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them to be otherwise than stark mad: who, with such a waste of treasure, with so ardent a zeal, with so great an effort, with so many arts, so much anxiety, and so much danger, endeavor to drive Peace away from them, and purchase endless misery and mischief at a pricc so high?

Animals destitute of reason, live with their own kind in a state of social amity. Elephants herd together; sheep and swine feed in flocks; cranes and crows take their flight in troops; storks have their public mcetings to consult previously to their emigration, and feed their their parents when unable to feed themselves; dolphins defend each other by mutual assistance; and every body knows, that both ants and bees have respectively estab lished, by general agreement, a little friendly community. The most savage of the savage tribe, in the forest, live among each other in amity. Lions shew no fierceness tc the lion race. The boar does not brandish his deadly tooth against his brother boar. The lynx lives in peace with the lynx. The serpent shews no venom in his intercourse with his fellow serpent; and the loving kind ness of wolf to wolf is proverbial.

But I will add a circumstance still more marvellous. The accursed Spirits, by whom the concord between heavenly and human beings was originally interrupted, and to this day continues interrupted, hold union with one another, and preserve their usurped power, such as it is, by humanity!

Even the common people, in the ordinary language of daily conversation, denominate whatever is connected with mutual good will, humane; so that the word humanity no longer describes a man's nature, merely in a physical sense; but signifies humane manners, or a behavior, worthy the nature of man, acting his proper part in civil society.

Thus, it appears in what various ways, Nature has taught man her first great lesson of love and union. Nor was she content to allure to benevolence, by the pleasurable sensations attending it; nor did she think she had done enough, when she rendered friendship pleasant; and, therefore, she determined to make it necess

For this purpose, she so distributed among various men, different endowments of the mind and the body.

If you detest robbery and pillage, remember these arc among the duties of war; and that, to learn how to commit them adroitly, is a part of military discipline. Do you shudder at the idea of murder? You cannot require to be told that, to commit it with despatch and by whole. sale, constitutes the celebrated art of war. If murder were not learned by this art, how could a man, whe would shudder to kill one individual even when provoked. go, in cold blood, and cut the throats of many for a little paltry pay, and under no better authority than a com mission from a mortal as weak, wicked, and wretched as himself, who does not, perhaps, know even his person, and would not care if both his body and soul were anni. hilated? If there cannot be a greater misfortune to the commonwealth, than a general neglect and disobedience of the laws, let it be considered as a certain truth, that the voice of law, divine or human, is never heard amid the clangor of arms, and the din of battle. If you deem debauchery, rapes, incest, and crimes of still greater turpitude than these, foul disgraces to human nature, depend upon it that war leads to all of them, in their most aggravated atrocity. If impiety or a total neglect of re ligion is the source of all villany, be assured that religion is always overwhelmed in the storms of war. If you think that to be the very worst possible condition of society, when the worst of men possess the greatest share of power, you may take it as an infallible observation, that the wickedest, most unprincipled and most unfeeling wretches, bear the greatest sway in a state of war; and that such as would come to the gallows in time of peace, are men of prime use and energy in the operations of a siege or a battle. For who can lead troops through secret ways more skilfully than an experienced robber, who has spent an apprenticeship to the art among thieves? Who will pull down a house or rob a church more dexterously, than one who has been trained to burglary and sacrilege? Who will plunge his bayonet into the enemy's heart, or rip up his bowels with more facility of execu tion, than a practised assassin or thorough-paced cut

throat by profession? Who is better qualified to set fire to a village, or a city, or a ship, than a notorious incendiary? Who will brave the hardships and perils of the sea, better than a pirate long used to rob, sink, and destroy merchant vessels, inoffensively traversing the great waters? In short, if you would form an adequate idea of the villany of war, only observe by whom it is carried into actual execution.

Among all the Roman emperors, Antoninus Pius and Antoninus the philosopher were the only ones that were never attacked. From these two instances it appears, that no kings sit more firmly on their thrones, than they who show that they are ready at any time to quit them, when their resignation appears likely to benefit the public; and that their power is a trust resumable at will, reposed in them by the people for the good of the people, and not to gratify their own pride or avarice, by lavishing away other men's blood and money.

Now then view, with the eyes of your imagination, savage troops of men, horrible in their very visages and voices; men clad in steel, drawn up on every side in battle array, armed with weapons, frightful in their crash, and their very glitter; mark the horrid murmur of the confused multitude, their threatening eye-balls, the harsh jarring din of drums and clarions, the terrific sound of the trumpet, the thunder of the cannon, a noise not less formidable than the real thunder of heaven, and more hurtful; a mad shout like that of the shrieks of bedlamites, a furious onset, a cruel butchering of each other! See the slaughtered and the slaughtering! Heaps of dead bodies, fields flowing with blood, rivers reddened with human gore! It sometimes happens, that a brother falls by the hand of a brothe a kinsman upon his nearest kindred, a friend upon his friend, who, while both are actuated by this fit of insanity, plunges the sword into the heart of one by whom he was never offended, not even by a word of his mouth! So deep is the tragedy, that the bosom shudders even at the feeble description of it, and the hand of humanity drops the pencil while it paints

the scene.

In the mean time I pass over, as comparatively trifling,

the corn-fields trodden down, peaceful cottages and rural mansions burnt to the ground, villages and towns reduced to ashes, the cattle driven from their pasture, innocent women violated, old men dragged into captivity, churches defaced and demolished, every thing laid waste, a prey to robbery, plunder and violence!

Not to mention the consequences which ensue to the people after a war, even the most fortunate in its event, and the justest in its principle: the poor, the unoffending common people, robbed of their little hard-earned property; the great laden with taxes; old people bereaved of their children; more cruelly killed by the murder of their offspring than by the sword; happier if the enemy had deprived them of the sense of their misfortune, and life itself, at the same moment; women far advanced in age, left destitute, and more cruelly put to death, than if they had died at once by the point of the bayonet; widowed mothers, orphan children, houses of mourning: and families, that once knew better days, reduced to extreme penury.

Hence is derived a contempt of piety, a neglect of law, a general corruption of principle, which hesitates at no villany. From this source rushes on society a torrent of thieves, robbers, sacrilegists, murderers, and what is the greatest misfortune of all, this destructive pestilence confines not itself within its own boundaries; but originating in one corner of the world, spreads its contagious virulence, not only over the neighboring states, but draws the most remote regions, either by subsidies, by marriages among princes, or by political alliances, into the common tumult, the general whirlpool of mischief and confusion. One war sows the seeds of another. From a pretended war, arises a real one; from an inconsiderable skirmish, hostilities of most important consequence.

War appears to deserve a worse epithet than brutal; it is more than brutal, when men engage in the conflict of arms; ministers of death to men! Most of the brutes live in concord with their own kind, move together in flocks, and defend each other by mutual assistance. Indeed, all kinds of brutes are not inclined to fight even their enemies. There are harmless ones like the hare.


It is only the fiercest, such as lions, wolves, and tigers, that fight at all. A dog will not devour his own species, lions, with all their fierceness, are quiet among themselves; dragons are said to live in peace with dragons, and even venomous creatures with one another; but to man, no wild beast is more destructive than his fellow man. Again, when the brutes fight, they fight with the weapons which Nature gave them; we arm ourselves for mutual slaughter, with weapons which nature never thought of, but which were invented by the contrivance of some accursed fiend, the enemy of human Nature that man might become the destroyer of man. Neither do the beasts break out in hostile rage for trifling causes; but either when hunger drives them to madness, or when they find themselves attacked, or when they are alarmed for the safety of their young. We, good heaven, on frivolous pretences, what tragedies do we act on the theatre of war! Under color of some obsolete and disputable claim to territory; in a childish passion for a mistress; for causes more ridiculous than these, we kindle the flames of war. Among the beasts the combat is, for the most part, only one against one, and for a very short space. And though the contest should be bloody, yet when one of them has received a wound, it is all over. Whoever heard, what is common among men in one campaign, that a hundred thousand beasts had fallen in battle by mutual butchery? Besides, as beasts have a natural hatred to some of a different kind, so are they united to others of a different kind, in a sincere and inviolable alliance. But man with man, and any man with any man, can find an everlasting cause for contest, and become what they call natural enemies; nor is any agreement or truce found sufficiently obligatory to bind man from attempting, on the appearance of the slightest pretexts, to commence hostilities after the most solemn convention.

Custom has such universal sway, that in some nations it has been deemed a virtuous act to knock a parent on the head, and to deprive him of life, from whom we received the precious gift; in others it has been held a duty of religion to eat the flesh even of near and dear departed friends who had been connected by affinity; it has been

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