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the stomach itself is not guilty of bloodshed, but is involuntarily polluted by our intemperance. But if this may not be, and we are ashamed by reason of custom to live unblamably, let us at least sin with discretion: let us eat flesh, but let it be for hunger, and not for wantonness. Let us kill an animal, but let us do it with sorrow and pity, and not abusing and tormenting it, as many do.

And what meal is not expensive, for which an animal is put to death? shall we reckon a soul to be a small expense? (I will not say perhaps of a mother, or a father, or of some friend, or child, as Empedocles did ;) but one participating of feeling, of seeing, of hearing, of imagination and of intellection; which each of them hath received from Nature for the acquiring of what is agreeable to it, and the avoiding what is disagreeable. Which sort of philosophers render us most gentle and civilized, they who bid people to feed on their kindred as if they were dead; or Pythagoras and Empedocles, who accustom men to be just towards all the other members of the creation?

In the beginning some wild and mischievous beast was killed and eaten, and then some little bird or fish was entrapped. And conquest being first experimented and exercised in these, at last passed even to the laboring ox, and the sheep that clothes us, and to the poor cock that keeps the house; until by little and little, unsatiableness being strengthed by use, men came to the slaughter of men, to bloodshed and wars. Now if one cannot demonstrate and make out that souls in their regenerations make a promiscuous use of all bodies, and that which is now rational will at another time be irrational, and that again tame which is now wild (for that Nature changes and transmutes every thing; with different fleshy coats new clothing all ;) this thing should be sufficient to change a man that hath taken up an intemperate and luxurious life, that it brings sickness and heaviness upon the body, and that it inclines the mind more brutishly to warm bloodshed and destruction. When we have once accustomed ourselves neither to entertain a guest, nor keep a wedding, nor to treat our friends, without blood and slaughter.

MICHAEL MONTAIGNE'S

ESSAYS.

It always gives me pain to see a harmless beast, which is incapable of making its defence, and gives us no offence, pursued and worried to death: and, as it often happens, that the stag, when hunted till it has lost its breath and strength, finding no other remedy, falls on its back, and surrenders itself to its pursuers, seeming, with tears, to beg for mercy,

quæstúque cruentus atque imploranti similis. I ever thought it a very unpleasant sight: I scarce take any beast alive, but I turn it abroad again: Pythagoras purchased fish and fowls alive for the same purpose. They that thirst for the blood of beasts discover a natural inclination to cruelty. After they had accustomed themselves, at Rome, to spectacles of the slaughter of animals, they proceeded to that of men, and the combats of gladiators. We are enjoined to have some pity for animals by theology itself: and, considering that one and the same master has lodged us in this world for his service, and that they are of his family as well as we, it had reason to command us to show some regard and affection for them.

We ought to be ashamed, that, in all the human sects, there never was a man, notwithstanding the absurdity and novelty of the doctrine which he maintained, but conformed his manner of life to christianity in some measure; and that so divine and heavenly an institution should only distinguish christians by the appellation. Would you see a proof of this? Compare our manners to those of a Mahometan or Pagan: you will after all come short of them in that very point where, in regard to the advantage of our religion, we ought to outshine them beyond all comparison; and it must be said, are they so good, so just, so charitable? They are therefore christians. All other appearances are common to all religions: hope, trust, events, ceremonies, Penances, Martyrdoms, &c. The peculiar characteristic of our truth ought to be our virtue, as it is also the most celestial and difficult mark, and the most worthy product of truth.

Pythagoras borrowed the doctrine of the metempsychosis

from the Egyptians; but it was afterwards received by several nations, and particularly by our Druids.

The priests of our ancient Gauls maintained, that souls, being eternal, never ceased to remove and shift their stations from one body to another; mixing, moreover, with this fancy, some consideration of the divine justice; for, according as the soul had behaved whilst it had been in Alexander, they said, that God ordered it to inhabit another body, more or less uneasy, and suitable to its condition.

Plutarch says, that it was not the cat nor the ox that the Egyptians adored, but that, in those brutes, they reverenced some image of the divine faculties. In the ox, patience and profit; in the cat, vivacity, or, like our neighbors, the Burgundians, with all the Germans, an impatience to see itself shut in, by which they represented the liberty they loved and adored beyond every other faculty; and so of the others. But when, amongst the more moderate opinions, I meet with arguments that endeavor to demonstrate the near resemblance betwixt us and animals, and what a share they have in our greatest privileges, and with what probability they are compared to us, it really very much abates my presumption, and I am ready to resign that imaginary royalty which is ascribed to us over the other crea

tures.

Be all this as it will, there is nevertheless, a certain kind of respect, and a general obligation of humanity, which attaches us, not only to the beasts that have life and a sense of feeling, but also to trees and plants. We owe justice to men, and favor and good usage to other creatures that are susceptible of it. There is a certain correspondence, and a mutual obligation betwixt them and us; I fear not to declare the tenderness of my nature to be so puerile that I cannot well refuse to play with my dog when he caresses me, or desires it, though it be out of season.

The Turks have alms-houses and hospitals for beasts. The Romans made public provision for the nourishment of geese, after the watchfulness of one of them had saved their capitol. The Athenians made a decree, that the mules which had been employed in the building of the temple, called Hecatompedon, should be free, and allowed to graze

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any where without molestation. 'Twas the common practice of the Agrigentines to give solemn interment to their favorite beasts, as horses of some rare qualities, dogs, and birds, which they made a profit of, and even such as had served for the diversion of their children: and the magnificence which they commonly displayed in all other things, appeared particularly in the number of costly monuments erected to this very purpose, which remained for a show several ages after. The Egyptians interred wolves, bears, crocodiles, dogs, and cats in sacred places, embalmed their bodies, and wore mourning at their death. Cimon gave an honorable burial to the mares with which he had won three prizes at the Olympic races. Old Xanthippus caused his dog to be buried on a promontory, near the sea-side, which has, ever since, retained its name. And Plutarch says, that he made conscience of selling and sending to the shambles, for a small profit, an ox that had served him a good while.

NOTIONS OF THE ANCIENT PHILOSOPHERS RESPECTING GOD:

From Cicero de Natura Deorum, etc.

Thales, who was the first that inquired into things of this nature, thought God to be a spirit, that made all things of water. Anaximander, that the gods were, at different and distant seasons, dying and entering into life, and that there was an infinite number of worlds. Anaximenes, that the air was God, that he was immense, infinite, and always in motion. Anaxagoras was the first man who believed, that the description and manner of all things were conducted by the power and reason of an infinite spirit. Alcmaon ascribed divinity to the sun, the moon, the stars, and the soul. Pythagoras has made God to be a spirit, diffused through the Nature of all things, from whence our souls are extracted. Parmenides, a circle surrounding heaven, and supporting the world by its heat and light. Empedocles pronounced the four elements, of which all things are composed, to be God. Protagoras had nothing to say, whether there were gods or not, or what they were. Democritus was one while of opinion, that the images and their circuitions were gods; at another time, he deified that Nature, which darts out those savages; and, at another time, he

pays this attribute to our knowledge and understanding. Plato puts his opinion into various lights. He says, in his Timæus, that the father of the world cannot be named; and, in his book of laws, that he thinks men ought not to inquire into his being and elsewhere, in the very same book, he makes the world, the heaven, the stars, the earth, and our souls, gods, admitting, moreover, those which have been received by ancient institution in every republic. Xenophon reports a like perplexity in the doctrine of Socrates; one while that men are not to inquire into the form of God, and presently makes him maintain that the sun is God, and the soul God: one while, he says, he maintains there is but one god, and afterwards, that there are many gods. Speusippus, Plato's nephew, makes God to be a certain power governing all things, and that it is an animal. Aristotle one while says, it is the soul, and another while the world: one while he gives this world another master, and at another time makes God the ardor of heaven. Xenocrates makes the gods to be eight in number, of whom five were among the planets; the sixth consisted of all the fixed stars, as so many of its members; the seventh and eighth the sun and moon. Heraclides Ponticus is of a wavering opinion, and finally deprives God of sense, and make him shift from one form to another, and afterwards says, it is heaven and earth. Theophrastus wanders in the same uncertainty among all his fancies, one while ascribing the superintendency of the world to the understanding, at another time to heaven, and one while also to the stars. Strato will have it to be Nature, having the power of generation, augmentation and diminution, but without form and sentiment. Zeno makes it to be the law of Nature, commanding good and forbidding evil, which law is an animal, and takes away the accustomed gods, Jupiter, Juno, Vesta, &c. Diogenes Apolloniates ascribes the deity to air. Xenophanes makes God round, seeing and hearing, but not breathing, nor having any thing in common with the nature of man. Aristo thinks the form of God to be incomprehensible, deprives him of sense, and knows not whether he be an animal or something else. Cleanthes one while supposes him to be reason, another while the world; sometimes the soul of Nature, at other times the supreme heat, called æther, rolling

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