisdom of ages, which that light visited not. Let us learn to call him great who is just, and moderate, and wise; who seeks not his own glory, and to whom riches, and honours, and power, are but the instruments of doing good.


THE records of history embrace a period of six thousand years, abounding in war, in battle and slaughter, with occasional and local intervals of short and feverish peace; in which nations seem to stay rather than rest, stopping to pant, and to gain breath for new combats, rather than to form a business state of permanent tranquillity. In whatever condition, on whatever soil, under whatever sky, we contemplate man; be he savage, or be he civilized; ignorant, or enlightened; groping amid the darkness of nature, or rejoicing in the lamp of revealed truth; be it island or continent, sea or shore; wherever multitudes of men are, or have been, there will be found traces of human blood, shed in inhuman strife; there will be found death, scattered among the races of men, by the hand of brother man!

It is now more than eighteen hundred years since "the author and finisher of our faith" came, ushered in by an angelic host, proclaiming, Peace on earth, and good will among


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