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know that in his hand are the issues of life and death. Therefore they fear not him that can kill the body only, but Him who can destroy both body and soul in Hell.'Well,' said the Major, if you be so scrupulous about fighting, what must we do?' I answered, it is your trade; and if you had a better, it might be better for you.' But somebody,' he replied, must fight.' I said, "If all men live by faith in the Son of God, wars would be at an end.' That is true,' he answered, if it were so, we should learn war no more."-Fas est ab hoste doceri. I am, Sir, &c. PACIFICATOR.

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Bath, 22d Jan. 1822.

Thoughts on Military Glory.

Loughborough, Nov. 25th, 1821. "HISTORIES report that by one only, Julius Cæsar (who is said to have been a most courteous and gentle emperor), there were slain in

several battles eleven hundred thousand men.

And if a man of mildness and meek spirit, what

shall we look for at the hands of the most cruel men? And this is that civil and sociable creature which is called human; which is born without claws and horns, in token of love and peace which he ought to embrace.”

THOMAS TYMMES, Silver Watch-Bell.

It is a lovely peculiarity belonging to deeds of virtue, that if we look at the motives from which they spring, we find they will bear examination; that they shrink not from the severest scrutiny; but are honourable, upright, and worthy of the christian character. The good man does not strive to hide the reasons of his conduct; he has no cause, for he feels himself guided by an impulse that is correct and approved of God. Far otherwise is it with actions resulting from evil passions; these the ingenuity of man endeavours to gloss over with the varnish of false reasoning, and to cover with the gilded tinsel of artificial eloquence; thereby giving a new colour and tone to things which, if seen in their naked truth, neither would nor could be tolerated. Were it not for the splendour with

which historians, poets, and orators have adorned the successful career of ambition, no one could think of admiring and applauding actions that are a continued series of desolation, rapine and bloodshed. If the hearts of the great heroes that have figured in the world were analyzed, it would in general be found that the moving spring of their conduct has been a selfish desire of distinction. It cannot be that they wish well to man, or they would not employ means which hurry into eternity such multitudes of their fellow creatures. It cannot be that they wish to promote happiness, for their track is marked by famine and suffering. It cannot be from their desire to make men more virtuous, for the seat of war is a place where crimes of the deepest dye are common occurrences. The means used and the actions performed are both evil; hence the source from which they arise cannot be good.

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Every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but a corrupt tree evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit."* It is the bad, selfish passion of Ambition that is the cause of all this evil. acquire conquest, to gratify its unruly desires, it would fill the world with bloodshed and rapine; and would move heaven and earth to satisfy its love of superiority. "From whence come wars and fightings among you? Come they not hence, even of your lusts?" It is lamentable that such a false glare should surround the character of the hero, and that deeds so ruinous in their results should be so renowned. The materials of which the fame of the conqueror is composed, will not bear a close inspection, and he himself must blush when he thinks upon them in the stillness of solitude! Let us imagine him in his military career. If his labours are crowned with success; if kingdoms are depopulated;

Matthew vii. 17, 18. † James iv. 1.

if death be anticipated in his stroke; if children are made orphans, parents childless, and wives widowed; if tears flow, and gloom overspread the countenance of thousands; if the' fields of the farmer are laid waste, his cattle driven away, and the labour of years destroyed; if nations are made to weep for the loss of that best boon of heaven, liberty; if the author of these things has achieved them by force of arms; if he has wrought all this woe by wading through seas of blood, he has acquired what the world calls glory; men admire and applaud him. These deeds have a brilliancy in them with the unthinking, but they will not bear reflecting upon in the closet, and examining at the bar of conscience. The varnish 1 that covers the glory of the conqueror is merely external, it must not be penetrated, or the pleasure of contemplating it ceases. It is brilliant, but its brilliancy is like that of the conflagration of a city, which issues in the ruin of thousands. It is fair; but like the whited sepulchre, within it is, full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness. It is like the splendid pall which covers corruption, and if lifted up, will disclose famine, death and misery, the tears of the widow and the cries of the orphan. Such are the effects of ambition, when it falls to the lot of the possessor of ten talents. What good might be done were such powers under right guidance! What happiness might be diffused by a proper use of those talents and that energy which God has bestowed upon some men! But where power is possessed, men often employ it in a wrong direction, and acquire only that which throws a temporary and false lustre over their characters. When the great and awful day arrives, how dimly will all their honour shine, how gloomy will their brightest splendours appear! The halo of renown and glory, which seemed on earth to hover over them, and enshrine their names in splendid effulgence, will then appear like the dark louring cloud, showering down misery and

pain. How insignificant, how false will all this lustre appear when contrasted with that which adorns the man of a humble and quiet spirit.

I look forward, Mr. Editor, with strong faith to that time when wars and rumours of wars shall be no more heard of: it is even now perceptibly approaching: there never was so strong a disapprobation of war prevalent in society as there is at the present period; and the friends of Peace have it in their power to strengthen this disapprobation continually. We can promote the labours of ambition, or we can discourage them by withdrawing our suffrages; for the fame and glory of the warrior are built solely on opinion, and the opinion of the whole is composed of that of individuals. If we withdraw our support, so far as our numbers, example, and influence extend, we are actually sapping the foundations on which this honour rests. It becomes us as followers of the Prince of Peace to employ hand and heart in this cause. He who takes a pride in the glory of war, or promotes the desire in others by countenancing it, would do well to meditate deeply on the humility and christian love inculcated by our holy religion; he would not then think with pride, of actions, which any christian who thinks at all must perceive are inimical to the character, and in direct opposition to the precepts of the Prince of Peace, and which cannot therefore contribute to the fair fame and honour of his followers. W. P.

To the Editor of the Herald of Peace.

IF, from a conviction of the impolicy of War, the nations of the earth could be induced to relinquish a pursuit so fraught with disastrous consequences to every country engaged therein, upon that principle the friends of peace would have cause to rejoice; therefore, I conceive that the pages of the Herald are well employed, when pourtraying the calamitous effects which war entails upon

mankind, in a moral and national point of view. But, I am decidedly of opinion, that the principal argument which the advocates of peace ought to insist upon is," that war is inconsistent with, and diametrically opposed to, the Gospel dispensation;" therefore, the most likely and efficient means to promote its abolition, is to excite a general examination into the design and object of the Christian dispensa tion, which, rightly understood, must convince that war is irreconcileable with it. Christianity (as will be allowed by its professors) has for its object the restoration of man from that fallen and degenerate state which was the consequence of his transgressing the law of his Creator. When we examine the sad effects which resulted from his disobedience, we find the first recorded, after the fall, was, "he rose up against his brother, and slew him." Now, if Christianity be capable of restoring man to that state of innocence in which he was before he sinned, it must destroy the effects which were the fruit of his disobedience, and, therefore, the restored man, or Christian, will not slay his brother. That no Christian will commit murder, is so evident an axiom, it may be deemed superfluous to assert it; but my present design is to assert, and to endeavour to prove, that, under the Christian dispensation, the wilfully depriving our fellow-creatures of life, whether the act be limited to an individual, or extended to a greater number, is murder. I am of opinion, that a single proposition, which no power of logic can subvert, is conclusive in this respect-That no man has a right to deprive another of any thing he legally possesses, when out of his power to restore it again; therefore, no man has a right to take away his fellow's life. And here, so

far as it relates to the connexion between man and man, individually, all are agreed. Now, in my view, it appears an irreconcileable paradox, that any rational being can suppose, that,

whilst the beneficent Father of the whole human family has prohibited one man from killing another, that he can at the same time sanction, approve of, or excuse, the destruction of thousands and tens of thousands of beings; all of whom he created of one blood, and designed to live together, as: his children, in the bonds of brotherly love. Those, who thus suppose, must surely consider the New Testament as an erroneous theory, a mere hypothesis, and therefore incapable of universal application; for, if they admitted the precepts of the Gospel to be not only analytically applicable to individuals, but also synthetically, as a standard of manners to the congregated whole, they would then admit, that the commands, "Resist not evil-Forgive your enemies-Love them which hate you"-and many others of less import, are as imperative upon a nation as upon individuals, and, if obeyed, would put an end to war throughout the world. Should the above (or any part of these) remarks be deemed worthy of a place in the Herald, the insertion will oblige

Liverpool, 11 mo. 23, 1821.

JUVENIS.

Since the publication of the first Number of the Herald, I have been looking for the promised continuation of the Stage-coach occurrence.

Letter on Duelling.

[From the Christian Instructor, Nov. 1821.] THE following Letter is said to have been written by Alexander Robinson, Esq., a man who had much distinguished himself by his courage in the military service, to a friend, whose name was Walter Smith, in consequence of a challenge received from him.

"SIR,-I must absolutely decline the challenge you sent me yesterday, by Robin, and frankly acknowledge I dare not fight you. I am sensible

the world in general will call this cowardice, and that the odious ap pellation of scoundrel will be given me in every coffee-house; but I hope you will not judge with the multis tude, because you have been an eyewitness of my behaviour in no less than seven engagements with the common enemy. I had the reputation of being a brave man, and am conscious that I am so still, even when I once more tell you I dare not fight you. The reasons of my conduct in this affair are very valid, though very few. To be brief, Sir, I would rather endure the contempt of man, than the anger of my Maker; a temporal evil, than an eternal one. In one of the wisest states of the world, there was no law against parricide, because they thought it a crime which the worst of villains would be incapable of. Perhaps the silence of our legislature, with regard to duelling, is owing to some such reason. What can be more enormous than for men (not to say Chris tians and friends) to thirst for the blood of each other; nay, more, to aim the blow, with a true Italian vengeance, at once both at the body and the soul? I hope, in the coolness of reflection, you will think as I do; if otherwise, I am as determined to give you up to the tyranny of your passions, as, I am to remain master of my own,

"Your's, &c. A. R."

Memoir of George, Prince of Anhalt. As it has been found that the biography of heroic Princes has proved a powerful stimulus to the encouragement of a chivalrous spirit, the lovers of Peace would do well to counteract the tendency of such histories, by circulating widely the memoirs of those illustrious personages who have distinguished themselves by their pacific conduct and pious character. With this view the following life of one of the early ornaments of the Reformation is now

written, and will be followed in res gular course by similar narratives of eminently great and good men, who, instead of shining in the art of war, made it their constant aim to promote the benefit of their fellow crea tures.

George, Prince of Anhalt, was born in the year 1507, of the House of Ascania, one of the oldest and noblest in Germany. Discovering, in his childhood, a propensity to study, he was sent with his brother Joachim, at the age of twelve, to the Univer sity of Leipsic, where the two princes had the advantage of being brought up under the direction of Adolphus, Bishop of Mersberg, their relation. After the death of that excellent man, George, then in his nineteenth year, applied to the study of jurisprudence, in which he soon made so great a progress, that the Cardinal Albert, Elector of Mentz and Magdeburg, chose him for one of his counsellors. This appointment initiated him in the practice of business, as well as in the knowledge of state affairs, and having, besides, a natural flow of eloquence, he was often employed by the Cardinal as his representative in pub→ lic.

While thus engaged, the controversy excited by Luther drew his attention, and being desirous of information upon a concern of so much importance, he sat down to read the Reformer's books, which he compared, as he went on, with the works of the Latin fathers, and, above all, this course of diligent inquiry, he with the Sacred Scriptures. During would often, with tears, pray to God for light, saying, in the words of the Psalmist," Deal with thy servant according to thy mercy, and instruct me in thy righteousness.'

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That he might obtain the truth, by consulting the Holy Oracles in the originals, he applied closely to the study of Greek and Hebrew, in both which languages, but particularly the latter, he became so perfect, that few of his contemporaries excelled him. He also discoursed with learned men

about the subjects then in dispute; and, at length, after having weighed the argument on both sides, he made an open profession of the Reformed Religion, though, in so doing, he exposed himself to much danger and obloquy. By his prudence and piety, however, he overcame the prejudices of his family, and, within a short space, he had the satisfaction to see his 'brethren all united in the same sentiments. With their joint consent he began the reformation of his own country, setting up faithful pastors in the towns and villages, and erecting schools, with liberal endowments for the teachers. All this he accomplished without any compulsory measures, and thus, by the mildness of his government, many were drawn to embrace the truth who would have been set against it under a severer administration. In the year 1545, Prince George accepted the superintendence of all the churches in the diocess of Mersburg, to which high office he was appointed by Augustus, Duke of Saxony. That he might discharge this trust properly, he received ordination from the hands of Luther, Melanethon, and other Ministers, who, in their testimonial, bore record to his eminent learning and exemplary piety. The Prince continued single all his life, and exhibited a constant pattern of modesty and industry. His house was at once a temple, an academy, and a court, for there he used daily to pray, read, write, and deliberate on the affairs of government. In the administration of justice he was scrupulously conscientious, patient in investigation, merciful in all cases of doubt, yet inflexible when the public interests demanded punishment. His charities were most extensive, but conducted with the utmost privacy. He was a great promoter of peace among princes, by his prudent advice, bringing many contentions to a happy termination, and, in his own forgive

ness of injuries, making others ashamed of displaying a vindictive spirit.

With the same equanimity of mind he rose superior to the various inconveniences attendant on a high station and a pious deportment. Hence it appeared how great support he derived from prayer, and a reliance upon the Divine will. Knowing the difference between divine and human consolation, he adhered closely to the instructions of the written Word, and had frequently in his mouth that passage of Scripture, "Submit thyself to God, and pray unto him, for he is near to those who are of a contrite heart, and will save the humble in spirit."

He employed his time so well, that he left none for amusements, obsérving, that "nothing refreshed him more in his labours than conference with learned and good men."

The last act of his admirable life evinced the strength of his principles and the purity of his religion. Falling sick of a most troublesome disease, he was incessant in prayer for all the princes of his family, for his country, and Germany. He had some portions of Scripture read daily to him, and he made pertinent remarks upon what he heard, to the edification of his friends and attendants. In his last will be set down the particulars of his faith, and earnestly recommended the care of the churches to his brother. He also increased the stipends of the Ministers, and made further provisions for the support of the schools which he had founded. Thus divinely occupied in meditation and good works, he resigned his soul into the hands of his Maker and Redeemer, at the age of forty-seven, in the year 1553. He left several theological works behind him, which were published, in the German lan→ guage, by Selnoecirus; and his life was written at large by the learned Camerarius.

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