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made to extend to wars as well as private injuries.

I wonder what a superior Being, living in the nearest planet to our earth, and seeing us of the size of ants, would say, if he were enabled to get any insight into the nature of modern wars.

It must certainly strike him, if he were to see a number of such diminutive persons chasing one another in bodies over different parts of the hills and valleys of the earth, and following each other in little nutshells as it were upon the ocean, as a very extraordinary sight, and as mysterious, and hard to be explained. He might at first consider them as occupied in a game of play, or as migrating for more food, or for a better climate. But when he saw them stop and fight, and destroy one another, and was assured that they were actually engaged in the solemn game of death, and this at such a distance from their own homes, he would wonder at the causes of these movements, and the reason of this destruction; and knowing that they possessed rational faculties, he would probably consider them as animals destined by nature to live upon one


I think the first question he would ask would be, And from whence do these fightings come? It would be replied, of course, that they came from their lusts; that these beings, though diminutive in their appearance, were men;-that they had pride and ambition;-that they had envy and jealousy;-that they indulged also hatred and malice, and avarice, and anger;-and that on account of some or other of these causes, they quarrelled and fought with one another.

Well-but the superior Being would say, Is there no one on the earth, which I see below me, to advise them to conduct themselves better; or are the passions you speak of eternally predominant and never to be subdued? The reply would of

course be, that in these little beings, called men, there had been implanted the faculty of reason, by the use of which they must know that their conduct was exceptional, but that in these cases they seldom minded it. It would also be added in reply, that they had a religion, which was not only designed by a Spirit from heaven, who had once lived amongst them, but had been pronounced by him, as efficacious to the end proposed; that one of the great objects of this religion, was a due subjugation of their passions; and this was so much insisted upon, that no one of them was considered to have received this religion truly unless his passions were subdued. But here the superior Being would inquire, whether they acknowledged the religion spoken of, and the authority from whence it came. To which it would, of course, be replied, that they were so tenacious of it, notwithstanding their indulgence of their passions, and their destruction of one another, that you could not offend them more grievously than by telling them they did not belong to the religion they professed.

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It is not difficult to foresee what other questions this superior Being would ask; and probably the first of these would be, the duration of the lives of these little beings, and the length and frequency of their wars. It would be replied to these, that their lives were but as a vapour, which appeareth for a little time and then vanisheth away, and that a quarter and sometimes half of their time on earth was spent in these destructive pursuits. Their superior Being would unquestionably be grieved at this account, because he would feel that they really frustrated their own happiness, or that they lost, by their own faults, a considerable portion of the enjoyment of their lives.

In this impatience and anxiety for their future comfort, he would probably ask, again, if they had any notion of any generous end for which they were born; for it is impossible

they could suppose that they came into the world to destroy one another. It would be replied, that they could not be ignorant of the true object or end; for the same religion in which they believed, and which was said before to have been given them by a Spirit sent from heaven, inculcated, that they were sent there on a life of trial, and that in a future existence they were to give an account of their conduct, and were to be rewarded or punished accordingly. The same religion, it would be replied also, inculcated, notwithstanding their fightings, the utmost benevolence from one to wards another. It wished so much every one of them to live peaceably, that it enjoined it as a duty rather to put up with an injury than to resent it; and it carried its benevolence so far, that it made no distinction between others of the same species, who spoke a different language, or lived in other districts or parts of the same world.

But here the superior Being would interrupt. What! he would say, Are they not to resent injuries, and yet do they go to war? And are they not afraid of fighting in this manner, when they are to give an account of their conduct in a future state? It would be replied, No. They have their philosophers among them; and most of these have determined, that in this particular case responsibility lies at the door of those who employ them. But notwithstanding this, there are others living amongst them who think otherwise. These are of opinion, that they who employ them, cannot take the responsibility upon themselves without taking it from those who they thus employ. But the religion of the Great Spirit no where says, that any constituted authorities among them can take away the responsibility of individual creatures; but, on the other hand, in the most positive terms, that every individual creature is responsible wholly for himself. And this religion does not give any creature an exemption

on account of any force which may be used against him; because no one, according to its precepts, is to do evil, not even that good may come. But, if he be persecuted, he is to adhere to that which is right, and to expect his reward in the other state. The impossibility, therefore, of breaking or dissolving individual responsibility, in the case of immoral action, is an argument, to many, of the unlawfulness of these wars. And they who reason in this manner think they have reasoned right, when they consider, besides, that if any of the beings in question were to kill one of his usually reputed enemies in a time of peace, he would suffer death for it, and be considered as accountable also for his crime in a future state. They cannot see, therefore, how any constituted authorities among them can alter the nature of things, or how these beings can kill others in time of war without the imputation of a crime, whom they could not kill without such an imputation in time of peace. They see in the book of the Great Spirit no dispensation given to societies to alter the nature of actions which it has pronounced to be crimes.

But the superior Being would say, Is it really defined, and is it defined clearly in the Great Book of the Spirit, that if one of them should kill another, he is guilty of a crime? It would be replied-not only of a crime, but of the greatest of all crimes; and that no dispensation is given to any of them to commit it in any case. And it would be observed, further, that there are other crimes, which these fightings generally include, which are equally specified and forbidden in the Great Book, but which they think it proper to sanction in the present case. Thus all kinds of treachery and deceit are considered to be allowable; for a very ancient philosopher among them has left a maxim upon record, and it has not yet been beaten out of their heads, notwithstanding the precepts in the Great

Book, in nearly the following words: "Who thinks of requiring open courage of an enemy, or that treachery is not equally allowable in war?"

Strange! the superior Being would reply. They seem to me to be reversing the order of their nature, and the end of their existence. But how do they justify themselves on these occasions? It would be answered, they not only justify themselves, but they even go so far as to call these fightings honourable. The greater the treachery, if it succeed, and the greater the number of these beings killed, the more glorious is the action esteemed.

Still more strange! the superior Being would reply. And is it possible, he would add, that they enter into this profession with a belief that they are entering into an honourable employ Some of them, it would

no more of the system. He would
suddenly turn away his face, and
retire into one of the deep valleys of
his planet, either with exclamations
against the folly, or with emotions of
pity for the situation, or with expres-
sions of disgust at the wickedness, of
these little creatures.

"O for a lodge in some vast wilderness,
Some boundless contiguity of shade,
Where rumour of oppression and deceit,
Of unsuccessful, or successful war,

Might never reach me more! My ear is pained,
My soul is sick with every day's report
Lands, intersected by a narrow frith,

Of wrong and outrage with which earth is fill'd.

Abhor each other. Mountains interposed
Make enemies of nations, who had else,

Like kindred drops, been mingled into one.—
Thus man devotes his brother, and destroys.—

Then what is man? And what man seeing this,
And having human feelings, does not blush,
And hang his head, to think himself a man."

respecting War.

[From Pictures of War, by Irenicus.]


be replied, consider it as a genteel The Sentiments of the Ancients employ; and hence they engage in it. Others, of a lazy disposition, prefer it to any other. Others are decoyed into it by treachery, in various ways. There are also strong drinks, which they are fond of; and if they are prevailed upon to take these to excess they lose their reason, and then they are obliged to submit to the engage'ments which they had made in a state of intoxication. It must be owned too, that when these wars begin, the trades of many of these little beings are stopped; so that, to get a temporary livelihood, they go out and fight. Nor must it be concealed that many are forced to go, both against their judgment and against their will.

The superior Being, hurt at these various accounts, would probably ask, And what then does the community get by these wars, as the counter-balance for the loss of so much happiness, and the production of so much evil? It would be replied, Nothing. The community is generally worse off at the end of these wars than when it began to contend. But here the superior Being would wish to hear

IT is a matter of some difficulty to collect the sentiments of the ancients on this great subject: some of them have treated it historically, as Cæsar-others scientifically, as Polyænus-others again poetically, as Tyrtaus-while not a few make it the ground-work and principal theme of epic composition, as Homer, Virgil, Lucan, and the like. A very small number treat it morally, and

these not in the form of set dissertation, but in the way of occasional remark.

Heraclitus-A. C. 509.-Iron, à metal more proper for ploughs and tillage, is fitted for slaughter and death-men raising armies of men, covet to kill one another, and punish them that quit the field, for not staying to murder men. They honour as valiant, such as are drunk with blood. No irrational creature useth a sword, but keeps itself within the laws of its creation, except man that doeth not so, which brings the heavier blame,

because he hath the greatest under standing.

Cicero.-43 B. C.-Most men believe that greater reputation is to be. derived from the affairs of War than of peace. This mistaken preference ought to be reduced to its proper level, for many, from a desire of glory, have often sought occasions for war. This opinion becomes the more dangerous, when we consider that it generally accompanies great minds, and great talents, and is proportioned to the passion of the one, and the fitness of the other, for a military life.-If we would form our judgment in this case according to truth, we shall find that many transactions of peace are of greater importance, and followed by higher reputation, than those of war. Though Themistocles received just praise, and though his name be more illustrious than that of Solon; though Salamis be cited in testimony of a very celebrated victory, and preferred to the council of the Areopagus, which Solon first instituted; yet, we must pronounce the latter no less distinguished than the former. The former served the state once, the; latter serves it for ever. By the council of the Areopagus, the Athe nians preserve their laws, and the institutions of their ancestors. The mistocles could name no service of his to the Areopagus, but must have, acknowledged the assistance of Solon; for the war was conducted by the advice of that assembly.-The same may be said of Pausanias and Lysander, whose achievements, though supposed to have extended the dominion of the Spartans, are not in the least to be compared to the laws and discipline established by Lycurgus, which inspired with obedience and bravery the troops whom these generals led.-War should be made. with no other view than the attainment of peace,

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Seneca. A. D. 65.-Wilt thou know what things wisdom hath found out, what she hath made? Not

weapons, wars, or fortifications, She endeavoureth profitable things; she favours peace, and calls all mankind to agreement; she leadeth to a blessed estate; she openeth the way to it, and she sheweth what is evil from what is good, and chaseth vanity out of the mind.

Plutarch.-A. D. 119.-Some go to war as if to hunt and catch men; not out of necessity, and in order to peace, which is the true end of war.

There is no war among men, but what arises from some vice; either from inordinate lust, or from covetousness, or from ambition, or immoderate love of glory. -War is a cruel thing, and draws with it a long train of injuries and insolence.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. A. D. 161.-I prayed to my country gods; but when I was neglected by them, and observed myself pressed by the enemy, considering the fewness of my forces, I called to one, and intreated those who with us are called. Christians, and I found a great number of them; and I forced them with threats, which ought not to have been, because afterwards I knew their strength and force; therefore they betook themselves neither to the use of darts nor trumpets, for they use not so to do, for the cause and name of their God, which they bear in their consciences.

Maximus Tyrius. —A. D, 193.— Even if you take away from war any. character of injustice, yet the necessity of it appears a matter much to be lamented.

Porphyry.-A. D. 270. That which is easily acquired, and at small charge, conduces to the general piety. Whereas tyrants, and such as. devastate kingdoms, do not raise wars either civil or foreign, to feed coarsely on herbs, roots, or apples; but to pamper themselves with flesh, fowl, and delicious fare.

Aristaus. We wage war, that we may gain peace.

Taxiles the Scythian said to Alexander, "What necessity is there,.

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that we, O Alexander, should make war one upon another, seeing that thou comest not to abridge us of our water, or of our necessary sustenance; in the defence of which things only men endued with reason make war.

Sentiments of the Christian Fathers, or other Ancient Christians, respecting War.

Justin.— A. D. 137.—We (Christians) fight not against enemies. Justin elsewhere makes Satan "the author of all war."

Tatian, who was the disciple of Justin, in his oration to the Greeks, speaks precisely in the same terms on the same subject.

Irenæus.-A. D. 180.—The Christians have changed their swords and their lances into instruments of peace; and they know not how to fight.

Tertullian.-A. D. 197.-It is much questioned, whether Christians may take arms, or whether soldiers may be admitted to Christianity.How many great offences may be seen in military duties, which cannot be otherwise interpreted than as breaches of our Christian laws!Shall it be lawful to use the sword, when the Lord saith, "He that useth the sword, shall perish by the sword." Can one who professes the peaceable doctrine of the Gospel, be a soldier, when it is his duty not so much as to go to law? And shall he, who is not to revenge his own wrongs, be instrumental in bringing others into chains, imprisonment, torment, death? -In his dissertation on the worship of idols, he says, "Though the soldiers came to John, and received a certain form to be observed; and though the centurion believed; yet Jesus Christ, by disarming Peter, disarmed every soldier afterwards, for custom never sanctions an illicit act."-In his discourse to Scapula, he says, "That no Christians were to be found in the Roman armies."-He tells us also, that the Christians in his day were sufficiently numerous to have defended themselves, if their religion

had permitted them to have recourse to the sword.

Clemens Alexandrinus-A.D 206. -Observes in his time, that Christians were so far from wars, that they had no marks or signs of violence among them; "Neither sword nor bow to them that follow peace."

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Origen.-A. D. 254-On Luke xxii. 36, thus remarks, "If any one looking to the letter, and not understanding the spirit of the words, shall sell his bodily garment, and buy a sword, taking the words of Christ contrary to his will, he shall perish.” Cyprian. A. D. 258. In his epistle to Donatus, says, "Suppose thyself with me on the top of some very exalted eminence, and from thence look down upon the appearances of things beneath thee. The things thou wilt principally observe will be, the highways beset with robbers; the seas with pirates; encampments, marches, and all the terrible forms of war and bloodshed. When a single murder is committed, it shall be deemed perhaps a crime; but that crime shall commence a virtue, when committed under the shelter of public authority; so that punishment is not rated by the measure of guilt, but the more enormous the size of the wickedness is, so much the greater is the chance for impunity."

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Lactantius.---A. D. 311.---In his treatise concerning the true worship of God, says, "It can never be lawful for a righteous man to go to war, whose warfare is in righteousness itself." And again, "It can never be lawful to kill a man, whose person the Divine Being designed to be sacred, as to violence."


Ambrose.---A. D. 393.---On Luke xxii. 36.---"O Lord, why commandest thou me to buy a sword, who forbiddest me to smite with it? Why commandest thou me to have it, whom thou prohibitest to draw it? Unless perhaps a defence be prepared, not a necessary revenge, and that I may seem to have been able to revenge, but that I would not. For the law

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