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about and encompassing all. Perseus, the disciple of Zeno, was of opinion, that men who have been remarkably useful, and profitable to human life, are surnamed gods. Chrysippus made a confused collection of all the foregoing opinions, and reckons men also, who are immortalized among a thousand forms, which he makes of gods. Diagoras and Theodorus flatly deny that there were ever any gods at all. Epicurus makes the gods shining, transparent, and perfiable, lodged betwixt the two worlds, as betwixt two groves, secure from shocks, invested with a human figure, and the members that we have, but which are to them of no use.

EPICTETUS.

What is man? A part or member of a community; in the first instance, of that great or general community which consists of Gods and men, the world at large; and in the second, of that city or state which is locally near him, to which he immediately belongs, and which is a petty imitation or miniature of the Universal community.

Where are you going? It cannot be into a place of sufferings; you will only return to the place whence you came; you are going to be again peaceably associated with the elements from which you have parted. That which in your composition is of the nature of fire, will return to the element of fire; that which is of the nature of earth is going to rejoin itself to the earth; that which is air is going to re-unite itself to air; that which is water is going to resolve itself into water; there is no hell.

The hour of death approaches; but do not aggravate your evils nor render things worse than they are; represent them to yourself under their true point of view. The time is come, when the materials of which are composed, go to be dissolved into the elements whence they were orriginally borrowed. What is there that is terrible or grievous in that? Is there any thing in the world which totally perishes?

RALPH CUDWORTH'S

INTELLECTUAL SYSTEM OF THE UNIVERSE.

Stobæus first declared, that the Pythagoric monads were corporeal,-i. e. atoms. And this is further confirmed from what Aristotle himself writes of these Pythagoreans and their monads, "they suppose their monads to have magnitude." And from that he elsewhere makes monads and atoms to mean the same thing; "it is all one to say monades or small corpuscula."—And Gassendus hath observed out of the Greek epigrammatist, that Epicurus's atoms were sometimes called monads too."

But to pass from Pythagoras himself; that Empedocles, who was a Pythagorean also, did physiologize atomically, is a thing that could hardly be doubted of, though there were no more proof for it than that one passage of his in his philosophic poems: "Nature is nothing but the mixture and separation of things mingled;" or thus, "There is no production of any thing anew, but only mixture and separation of things mingled."-Which is not only to be understood of animals, according to the Pythagoric doctrine of the transmigration of souls, but also, as himself expounds it, universally of all bodies, that their generation and corruption is nothing but mixture and separation; or, as Aristotle expresses it, concretion and secretion of parts, together with change of figure and order. It may perhaps be objected, that Empedocles held four elements, out of which he would have all other bodies to be compounded; and that as Aristotle affirms, he made those elements not to be transmutable into one another neither. To which we reply, that he did indeed make four elements, as the first general concretion of atoms, and therein he did no more than Democritus himself, who, as Laertius writes, did from atoms moving round in a vortex: " generate all concretions, fire, water, air, and earth, these being systems made out of certain atoms."-And Plato further confirms the same; for in his book De Legibus he describes, as I suppose, that very atheistical hypothesis of Democritus, though without mentioning his name, representing it in this manner; that by the fortuitous motion of senseless matter, were first made those four elements, and then out of them afterward sun,

testify, that Empedocles themselves out of atoms;

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moon, stars, and earth. Now both Plutarch and Stobeas compounded the four elements 'Empedocles makes the elements to be compounded of other small corpuscula, which are the least, and as it were the elements of the elements.'

Empedocles did, in the same manner as Pythagoras be fore him, and Plato after him, hold the transmigration o souls, and consequently both their future immortality and preëxistence; and therefore must needs assert their incor poreity: Plutarch rightly declaring this to have been hi opinion; "That as well those who are yet unborn, as those that are dead, have a being."

The matter of the Universe is always substantially the same, nor neither more nor less, but only Proteanly transformed into different shapes. Thus we see, that the generation of all inanimate bodies is nothing but the change of accidents and modifications, the substance being really the same, both before and after. But in the generations of men and animals, besides the new disposition of the parts of matter and its organization, there is also the acquisition and conjunction of another real entity or substance distinct from the matter, which could not be generated out of it, but must needs come into it some other way. Though there be no substantial difference between a stately house or palace standing, and all the materials of the same ruinated and demolished, but only a difference of accidents and modifications; yet, between a living man and a dead carcass, there is, besides the accidental modification of the body, another substantial difference, there being a substantial soul and incorporeal inhabitant dwelling in the one and acting of it, which the other is now deserted of.

And the generation and corruption of animals is likewise nothing but the conjunction of souls together with such particular bodies, and the separation of them again from one another,—and so as it were the anagrammatical transposition of them in the Universe. That soul and life, that is now fled and gone from a lifeless carcass, is only a loss to that particular body or compages of matter, which by means thereof is now disanimated; but it is no loss to the whole, it being but transposed in the Universe, and lodged somewhere else.

It is also further evident, that this same principle, which thus led the ancients to hold the soul's immortality, or its future permanency after death, must needs determine them likewise to maintain its preëxistence, and consequently its transmigration. For that which did preëxist before the generation of any animal, and was then somewhere else, must needs transmigrate into the body of that animal where now it is. But as for that other transmigration of human souls into the bodies of brutes, though it cannot be denied but that many of these ancients admitted it also, yet, Timæus Locrus, and divers others of the Pythagoreans, rejected it, any otherwise than as it might be taken for an allegorical description of that beastly transformation that is made of men's souls by vice.

or not.

The doctrine of the ancient Atomists concerning the immateriality and the immortality, the pre and post-existence of souls, was not confined by them to human souls only, but extended universally to all souls and lives whatsoever; it being a thing that was hardly ever called into doubt or question by any before Cartesius, whether the souls of brutes had any sense, cogitation, or consciousness in them Now all life, sense, and cogitation was undoubtedly concluded by them to be an entity really distinct from the substance of body, and not the mere modification, motion, or mechanism of it; life and mechanism being two distinct ideas of the mind, which cannot be confounded together. Wherefore they resolved, that all lives and souls whatsoever, which now are in the world, ever were from the beginning of it, and ever will be; that there will be no new ones produced, which are not already, and have not always been, nor any of those, which now are, destroyed, any more than the substance of any matter will be created or annihilated. So that the whole system of the created Universe, consisting of body, and particular incorporeal substances or souls, in the successive generations and corruptions, or deaths of men and other animals, was, according to them, really nothing else but one and the same thing perpetually anagrammatized, or but like many different. syllables and words variously and successively composed out of the same preëxistent elements or letters.

All those ancient philosophers who insisted so much

upon this principle; "that no real entity is either generated or corrupted,"-did therein at once drive at these two things: first, the establishing of the immortality of all souls, their pre and post-existence, for as much as being entities really distinct from the body, they conld neither be generated nor corrupted; and secondly, the making of corporeal forms and qualities to be no real entities distinct from the body and mechanism thereof, because they are things generated and corrupted, and have no pre and post-existence.

And now we have made it sufficiently evident, that the doctrine of the incorporeity and immortality of souls, we might add also, of their pre-existence and transmigration, had the same original, and stood upon the same basis with the Atomical physiology; and therefore it ought not at all to be wondered at (what we affirmed before) that the same philosophers and Pythagoreans asserted both those doctrines, and that the ancient Atomists were both Theists and Incorporealists.

But if there be any such, who, rather than they would allow a future immortality or post-existence to all souls, and therefore to those of brutes, which consequently must have their successive transmigrations, would conclude the souls of all brutes, as likewise the sensitive soul in man, to be corporeal, and only allow the rational soul to be dis tinct from matter; to these we have only thus much to say, that they, who will attribute life, sense, cogitation, consciousness, and self-enjoyment, not without some footsteps of reason many times, to blood and brains, or mere organized bodies in brutes, will never be able clearly to defend the incorporeity and immortality of human souls, as most probably they do not intend any such thing. For either all conscious and cogitative beings are incorporeal, or else nothing can be proved to be incorporeal. From whence it would follow also, that there is no Deity distinct from the corporeal world. But though there seem to be no very great reason, why it should be thought absurd, to grant perpetuity of duration to the souls of brutes, any more than to every atom of matter, or particle of dust that is in the whole world; yet we shall endeavor to suggest something towards_easing the minds of those,

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