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dour of our country we should want a shield, but for the ships that floated round the island; and again, he felt the obligation which he owed to the Military power, when he recollected that he enjoyed his happy home by the exertions of that sword, which, when raised, appalled the most gigantic power, or laid her powerless our feet. (Applause.) - Ancient history informed him that indolence had destroyed armies who were unconquerable in the field. The community were bound, therefore, to circulate religious instruction among the defenders of their country, for "the people that know their God shall be strong, and do exploits." Mr. S. then proceeded in an animated strain of eloquence to point out the national importance of the Society, and the weighty claims it had on the fostering care of Englishmen. He concluded by observing, and "he hoped it would not give offence, that ere long the sword would be turned into a ploughshare, the spear into a prun

ing hook, and the Navy to commercial purposes.".

We so cordially concur with the Rev. Gentleman in this concluding prophetic remark, towards the accomplishment of which all our ef forts are directed, that we invite him as a Minister of the Gospel of Christ to lend us his undivided endeavours towards promoting the establishment of the peaceful kingdom of the Messiah.

At a meeting of the Hibernian Bible Society, held 18th April 1822, one of the Clergymen stated, that in a considerable village where he had resided ten years, and never heard of a serious riot, the peace was kept by an aged member of the Society of Friends, whose only means were a Lancastrian School, a Sunday School, and a Bible Society.

This pleasing and gratifying fact affords not an unimportant proof, that a Christian pacific conduct may be the best defence against lawless violence.


It is with extreme regret that we announce the death of that zealous and indefatigable advocate of the Christian principle of Peace, Mr. EVAN REES, late Secretary of the Peace Society, and to whose labours the earlier volumes of our work were much indebted. He had for some time past laboured under a pulmonary complaint, for which the faculty recommended him to take a long sea voyage; he accordingly took his passage in The Grace, Captain Lethbridge, bound for Van Diemen's Land; but his complaint had made too deep inroads in his constitution to give way to the means proposed for the-re-establishment of his health, so that though he appeared rather better in the early part of the voyage, he sunk under a renewed attack of his complaint when the vessel arrived off

the Cape of Good Hope: and on June 28th, 1821, he exchanged this scene of trial and suffering for those mansions of rest and peace which are prepared by the Saviour for his humble and devoted followers. We must defer a further account of this truly Christian Philanthropist to a future Number.

The cause of Peace has lost a zealous friend, and the Peace Society a valuable member, by the death of the Rev. John Williams, of which the following account appeared in the Philanthropic Gazette of April 3d, 1822.

"Sudden Death of a Clergyman.We are sorry to learn, by a private letter, the sudden death of the Rev. John Williams, Vicar of East Testead, Hants. On Saturday morning, Mr. W. called at Mr. Adey's, at

Turnham Green, to wait for the stage to Testead, when he entered into conversation with Mr. A. on a variety of philanthropic subjects, in which he felt much interested-as the abolition of the Slave Trade; the Peace Society; the new systems for the education of the poor, &c. and expressed his hope that by these means knowledge would universally prevail. When he had uttered this, his last wish, he fell back, and instantly expired.

"Mr. Williams was Afternoon Lecturer at Chiswick Church for nearly 20 years, and was universally respected for his piety, evangelical principles, and benevolent conduct."

Thus was this Christian philanthropist, when in the very act of expressing his benevolent wishes for the good of mankind, suddenly called from works to rewards. As the real character of a man is best known by those with whom he is in the habit of daily intercourse, so nothing that we can say will enable the reader to appreciate so truly the worth of the character of the late Mr. Williams as the following extract from a sermon, preached on this solemn occasion, by the Rev. T. F. Bowerbank, Vicar of Chiswick, published in " compliance," says Mr. B., "with the general wish of my parishioners to possess a memorial of one so justly entitled to their affectionate and grateful remembrance." After some suitable reflections and observations induced by the occasion, Mr. B. proceeds :

"You will most of you have anticipated the object to which these observations tend. The sudden removal, to his last and great account, of one whom so many of us have long been accustomed to regard with more than common reverence and affection, is in itself an event possessing a strong claim upon our feelings. But, God be thanked! this is not the whole claim. For there is, in the example he has left behind him, a lesson which (forci

bly uttering the language of Christian reproof to whomsoever there be amongst us neglectful of Christian duty nor less impressively the words of consolation and good hope to every Christian believer, and every doer of the Christian's work) demands both from myself and you a direct application to our mutual instruction and improvement.

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"Of our departed friend I would not from this place speak with false praise but I should be very ungrateful and very unjust were. I not to pay that tribute of respect to his memory which my own heart tells me, and all who knew him will acknowledge, to be so justly his due. For who can remember his assiduity and fidelity in the responsible situation which Providence had assigned him amongst us, and at the same time not remember the minister of Christ' labouring to approve himself in the sight of God, a workman that needed not to be ashamed?' Who can remember his walk in life, and at the same time not call to mind that exemplary deportment which aimed at adorning the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things;' even in the continual ercise' of himself to have a conscience void of offence towards God and towards men?' Who is there that ever enjoyed his conversation, and remembers not the Christian 'clothed with humility,' in a signal degree possessing that ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price?' With the law of kindness in his tongue'-with the glory of God, peace and good-will towards men,' as the great incentives to all his actions-never was he seen among us, but in imitation of his Lord and Master, going about seeking to do good: to declare the whole counsel of the grace of God,' for the salvation of those intrusted to his care, 'rightly to divide the word of truth;' to be the instructor of the ignorant, the warner and reprover of the care

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less and sinner, the comforter of the penitent and broken-hearted, constituted his daily labour of duty and love. He was, in truth, the 'embassador of Christ, praying men to be reconciled unto God' to be tender-hearted, forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man had a quarrel against any, even as they trusted that God, for Christ's sake, would forgive them.

"To such a life, it pleased Him in whom we live, and move, and have our being,' to put a termination by a sudden death-a death so sudden, that the separation of soul and body, the transition from usual health to absolute decease, appeared not to occupy a single instant. For himself, however, we may firmly trust that the change was but the necessary passport to happiness and glory."

These traits of character are not, we are aware, such as are usually emblazoned by the poet and historian; but panegyric is not our object, we wish to induce, if possible, a just appreciation of human character that true greatness and real worth do not consist in those talents and energies which are exerted in contemplating mighty mischiefs, in spreading desolation, ruin and death, through whole provinces of those whom we call our enemies, but in

the unostentatious Christian virtues, which overcome evil with good, and within the sphere of their influence diffuse peace, concord and happiness.

The awful event which originated these reflections is also an imperative call upon us to work whilst it is day, as the night cometh when no man can work, how soon, or how sudden, we know not.


The means adopted for instructing, in Christianity and in the arts of civilization, the youths of Heathen states, that they may carry into their own country the information which they have thus obtained, we consider as calculated to extend knowledge of Christianity, and by degrees put an end to wars among savage nations. This remark is occasioned by the melancholy task which we have to record of the death of a Madagascar youth, about 14 years of age, on Thursday, 28th March last, on board the Andromache, at Portsmouth. He was sent to this country by the King of Madagascar, with others, to be instructed in the principles of the Christian religion, and in the knowledge of some useful art; but the change of climate produced consumption, of which he died ere he could be carried back to his native country.-His remains were landed and interred in the garrison chapel.


We return thanks to our Correspondents for their communications, to which every attention will be given. The similarity of some of the articles which are sent to us, oblige us to make a Selection.

We are unavoidably obliged to postpone until our next the review of Mr. Barton's new volume, consisting of Napoleon and other poems. We cannot, however, suffer the present Number to go to press without a cordial recommendation of it to our Readers, not less for the elegance and sweetness of the poetry, than for the purity of its sentiments and correctness of its principles.

B. Bensley, Bolt-Court, Fleet-Street







AROM the commencement of the Herald in 1819, we have occasionally inserted various articles relative to the practice of Duelling. If any of our readers are desirous of investigating the subject anew, they will find, in the different communications, most cogent arguments against the custom, and some awful instances of its barbarous nature and distressing consequences. Not only is the evidence of the Christian moralist adduced against its observance, but men of indisputable courage, and high rank, Mahometans, and even infidels, have stamped it with their abhorrence.(See vol. 3, page 214.) It would give us much pleasure, if, after all that has been published by others as well as ourselves, there was reason to hope that any material change had taken place in the opinions of persons of rank,-in the minds of naval and military officers, and among private gentlemen. Some recent circumstances have led us to a contrary conclusion; and we fear whether the trial, which lately occurred in Scotland, relative to a fatal duel, together with some unguarded expressions of a Christian reviewer in animadverting upon that trial, do not prove that the practice has not lost ground if it has not gained in the public estimation! But though we were to stand alone in our reprobation of this custom, we feel that, as the disciples of the meek,


humble and suffering Saviour, it would be our duty boldly and unceasingly to protest against a custom, which, viewed in any light, and under the most mitigating circumstances, is nevertheless in direct opposition to the sacred requirements of divine truth!---exposing the immediate agents to present wretchedness and eternal ruin, their families to agonizing distress, and society to the pernicious consequences of the demoralizing example!

Duelling, as it arises from the same spirit which promotes war, must ever be an object of detestation and attack by the friends of Peace; we are therefore desirous of calling the attention of our readers more pointedly to the subject.

This barbarous and absurd mode of terminating disputes, first obtained in England after the Norman conquest; but it does not appear to have at any time prevailed to such an extent in this country, as it did at one period in France, where the first and regular question of each morning among the Parisian gallants was, "Who fought yesterday?" To what an extent may not a vicious and cruel custom be carried, unless restrained by the arm of power, or counteracted by the diffusion of moral and religious principles! This consideration ought to lead every one carefully to investigate their motives to action, S

and to guard against any example the general adoption of which would be destructive to the peace and happiness of a country.

Notwithstanding the sanction given to duelling by men of character and education, and even of religious profession, it has been justly denominated absurd, inhuman, and wicked.

To dispute and quarrel upon subjects of the most trifling nature, is an evil sufficiently great, and exhibits not only a weak and frivolous, but a passionate and angry spirit: but to settle such disputes by an appeal to the sword or to powder and ball, is horribly ridiculous, if two such words may be associated together. For it is in fact no decision at all!-but a measure without equity, by which the innocent and guilty are placed alike in jeopardy, the former as often falling a victim as the latter. It is absolutely impossible that an appeal to arms can be any real set tlement of differences. The practice is, therefore, in the highest degree absurd.

Its inhumanity need not be dwelt upon. The language which the author of Waverley has put into the mouth of Halbert Glendinning, in the monastery, most forcibly expresses this; and the relatives and friends of those who have fallen in such contests, can bear an affecting testimony to the correctness of the representation. “Would to God I had submitted to the worst insult man could receive from man, rather than be the bloody instrument of this bloody deed!"-


"I am at this instant a fugitive from my father's house, from my mother, and from my friends! and I

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The effects produced on the minds of duellists in the contemplation of the transaction, are of the most iniquitous kind, hateful in the sight of God, and sources of misery to themselves; for the mind that is occupied by the spirit of revenge, must be tortured with the pangs of rancour, envy, tred, and indignation.


The principals in these affairs of honour, men of liberal education and enlightened intellect, have sometimes candidly admitted, that Duelling is, what we have stated it to be, absurd, inhuman, and wicked! And yet (O lamentable weakness and inconsistency!) rather than be thought contemptuously of by some of their associates, rather than exercise that strength and courage of mind which they have exhibited on other occa sions, they have abandoned the known path of duty; and thus virtually have been, in contemplation, either guilty of suicide, or of the murder of a fellow creature, and thereby outraged the laws of their country, and the awful sanctions of heaven. The duellist, in the eye of reason and religion, unites in his own person the suicide and the murderer! And, with this double guilt, (if he falls in the com


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