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abomination. He is generally so busy with me in prayer, that my time is chiefly spent in keeping him off; so that I am often three hours about those intercessions, which might otherwise be offered in one sixth part of that space."-[" Journal of a Voyage from Savannah to Philadelphia," &c. by Wm. Seward; London, 1740.] (c)

Edwards, as we have seen by quotations already made from his works, believed in the special agency of the devil. He informs us that Satan "raged dreadfully at Northampton," at the time of the revival there. But in most of the recent accounts of revivals of religion, the special presence and agency of the devil is but obscurely mentioned, showing that in all probability the belief of his agency in human affairs will soon pass away.

Animal Magnetism.

The phenomena of Animal Magnetism are strikingly similar to some of the foregoing, and I think go far to aid us in accounting for the surprising occurrences in Scotland, Kentucky, &c. and those which are witnessed in modern revivals. For full particulars respecting this important but still mysterious subject, and the process by which the phenomena are produced, I must refer the reader to the works on Animal Magnetism. For my present purpose it will be sufficient to quote a portion of

(c) The following extracts from a letter of the Rev. Pere Surin, Jesuite exorciste des religieuses Ursulines de Loudon ecrite a un sien ami Jesuite, details experiences very similar to those of Seward.—“I am in perpetual conversation with devils.”—“I entered into combat with four devils, the most malicious of hell."-" For three months and a half, one devil has been constantly near me in my religious exercises," &c. &c. The whole letter is very interesting and will well repay perusal. It may be found in Bertrand's Animal Magnetism

the able Report of the Commissioners of the Faculty of the Academy of France, (d) employed by Louis XVI. to examine the pretensions of Mesmer and his disciples, respecting the cure of diseases, &c. by Animal Magnetism.

The Commissioners say that many women were magnetised at the same time, and in a crowded room where the air was hot and mephitic, and of itself disposing to affections of the head and nervous system. At first, however, the women magnetised do not exhibit any remarkable symptoms, but after about two hours, "the impressions, by little and little, are communicated from one to another, and re-enforced in the same manner as the impressions which are made by theatrical representations,-where the impressions are greater in proportion to the number of the spectators, and the liberty they enjoy of expressing their sensations. The applause by which the emotions of individuals are announced, occasions a general emotion, which every one partakes in the degree in which he is susceptible. The same observation has been made in armies upon a day of battle, where the enthusiasm of courage, as well as the impressions of terror, are propagated with so amazing rapidity. The drum, the sound of the military musical instruments, the noise of the cannon, the musketry, the shouts of the army, and the general disorder, impress the organs, and exalt the imagination in the same degree. In this equilibrium of inebriation, the external manifestation of a single sensation immediately becomes universal; it hurries the soldiery to the charge, or it deter

(d) Our illustrious Franklin was one of the Commissioners ;-the others were Bory, Lavoisier, Bailly, Majault, Sallin, d'Arcet, Guillotin and Le Roi. The report was drawn up by the unfortunate Bailly.

mines them to fly. In a numerous assembly, individuals are more subjected, than on other occasions, to their senses and their imagination; and less capable of consulting and obeying the dictates of reason. Hence the origin of that religious frenzy, which formerly affected so powerfully both the minds and the bodies of the enthusiasts of the Cevennes; and hence the acts of insanity into which public bodies are apt to be hurried, in times of political revolution. On this principle, it has been usual to forbid numerous assemblies in seditious towns, as a means of stopping a contagion so easily communicated. Every where example acts upon the moral part of our frame; MECHANICAL IMITATION upon the physical. The minds of individuals are calmed by dispersing them; and, by the same means, spasmodic affections, which are always infectious in their nature, may often be removed. Of this a recent example occurred in the young ladies of St. Roche, who were thus cured of the convulsions with which they were afflicted while assembled together."*

*"On the day of the ceremony of the first communion, celebrated in the parish church of St. Roche, a few years ago, (1780,) after the evening service, they made, according to custom, the procession through the streets. Scarcely were the children returned to the church, and had resumed their seats, before a young girl fell ill and had convulsions. The affection propagated itself with so much rapidity, that, in the space of half an hour, fifty or sixty girls, from twelve to nineteen years of age, were seized with the same convulsions; that is, with a contraction of the throat, an inflation of the stomach, suffocation, hiccups, and spasms, more or less considerable. These accidents re-appeared in some instances in the course of the week; but the following Sunday, being assembled with the dames of St. Anne, whose business it is to teach the young ladies, twelve of them were seized with the same convulsions, and more would have followed, if they had not had the precaution to send away each child upon the spot to her relations. The whole were obliged to be divided into several schools. By thus separating the children, and not keeping them together but in small numbers, three weeks sufficed to dissipate entirely this epidemical convulsive affection."

“The magnetism, then," (the commissioners continue)" or, rather, the operations of the imagination, are equally discoverable at the theatre, in the camp, and in all numerous assemblies, as at the bucket; acting, indeed, by different means, but producing similar effects. The bucket is surrounded with a crowd of patients; the sensations are continually communicated and recommunicated the nerves are at last worn out with this exercise, and the woman of most sensibility in the company gives the signal. In the meantime, the men who are witnesses of these emotions partake of them in proportion to their nervous sensibility; and those, with whom this sensibility is greatest, and most easily excited, become themselves the subjects of a crisis."

The Rev. Grant Powers, A. M, pastor of the Congregational church in Haverhill, N. H., in an Essay, (too much neglected) upon "the Influence of the Imagination on the Nervous System, contributing to a false hope in Religion," after referring to the phenomena produced by Animal Magnetism, says-" Now in view of what has been adduced to show the astonishing influence of the imagination over the human system, let us suppose that Mesmer and Deslon had been ecclesiastics; that they had inculcated the idea on this class of persons, that religion in a high degree, produced similar effects on the human body; and that without religion they must be damned;- suppose they had endeavored by all possible means to excite their apprehensions, to raise their animal feelings, and by hurried, boisterous, and long addresses, they had kept their minds strained intensely for hours in succession, yea, whole days and nights; and have we not reason to believe, that similar effects would have followed? and when one had ex

hibited these symptoms, another, and another, would do the same? Such a result would be natural, as in the case of animal magnetism: especially, if when one arose from the paroxysm, he was taught by those whom he considered his superiors, to believe that he emerged from a state of endless condemnation to a state of justification, life and peace; should hear his conversion proclaimed by a multitude of voices, and should join his own, also, to the quire, in a song of praise for his deliverance. And as these affections would be involuntary and real effects, the subjects of them would ascribe them to the supernatural influence of the Spirit of God, and the deception might be fatal."

The portion of the Report which I have just quoted, has also been referred to by Dugald Stewart, in his chapter on "the Principle or Law of Sympathetic Imitation," in the third volume of his Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. His own remarks which follow, have so direct a bearing on our subject, and in my opinion will go so far to explain much that is mysterious or miraculous in modern revivals, that I beg for them the careful attention of the reader.

"A very interesting and authentic collection of facts, tending to illustrate still farther this article, in the natural history of man, has since been published by the late Dr. Haygarth, in his 'Essay on the Imagination, as a cause and as a cure of the disorders of the body; exemplified by fictitious tractors and epidemical convulsions.'

"Leaving, however, to medical theorists the consideration of such cases as fall peculiarly within the circle of their professional pursuits, I shall confine myself chiefly to phenomena of more frequent recurrence, and more accessible to common observation. I would beg leave, at

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