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HISTORY OF MAN.
IN FOUR VOLUMES.
By HENRY HOME, Lord KAIMS,
Printed for the UNITED COMPANY OF BOOK-
HISTORY OF MA N.
Principles and Progrefs of Morality.
HE fcience of morals, like other sciences; is in a very imperfect state among Savages; and arrives at maturity among enlightened nations by very flow degrees. This progrefs points out the hiftorical part, as first in order: but as that history would give little fatisfaction, without a rule for comparing the morals of different ages, and of different nations, begin with the principles of morality, fuch as ought to govern at all times, and in all nations. The prefen: ketch accordingly is divided into two parts. In the first, the principles are unfolded; and the fecond is altogether hiftorical.
SE C T. Τ
HUMAN Atrons analyfed.
HE hand of God is no, where more visible, than in the nice adjustment of our internal frame to our fituation in this world. An animal is endued with a power of felf-motion; and in performing animal functions, requires not any external aid. This more efpecially is the cafe of man, the nobleft of terreftrial beings. His heart beats, his blood circulates, his ftomach digefts, evacuations proceed, &c. &c. By what means? Not furely by the laws of mechanifm, which
are far from being adequate to fuch operations. The operations mentioned are effects of an internal power, bestowed on man for preferving life. The power is exerted uniformly, and without interruption, independent of will, and without consciousness.
Man is a being fufceptible of pleasure and pain: thefe generate defire to attain what is agreeable, and to fhun what is difagreeable; and he is enabled by other powers to gratify his defires. One power, termed infint, is exerted indeed with.confcioufnefs; but blindly, without will, and without intention to produce any effect. Brute animals act for the most part by instinct : hunger prompts them to eat, and cold to take fhelter; knowingly indeed, but without exerting any act of will, and without forefight of what will happen. Infants of the human fpecies, little fuperior to brutes, are, like brutes, governed by inftinct: they lay hold of the nipple, without knowing that fucking will fatisfy their hunger; and they weep when pained, without any view of relief. Another power is governed by intention and will. In the progrefs from infancy to maturity, the mind opens to objects, without end, of defire and of averfion, the attaining or fhunning of which depend more or lefs on our own will. We are placed in a wide world, left to our own conduct; and we are by nature provided with a proper power for performing what we intend and will. The actions we perform by this power are termed voluntary. There ftill remain another where we act by fome irrefiftible motive agaifft will. An action may be voluntary, though.done with reluctance; as where a man, to free himself from torture, reveals the fecrets of his friend his confeffion is voluntary,
fpecies of actions, termed in; as
* Akin to thefe, are certain habitual acts done without thought, fuch as fufing or grinning. Caftom enables one to move the fingers on an inftrument of mufic, without being directed by will: the motion is often too quick for an act of will. Some arrive at great perfection in the art of balancing: the flightest deviation from the just balance is inftantly redressed: were a preceding act of will neceffary, it would be too late. An unexpected hollow in walking, occafions a violent flock is not this evidence, that external motion is governed by the mind, uently without confcioufnefs; and that in walking, the bofreqs adjusted before-hand to what is expe&cd›