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forbids me to smite again, and therefore perhaps he said to Peter, who offered two swords, "It is enough," as if it had been lawful until the Gospel times; that in the law there might be a learning of equity, but in the Gospel a perfection of goodness." Chrysostom.---A. D. 407.---Speaking of opulent men, says, "Do not seditions, wars, combats, slavery, murders, and innumerable other such mischiefs and inconveniences, commonly arise from these men?" Under the law, God did not bind us to so great a measure of virtue, as he now doth under the Gospel. Then it was permitted to take some revenge for injuries done, as to revile them that reviled us, to exact an eye for an eye, &c. But since the coming of Christ, the way to heaven is made much straiter and narrower than before, both by the ad

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dition of many new precepts, not given Review of an important Letter from

in the old law, and also by straining those that were given to a much higher key.

St. Augustin.---A. D. 430.---The most just war is odious and detestable; and a prince does very ill, and acts imprudently, when he engages in it, without extremely urgent necessity.

Isidore.-A. D. 430.---The great King of Heaven came down from above to deliver to the world the laws of a heavenly conversation; which he has proposed in a way of conflict and striving, quite contrary to that of the Olympic games. There he that fights and gets the better, receives the crown; here he that is stricken and bears it meekly, has the honour and applause; there he that returns blow for blow; here he that turns the other cheek, is celebrated in the theatre of angels; for the victory is measured not by revenge, but by a wise and generous patience. This is the new law of crowns; this is the new way of conflicts and contentions.

The names of Archelaus, Jerome, and Cyril, may be added to those already mentioned, as the names of

VOL. III.

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Germany.

[From the Friend of Peace.]

IN the Repertory and Daily Advertiser we have had an "Extract of a Letter from an European gentleman to his friend in Boston," dated "Anhalt Dessau, March 17, 1817." Both the occasion and the object of the letter may be seen in the following passage:

Our first boat for the season brought me a series of pamphlets published by the society in Massachusetts called the Friends of Peace. I was rejoiced to find from them that such strenuous and able exertions were making in a country, whose political influence in Europe is daily increasing, for putting an end to the greatest scourge among mankind.Desirous of aiding in this good cause, I have thought that the religious and moral arguments which these gentlemen have so forcibly urged against the barbarous custom of war, might be strengthened by the mention of a few facts, which shew the embarrassment it produces in the financial concerns of a country, and the consequent distress and oppression among

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a people. I have therefore under- lands contribute 6-10ths, and those taken to send you a short account of of the nobles 9-10ths of what they the origin and present condition of yield, to aid in the destruction of the national debt of some of the most mankind. This would be incredible important kingdoms of Europe." aud quite insupportable were it not that the basis of the valuation of the produce is that which was fixed in 1745, and therefore vastly lower than the present actual value.

As the object of the writer is to aid in the cause of peace, the information he has given is of an important character. An abstract of the most interesting items will be exhibited.

AUSTRIA.

"Austria affords the most striking and best example of the ruinous effects which war has upon the finances and public credit of a nation. I therefore select her for the first. In the beginning of 1783 she had, properly speaking, no national debt; but she contracted one of 180,000,000, German florins, or half as many Spanish dollars, in preparation for carrying on the war against the Porte, in which she engaged as the ally of Russia. Before this war was brought to a close in 1791, it had carried up the debt to 342,000,000, which was farther augmented by the war against France. In October 1797, at the time of the Peace of Campo Formio, to 600,000,000 of florins. In 1806, her debt was found increased to 1,200,000,000. But it stopped not here; the disastrous campaigns of 1809 brought still greater ruin upon her finances and her credit. In a state of desperation she calls in her bank paper, and by mere arbitrary power annihilates 80 per cent. of the whole amount. But she was not to be saved by such a violation of public faith; it gave only temporary relief. In 1816 her debt amounted to the enormous sum of TWO THOUSAND

MILLIONS.

"An increase of the land tax is the common mean of increasing the public revenue. This is regularly fixed at 30 per cent. on the annual produce. In time of war the military extraordinary land tax is resorted to, which is fixed at 60 per cent. on the net annual produce of the land of the nobles, and at 30 on those of mere simple proprietors; so that all the

"To account for this great accumulation of debt we have only to look at the history of her standing armies for the last century. At the commencement of it, during the war of the Spanish succession, Leopold I. and Joseph I. called 130,000 into the field. The army had been increased before 1771 to 200,000; in 1788 to 364,000; by the wars with France, before the close of the century, to 496,000; and finally for the great struggle in 1809, to 500,000 regular troops, and 250,000 militia.”

ENGLAND.

"In 1689, when William III. came to the throne, England had a debt of 600,000 pounds. His wars carried it up to 16,000,000. At the death of Anne, 1721, the debt was 54,000,000. At the close of the American war, 257,000,000. In 1813, 812,000,000 pounds!".

This is the last statement the writer of the letter had seen. In the Evangelical Magazine for Nov. 1816, we have a review of a pamphlet entitled "Means of improving the condition of the poor in morals and happiness." In this work the national debt is stated at "nine hundred and forty-three millions" sterling. The writer proceeds:

"Not to lose sight of the intimate connexion between war and public misery, between large armies and a large national debt, I will add a word by way of history of England's armed force. The standing army was begun by William III. who had 7000 men in Great Britain, and 12,000 in Ireland during the troubles there.

Anne increased it to 18,000." George III. maintained from 30 to 40,000 regular troops till the com

mencement of the French revolution. In 1796, increased them to 100,000; in 1804, to 112,000; in 1808, to 230,000, besides 100,000 militia, who had all the character of troops of the line, except in the right not to be sent out of the kingdom-and, in addition, a volunteer corps of 300,000. The history of the navy is not very different. It begun under Henry VIII. In the reign of James I. it was composed of 132 ships and vessels of all kinds; increased by William III. to 172-by George II. to 277-by George III. in 1774, to 355-in 1803, to 656-in 1813, to 1044, those in ordinary not included. The equipage for which, at the last named period, amounted to 143,000.

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Perhaps you may think I have been labouring to prove a self-evident truth-that standing armies are expensive establishments, and that wars necessarily bring a nation into debt, and that national debts must be provided for by taxes upon the people: still they are truths which cannot too often be brought to view. I think so badly of mankind, as to believe that neither religious nor moral restraints are the most powerful, which can operate upon them. I might have enlarged very much upon the subject of England's present misery and danger, and shown its connexion with her wars and her debts; but her political troubles and her general distress are better known in your country than here.

FRANCE.

"It would be doing great injustice to France not to mention her among the nations which had the most powerful influence in the introduction of any thing now existing which is pernicious, more particularly of the evil upon which I am writing, as she deserves the sole credit of commencing the establishment which so powerfully promotes it. It was through her influence that standing armies began to be thought necessary for the support of sovereign power. In the year

1445, she first conferred this blessing upon mankind.

"Austria first made her army a permanent one in 1680-England in 1689-Denmark in 1701-Russia in the beginning of the last century, under Peter the great.

"What misery the wars of Louis XIV. caused to France may be seen in the present abject state of the country; they cherished and consumed the natural military spirit in the people, which never satisfied itself till it brought them into that condition, when it was declared that all France was but one camp,. and every man capable of bearing arms a soldier-the end of all which was what we now see. As to their public debt-it was enormous immediately before the revolution-the deficit in the last year of Buonaparte's reign, was 1,400,000,000 francs.

PRUSSIA AND RUSSIA.

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"Prussia as a kingdom exists only since 1700. The whole annual expenses of Frederick's court, between 1700 and 1713 did not exceed 4000 Spanish dollars. During the reign of his successor Frederick William I. an immense treasury and an army of 100,000 men were collected. Thus Frederick the Great came to the throne of a nation in which every 15th person was a soldier. At his accession he numbered among his subjects scarcely 2,000,000-which by conquest was almost quadrupled before his death in 1786. But he left his kingdom in the worst of all situations-it must devour, or be devoured; and so it has ever since been, either preying upon, or a prey to others. The close secrecy which is preserved in regard to its finances and debt prevent me from being able to give any thing upon that subject. The same is true of Russia. I know only that in 1790, she owed but 20,000,000 rubles, which have since been augmented to several hundred millions. The army has also been increased from 260,000, as Catha

rine left it at her death in 1790, to 650,000.

"I perceive all which I have said may be answered by the single remark, that if wars are necessary, the consequences are not to be considered; but it is certain that they are often unnecessary, and in a country where those who have to pay the cost retain in their own hands the means of carrying them on, I think the foregoing considerations may not be without their use. However hopeless may be the case in Europe, in America it is surely possible to sheathe the sword of the destroyer; all the mines of the Spanish colonies will not compensate for its ravages. If you are allured by them to give up your peace, your happiness, and your principles, the last hope of humanity is extinct for ever."

The preceding paragraphs are an abridgement, but they contain the principal things in the "Extract," as it appeared in the Newspapers. The author of the letter is entitled to the thanks of the friends of Peace in this country, for his "aid in this good cause." We may hope that so intelligent a writer will do good in his own country as well as in this and that his efforts will be continued.

According to the estimates given in the letter, Austria has employed in this century a standing army

of

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500,000

650,000

373,000

Great Britain, including her
navy
It may be moderate to add for
France
500,000
Total for four nations 2,023,000

How horrible the thought that four Christian nations have employed for a number of years more than two millions of men in the business of manslaughterin destroying one another, and in spreading ruin and misery among their fellow beings!

The loads of debt entailed upon

the nations of Europe by their own wars are indeed enormous. If to these we add the destruction which has been made of private property, and the more awful amount of bloodshed, guilt and wretchedness, which these wars have occasioned, who but madmen can even indulge a wish to recommence such fatal scenes? The project of Dr. Rush for SOBER HOUSES, to confine and reform drunkards, may well be so extended as to provide for every man who shall hereafter display a thirst for plunging nations into war. Such men are much more dangerous characters to run at large than most of the maniacs in bedlam, or other hospitals for the insane. If those who have the war delirium must be maintained by the public, is it not much cheaper to support them in a state of confinement, than to engage in war to gratify their bloody ambition?

Suppose an inhabitant of some other world, well acquainted with the character and religion of the Messiah, had been permitted to witness the battles of Europe in modern times: Would he not much sooner have suspected that these vast armies had been educated in the infernal regions, than that they were the fol

lowers of the Prince of Peace?

cannibals, who kill human beings to
satisfy their hunger; but they bestow
unbounded praises on the professional
and wanton butchers of men, who
trample on the rights of their bre-
thren, and wade in blood to conquest,
wealth, and
Were it not for
power.
the delusive influence of custom, it
would appear quite as laudable to
butcher men for food as for fame,
and cannibals and conquerors would
be equally abhorred.

Christians detest the conduct of

But if we must "think so badly of mankind as to believe that neither religious nor moral restraints are the most powerful which can operate upon them," let people be properly instructed in what is for their worldly

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amazement and terror. On his whole face, neck, shoulders, arms, thighs, and legs, as well as on his breast and back, were represented scenes of the various actions and engagements he had been in; in short, the whole of his history was there deposited, which was well known to those of his nation, and was such that all who heard it thought it could never be surpassed by man. Far from murdering those who were defenceless, or unarmed, his generosity, as well as his courage and skill in the art of war, was acknowledged by all. When, after his conversion, he was questioned about his warlike feats, he frankly and modestly answered, "That being now taken captive by Jesus Christ," "it did not become him to relate the "deeds he had done while in the

interest. Let them be made to understand how little they get and how much they lose by war-how it entails on them and their posterity the enormous price of blood," which must be paid in direct taxes, or in the increased price of the various articles of merchandize, which they have occasion to purchase. Let them be fairly informed of the objects of war in general, and who are the men that profit by war-how small their number compared with that of the sufferers, and that those who gain by war fatten on the blood and misery of their brethren. Could these things be clearly unfolded and brought home to the understandings and the feelings of people in general, they would soon cease to regard the destroyers of mankind as saviours and benefactors, and withhold their praises from bloody-"service of the evil spirit; but that minded men.

ANECDOTES.

The following Anecdote is from the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for Promoting Useful Knowledge. Vol. 1, Philadelphia, 1819, p. 199.

In the year 1742, a veteran warrior of the Lenope nation and Monsey tribe, renowned among his own people for his bravery and prowess, and equally dreaded by their enemies, joined the Christian Indians who then resided at this place.* This man, who was then at an advanced age, had a most striking appearance, and could not be viewed without astonishment. Besides that his body was full of scars, where he had been struck and pierced by the arrows of the enemy, there was not a spot to be seen on that part of it which was exposed to view, but what was tattooed over with some drawing relative to his achievements, so that the whole together struck the beholder with

* The Moravian settlement at Bethle

hem.

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"he was willing to give an account of the manner in which he had "been conquered."

The following fact, from page 236 of the 2d vol. of Owen's History of the Bible Society, shews how little they have to fear, who put their trust stretched out over those whose conin that Almighty arm which is ever fidence is in the Lord Most High.

"On the 2d Sept. 1812, Mr. Paterson reached Moscow, and both on that, and the two ensuing days, while the enemy was rapidly advancing towards the city, and all around them was apprehension, and bustle, and flight, these excellent men (Paterson and Pinkerton) were quietly discussing their plans for the spiritual improvement of that empire whose very

existence was threatened with de-
struction." (This occurrence took
of a Russian Bible Society.)
place preparatory to the formation

LITERARY NOTICE.

A PROSPECTUS has been circulated of a new Periodical Religious Magazine, conducted by members of the United Secession Church of Scot

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