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are contained under the name of fathers; because the authority both of them and of fathers comes out of one fountain.

Mast. Out of what fountain?

Scho. The holy decree of the laws of God, by which they are become worshipful and honourable, as well as natural parents. For from thence they all, whether they be parents, princes, magistrates, or other superiors, whatsoever they be, have all their power and authority; because by these it has pleased God to rule and govern the world.

Mast. What is meant by this that he calleth magistrates, and other superiors, by the name of parents?

Scho. To teach us that they are given us of God, both for our own and public benefit, and also by example of that authority, which of all other is naturally least grudged at, to train and enure the mind of man, which of itself is puffed with pride, and loth to be under others commandment, to the duty and obedience towards magistrates. For by the name of parents, we are charged not only to yield and obey to magistrates, but also to honour and love them. And likewise on the other part, superiors are taught so to govern their inferiors, as a just parent useth to rule over good children.

Mast. What meaneth that promise which is added to the Commandment?

Scho.

That they shall enjoy long life, and shall long continue in sure and steadfast posses

sion of wealth, that give just and due honour to their parents and magistrates.

Mast. But this promise seemeth to belong peculiarly to such Jews as are kind to their parents.

Scho.. It is no doubt, that that is by name spoken of the land of Canaan, pertaineth only to the Jews. But forasmuch as God is Lord of the whole world, what place soever he giveth us to dwell in, the same he promiseth and assureth us in this Law that we shall keep still in our possession.

Mast. But why doth God reckon for a benefit long-continued age in such a miserable and wicked life?

Scho. Because when he relieveth the miseries and calamities of them that be his, or preserveth them in so many perils that beset them round about, and calleth them back from vices and sins, he sheweth to them a fatherly mind and goodwill, as to his children.

Mast. Doth it follow, on the contrary side, that God hateth them whose life is taken away quickly, or before their ordinary race of years is expired, or that be distressed with miseries and adversities of this world?

Scho. Nothing less: but rather the dearlier that any man is beloved of God, he is commonly the more burdened with adversities, or is wont the sooner to remove out of this life, as he were delivered and let by God out of prison.

Mast. Doth not this in the mean time seem to abate the truth and credit of God's promise?

Scho. No. For when God doth promise us worldly good things he always addeth this exception, either expressly uttered or secretly implied; that is, that the same be not unprofitable or hurtful to our souls. For it were against order and reason, if chief regard should not be had of the soul, that we may so either attain or lack worldly commodities as we may with blessedness enjoy eternal life for ever.

REFORMATIO LEGUM, &c.

Of Heresies.

Of Magistrates. Chap. 13.

It is necessary also to put an end to the wild infatuation of the Anabaptists, who deny that it is lawful for Christians to have a magistracy; as if, when Christ descended upon earth, he had abolished the administration of public justice. But, in fact, the Holy Spirit has declared princes and magistrates to be the ministers of God, that they may encourage the well-doing, and requite evil deeds with punishment. And these two securities are so essential in the conduct of human affairs, that if they were wanting, the greatest confusion would generally ensue.

Of Sacraments.

Pastors ought to visit the Afflicted. Chap. 9. The ministers of churches should diligently visit the weak, the afflicted, and the sick; and support them, as much as possible, in their difficulties and dangers, by prayer and consolation.

Of Matrimony.

What Matrimony is. Chap. 1.

Matrimony is a lawful contract, introducing and perfecting, by the command of God, a mutual and perpetual alliance between man and woman; in which each gives to the other possession of the body, either for the obtaining of progeny, or for the avoiding of fornication, or for the management of life by mutual assistance. Now we will, that from henceforward matrimony should not be entered into with any promises or contracts, how many soever, or whatever the words used may be,-except it be with that form which we have taken care should be hereunto annexed.

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CHAPTER VII.

Of the Sixth Commandment.

SECTION I.

The Sixth Commandment-the second of those precepts which teach us our duty to our neighbour and ourselves-has reference, like the Fifth, to the persons of men. It provides for the security of all those members of the civil commonwealth, on whom, by the foregoing command, the Almighty imposes the several duties proper to the relative stations, in some one or more of which every man is necessarily placed. It is expressed negatively, "Thou shalt not kill;" or, as it is rendered and explained by Jesus Christ himself, "Thou shalt do no murder." That is,-by this Commandment all wilful and unlawful taking away of life, is condemned and prohibited ; but it is possible to kill by chance and undesignedly, as in the case of what is called chance-medley; or without premeditation and malicious intent, as in manslaughter; or when it is necessary and unavoidable, as in justifiable homicide and self-defence: in some instances it is lawful to put to death, being required or permitted by the Laws of God, as in just and necessary war, and in the infliction of public justice. To all these cases

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