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daring Pirates, called Sea Kings, about the latter end of the ninth century.


Harry. Mamma, I think these Danish Pirates were the most cruel and wicked people that ever lived. I could not have supposed it was possible for men to be so barbarous.

Mrs. B. Indeed it is shocking to reflect, that of all the calamities to which this life is subject, the most dreadful are those which men suffer from the furious passions of their fellow men. The pages of history afford many illustrations of this truth. When you are better acquainted with them, you will see how little the progress of civilization, of knowledge, and of Christianity, have yet accomplished towards allaying the spirit of ambition, or subduing the love of military glory. The peasants of Russia and Germany can, even now, tell tales as dreadful as those recorded by the historian of Croyland; and could you hear them, you would cease to wonder at the excesses committed by the untaught pagans of the Baltic.

Lucy. I am afraid, Mamma, that you do not think the world is much improved.

Mrs. B. The view of that beautiful and fertile plain before us might reproach me if I said so, Lucy; for it was once a dreary wilderness, incapable of supporting its famishing inhabitants. Oh, no! the world is very much improved; and it seems to us as if we had no feelings in common with those dreadful men, whose ravages I have been describing. Their character was formed by habits of piracy, which rendered them from childhood familiar with scenes of blood and cruelty. But we shall deceive ourselves, if we suppose that even polished and civilized nations can indulge the love of military glory without at the same time declining in humanity and virtue. However it may disguise itself, the spirit of war is the spirit of tyrannical selfishness, and the greatest enemy to the improvement and happiness of man.

Lucy. I believe that is very true, for it makes one nation rejoice in the distresses of another; and then it must be owned that they bear some resemblance to the Sea Kings. I wish they would find a better way of settling their differences.

Mrs. B. You cannot wish a greater benefit to the world, my dear child; and remember, that every person who cultivates the spirit of justice and benevolence, does something towards bringing society into that state which will render war unnecessary. "-Page 21.

Page 76, Lucy reads an account of the termination of a war between Alfred and Hastings the Danish pirate, and then proceeds. "Another calamity attended or immediately succeeded its conclusion: this was a pestilence, which continued its devastations for three years, carrying off vast numbers of every rank.

Lucy. I do not quite understand this, Mamma. It seems as if the war was the cause of the pestilence; but how could that be?

Mrs. B. Our accounts of that remote period are so imperfect, that I cannot answer your question exactly. It is very probable that the ravages of war might occasion that calamity, because we know that now they frequently do produce it.

Harry. Will you explain that, Mamma! I have no notion how it can be.

Mrs. B. One reason is, the waste, and what is worse the wilful destruction, of the products of the earth, which is occasioned by war. Now, the want of a sufficient quantity of wholesome food is a frequent cause of contagious diseases. There is still another reason. Frequently after a battle, hundreds of wounded men are crowded together in close hospitals, where, deprived of the blessings of fresh air and cleanliness, their disorders become infectious, and they perish miserably, victims to the rashness and ambition of powerful men. From the hospital, contagion often

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As the object for which you and your worthy coadjutors are contending is attainable only by slow degrees, by progressive steps in the overthrow of opinions and prejudices deeply rooted and rendered the more obstinate by time, I cannot consider the subject as perfectly handled, without reference to EDUCATION. Permit me therefore to suggest the expediency of devoting a portion of each number of The Herald to a selection of short extracts or pithy sentences illustrative of this important duty.One of the excellencies of the periodical press is its brevity. Amid avariety of subjects treated concisely and piquantly the eye quickly chooses, and the mind fastens more intently and with a greater zest on the simple essay or pointed apophthegm than on the long and laboured disquisition. For one reader of the latter, the former has its thousands, with perhaps the superadded advantage of more perfect recollection and better practical effect. As an imperfect example of what is here recommended, I beg to submit the following quotations from the writings of the excellent Bishop Watson; and whether you adopt or reject them, be assured of my remaining a stanch friend of the holy cause in which you are engaged. F. B.


As it regards-1. Parents.-2. The Clergy.-3. Magistrates.-4. The Government.

1. "If any amendment of the

world is ever to be made, it must be

As an illustration we may refer to the situation of Leipzig in 1813.

made by amending the Education of Youth. Surely it behoves Parents of every degree to weigh this matter with great seriousness: their neglect in this point may not only introduce much sin and misery into the world at large, but it may render that posterity, for whose short-lived temporal advantage they often venture to incur the risk of their own damnation, unprotected of God in this world, and objects of his indignation in another. It behoves them to consider that they, under God, have been the cause of giving existence to an innocent and helpless Being, by their instrumentality it has had a beginning of existence, but it is not in their power to say when it will have an end of it; it will have no end of existence, it will live for ever and ever. But though the duration of the existence which they have given to the child of their love, does in nowise depend upon them, the quality of it does. Though they will not be able some millions of years hence to blot this poor Being out of existence, if it should then chance to move their compassion by its misery, yet they may even now guard it against being in misery in that or in any more distant period: they may even now build up the clay which is put into their hands, into a vessel which God's mercy may see fit to preserve in everlasting honour. Let them not neglect this blessed opportunity, let them fashion it with care; if not for the love they bear it, let them do it for the love they bear themselves, for their own personal interest, for their everlasting happiness or misery is closely connected with their diligence or with their neglect in forming the religious character of their offspring."

2. "The possibility of amending men's manners at any age should not be despaired of, and the fittest opportunities of attempting the re

formation should be attended to and improved; yet the most enlarged prospect of doing good, consists in seasoning with wholesome instruction

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3. "The office of the civil magistrate extends not merely to the punishment, but primarily and principally to the prevention of crimes. Now crimes are best prevented, and the foundations of good government are most securely laid, when piety towards God, a reverence for the laws, and a regard for virtue, are instilled into the minds of the people."

4. "An incessant contention for mastery subsists in every Civil State, and especially in every overgrown Metropolis, between the laws on the one hand, and the manners of the people on the other. This warfare commences with the very commencement of Government, and it ends only with its dissolution. It is carried on during the existence of the State, with variable success, according to the varying talents of the governors exerted in the enactment of laws more or less salutary, and the varying dispositions of the people to resist or to submit to the laws enacted; and it is not finally extinguished, till the general prevalence of profligate morals puts an end to the Government itself.―There is no instance in sacred or profane history, of a rich, luxurious, immoral State, ever reforming itself; it proceeds from bad to worse, till, in the course of God's providence, its fall is accomplished by the sword, by famine, or by pestilence. Notwithstanding this, the fall of every State may certainly be retarded by whatever retards the progress of Vice."


Studies in History; containing the History of England: Vol. II. By Thos. Morell. Black, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden. 1820. THE history of nations, and the lives of individuals, constitute a most important as well as a most interesting subject of contemplation and reflection. These, when compiled with


fidelity, exhibit man as he really is; distinguished, for the most part, by inconsistency, ignorance, superstition, and vice; and only occasionally discovering, to the friend of virtue and humanity, the cheering gleams of moral excellence, intellectual attainment, and view of the facts, which the historian benevolent feeling. Painful as is this and biographer are compelled to record, yet might they be rendered, by correct representation, accompanied with suitable remarks, subservient to the best interests of mankind. We have lamented, and we shall continue to lament, that this has rarely been done, until the cause for our concern shall be removed. the mean time, we hail with sincere pleasure every effort which is made to delineate, with the tian, the incidents of individual life, of a Chrispen and the more important transactions of nations.


The work to which our attention is now directed, is intended chiefly for the use of young persons, and is on that account furnished with questions at the end of the volume, for the purpose of examination. This is a very useful mode of ascertaining that the pupil has made himself thoroughly acquainted with the subject to which he has attended. But the questions are too few to assist the recollection

of the pupil, and to draw out of him the facts or reflections to which his notice has been directed. In reply to one question, in the historical part of the Studies of History, he is expected frequently to give the contents of nearly a whole page; and a single interrogation is applied to an entire section of reflections, though that usually occupies two, and sometimes three pages in extent.

At different periods, Mr. Morell has published Studies in the History of Greece, in the History of Rome, and a first part of Studies in the History of England. The second part extends from James the First to the death of George the Third, and we think it is not inferior to either of his former productions, in clearness

of description, energy of language, or purity of Christian feeling. In these respects we are happy to recommend it to the perusal of our readers; and though, perhaps, some may think the reflections too long, or that they might have been better interwoven with the history, yet the work comprises, in a comparatively small space, much valuable information, and many very excellent observations. But we proceed to give, as specimens of the work, a few of such quotations as comport with the express design of the Herald of Peace; and we are happy to say that there are many of this description.

In his review of the character of James the First, Mr. Morell takes occasion to remark as follows:

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Among the commendable qualities of this prince, must be mentioned-his love of peace-his clemency to state criminals-and his generosity to those who shared his confidence and friendship, Whether the pacific character of this reign is to be attributed (as his enemies affirm) to the constitutional timidity and native indolence of the sovereign, or, whether it arose from other feelings and better principles, the quality itself is of so rare occurrence in the history of princes and empires, that we cannot forbear to advert to it with feelings of satisfaction and delight."

In the reflections upon the state of Literature during this reign, we meet with the following argument in favour of Peace:

"From the rapid sketch which has now been taken of the state of Literature, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, it may be inferred (and it would not be difficult to support the inference by innumerable proofs,) that a time of national Peace is most favourable to the development of mind, and the advancement of general knowledge. There may have been some men of genius, who were nurtured amidst the storms of civil contentions, or foreign warfare; there may be some plants of science that are found to thrive most in a soil saturated with human blood; but for the most part, the reverse is found to be the case. The reign of James 1. was a time of almost universal peace; and to what period can we refer, in

which so great a number of men of genius flourished, in which so many important discoveries were made, or in which such intellectual chefs d'œuvres were produced?"

Adverting to the dreadful massacre of the Protestants in Ireland, during the reign of Charles the First, where forty thousand fell in one day! the following remarks occur :—

"It is most deeply to be regretted, that Religion was blinded with the political dissensions of this most unhappy period; and still more, that those who perpetrated the most atrocious crimes, professed to fight beneath her sacred banner. A zeal for God was the pretext, not only for enkindling the torch of civil War, and placing subjects in hostile array against their sovereign, but even for the horrible carnage of the Irish massacre itself. It cannot be denied, that persons professing to be actuated by religious motives, have broken asunder the bonds of legitimate authority, and committed deeds of cruelty and blood, at which humanity shudders, and stands aghast; but utterly ignorant must they be of the genius of our Holy Religion, who imagine that she affords any sanction to such proceedings. The inscription, traced by the hand of Omnipotence on her standard, is, Peace on earth, good-will toward men.' The spirit she breathes, is that of pure, fervent, unfeigned, universal benevolence. The becomes the ministers of God, who duty she enjoins on rulers is, to act as must ere long give an account to him that is ready to judge the quick and dead.' And to subjects, her command is, 'to submit themselves' with a willing mind to constituted authorities, and to every ordinance of man, for the Lord's sake,' unless when their mandates are at variance with the supreme administration of him who is King of kings, and Lord of lords.' The instructions addressed to all her disciples, whether of low or high degree, are, Avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: if it be possible, as much as in you lieth, live peaceably with all men; for it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well-doing, than for evil-doing' Happy were it for society, if men, in every age, who profess submission to these maxims, were actuated by them continually, not only in their letter, but in their spirit."

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We conclude our quotations for the From Mr. Clarkson's Portraiture of present, from this useful work, by an anecdote of Lord Falkland, Secretary of State to Charles the First, who fell on the field of battle at Newbury.

"From the commencement of the civil war, he became increasingly melancholy, and was heard frequently to exclaim, with much emotion, Peace! Peace! this crucl war will break my heart.' On the morning of the day in which he fell, he expressed to a friend his anguish of mind at the scenes he had lately witnessed; adding emphatically, I am weary of the times, I expect to be out of it before night.' On the fol

lowing morning, his body was found among a heap of the slain. He had just attained his thirty-fourth year, and was accounted the most accomplished schoJar, and the most elegant writer of his day

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In the removal by death, of the most amiable and virtuous men of that age, at the very commencement of this contest, was to them a merciful dispensation; but to the nation it was a grievous calamity. It was as if the pilot, who sat at the helm of the vessel of state, and in whom the mariners chiefly confided, had fallen overboard in the midst of a tremendous storm. Yet the memory of these illustrious statesmen would have been more truly honourable, though less celebrated in the records of fame, if, instead of falling in the embattled plain, they had refused to take an active part in the murderous contest; and if, instead of wielding the homicidal sword, they had resolved alone to bear the olive branch of Peace. There were, we would fain hope, a goodly number of Christian patriots in that day, who, like the amiable and accomplished Falkland, eartiestly sighed for Peace and union, who wept in secret places, on account of the cala mities of their country, and who vented their sorrows in language like that of the Israelitish prophet: O, that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people.' But, alas! amidst the tumult of infuriate passions, amidst the horrid din of arms, their tears flowed unobserved their sighs and groans escaped unnoticed-the storm of War still raged with unabated, with augmented violence."


(Continued from p. 358.)


I HAVE NOW stated the principal arguments, by which the Quakers

are induced to believe it to be a doctrine of Christianity, that men should abstain from war; and I intended to have closed the subject in the last section. But when I consider the frequency of modern wars,-when I consider that they are scarcely over, before others spring up in their place;

when I consider, again, that they come like the common diseases which belong to our infirm nature, and they are considered by men nearly in a similar light, I should feel myself criminal, if I were not to avail myself of the privilege of an author, to add a few observations of my own on this subject.

Living as we do in an almost inaccessible island, and having therefore more than ordinary means of security to our property and our persons from hostile invasion, we do not seem to be sufficiently grateful to the Divine Being for the blessings we enjoy.

We do not seem to make a right use of our benefits, by contemplating the situation, and by feeling a tender anxiety for the happiness of others. We seem to make no proper estimates of the miseries of war, The latter we feel principally in abridgments of a pecuniary nature. But if we were to feel them in the conflagration of our towns and villages, or in personal wounds, or in the personal sufferings of fugitive misery and want, we should be apt to put a greater value than we do upon the blessings of peace. And we should be apt to consider the and between war and moral evil, connexion between war and misery, in a light so much stronger than we do at present, that we might even suppose the precepts of Jesus Christ to be deficient, unless they were

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