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Observations, Apophthegms, and
Anecdotes, relative to War:

[From different Authors.]

Cecil, Lord Burleigh.

THIS illustrious Statesman, in a letter to his son Robert, has the following counsel respecting his children :-"Suffer not thy sonnes to pass the Alpes. For they shall learne nothing there, but pride, blasphemy, and atheism. And if by travell they gett a few broken languages, that shall profit them nothing more than to have one meat served in divers dishes. Neither, by my consent, shalt thou train them up in warres. For he that sets up his rest to live by that profession, can hardly be an honest man or a good Christian."

The last memorable act of Cecil's life was to endeavour to bring about a peace between his country and Spain. In this, however, he was vehemently opposed at the council-table by the impetuous Earl of Essex, who, as Camden says, having been bred to the sword, and gained some reputation by it, was unwilling to sheathe it. The arguments which Essex made use of were, the implacable hatred of the Spaniards to the English, and the danger arising from Popery. In speaking on this subject, Essex delivered himself with so much violence and disregard of humanity, that the lord-treasurer said, "he seemed intent upon nothing but blood and slaughter." But the most remarkable circumstance attending this consultation was that of Burleigh's taking out a prayer-book from his pocket, and, without speaking a word, pointing to the words in the Psalm, "Men of blood shall not live out half their days." This was prophetic, for Essex suffered upon the scaffold in the meridian of life.

Philip de Comines,

THIS honest writer intermixes with his narratives some very pertinent re

flections upon the folly and injustice of the wars which formed the subject of his history. But the conclusion of his work deserves particular attention:- "Thus have you seen," says


"the death of several illustrious persons in a short time, who have borne so much sorrow, and endured so many fatigues, only to extend their dominions, and advance their fame and glory, beyond that of their neighbouring monarchs, perhaps not only to the shortening of their lives, but to the danger of their immortal souls. I am not speaking here of the Turks, but of our King (Louis the Eleventh) and the rest, on whom I hope God will have mercy. But, to speak freely, would it not have been better for them, and for all other great princes, to be less ambitious in their desire; that is, not to be so anxious and careful about temporal things, and have such vast and unmeasurable designs in view; but to be more cautious of provoking God, oppressing their subjects, and invading their neighbours, by so many cruel and unchristian ways, and rather employ their time in tranquillity and innocent diversions? Their lives would be longer; their infirmities later, their deaths less desirable to other people, and less terrible to themselves. Can we desire any clearer examples to prove how poor and inconsiderable a creature Man is, how short and miserable his life, and how little difference there is betwixt princes and private persons, since, as soon as they are dead, whether rich or poor, their bodies are offensive, and every one flies from them: but their souls are no sooner separated than they repair to receive their doom, which is given by God at that very instant of time, according to every man's works; and this is called the Particular Judgment."


THE Address from the Chapter of Gloucester, drawn up by Bishop Warburton, on the Peace of 1763, is very

remarkable, as blending with happy compliment to the King, some delicate and sound advice.

"To see," say the Addressers, "so desirable an end put to the desolations of war and bloodshed (that opprobrium of Christian profession) cannot but fill the hearts of us, the messengers and ministers of peace, with the warmest gratitude towards your Royal Person for this inestimable blessing.

"While the other part of your Majesty's happy and loyal subjects are employed in generous and patriotic plans for improving and working these vast acquisitions by civil arts, agriculture, and commerce, we, the Servants of Religion, please ourselves in the sublimer views of extending the kingdom of Christ through boundless regions of unknown and unnamed Barbarians-regions, which the everlasting Gospel, in its truth and purity, never yet enlightened.

"And under the auspices of a Monarch, the friend of mankind, as well as the father of his people, we may fairly promise to ourselves success in both these glorious undertakings, which have so strict, a dependence on one another, that neither can be well conducted separately and alone."

Bishop Butler.

THIS profound reasoner had a custom of walking, when the weather permitted, rather late in his garden, where, absorbed in reflection, he would sometimes stay till it was quite dark. On one occasion, at Bristol, he was accompanied in his usual perambulation by his chaplain, Dr. Tucker, afterwards Dean of Gloucester; but the Bishop fell into such a reverie as to remain silent for above an hour. At last, turning to his companion, he said, " May not whole communities of men be seized by an epidemic madness, as well as individuals?"

The Doctor knew not what to answer; and the Bishop again relapsed into silent meditation. After some time he broke silence once more,


and said, "Yes, it certainly must be so, else nations would not be so easily led into the folly of Party, and rush, without thought, into the misery of war."

The Doctor was almost inclined to believe that his patron was mad at that moment; but, when the American war broke out, the observation of the Bishop came forcibly to his recollection, and he then saw reason in it. This is reported from the Dean himself.

Bishop Taylor.

"WE need no authentic examples, much less doctrines, to invite men to war, from which we see Christian Princes cannot be restrained with the engagements and peaceful theorems of an excellent and a holy Religion, nor subjects kept from rebelling by the interests of all Religions in the world, nor by the necessities and reasonableness of obedience, nor the endearments of all public societies of men; one word, or an intimation from Christ, would have sounded an alarm, and put us into postures of defence, when all Christ's excellent Sermons and rare exemplar actions cannot tie our hands. But it is strange now, that, of all men in the world, Christians should be such a fighting people, or that Christian subjects should lift up a thought against a Christian prince, when they had from no intimation of encouragement their Master, but many from him to endear Obedience, and Humility, and Patience, and Charity: and these four make up the whole analogy, and represent the chief design and meaning of Christianity in its moral constitution."

Soame Jenyns.

"Ir is not a little surprising that mankind have in all times so much delighted in War, and that, notwithstanding all the miseries it has brought upon them, they should still continue to rush into it with as much alacrity as ever; the true though secret reason of which is certainly this: there is implanted in human nature, cor


rupt as it is, so strong an approbation War, upon Cruelty in general, and

of virtue, that, however determined men are to indulge their inclinations, they never enjoy them with any satisfaction, unless they can find out some means of hiding their deformities, not only from the eyes of others, but even from their own: and they are, therefore, extremely fond of every expedient that can assist them in this favourable self-deception, and procure them leave to be wicked with a good character and a good conscience. Now, War is, of all others, the most effectual for this purpose, as it grants us a plenary indulgence for every vicious disposition in the human mind, exempted from all punishment or even censure, as well as from all reluctance and remorse. dresses up idleness and profligacy, malevolence and revenge, cruelty and injustice, in the amiable habit of zeal for the glory and prosperity of our country, that we can give a loose to them all, not only with the applause of the world, but with the sincere approbation of our own hearts; and of such high estimation is this privilege, that we think it a sufficient recompense for all the miseries and desolation which the mutual exercise of it cannot fail to introduce."


It so

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Religious Cruelty in particular, &c.”* the principal subjects of it made such an impression on my mind, that, falling asleep, I had the following dream. I thought myself placed on the summit of an exceeding high mountain, near the middle of the world, from whence all the objects appeared in their natural size, as if seen at the most proper distance. My curiosity first led me to take a transient view of the wide expanded ocean, and then of the land, divided into hills and vales, huge lakes, rivers, and smaller streams of water, intermixed. Confining then my sight to a particular part of the land to the north-westward of nfe, I there beheld a country almost covered with woods, but here and there some beautiful savannahs or meadows between them. In some parts of the woods I could discern a few miserable little huts, the inhabitants of which were almost naked; in other parts, on some void spots of ground, I perceived a number of these huts placed without any order, and surrounded with bodies of trees set close, and their branches interwoven, apparently for defence; for though these people's properties were so insignificant, I soon found they were continually quarrelling and at war with one another. First I saw some few of them skulking behind trees and bushes, from whence with arrows they shot those who came within their reach. Soon after, considerable numbers in adverse armies, with great fury, confusion, and hideous howlings, attacked each other with bows and arrows and clubs; when one party had got the better, and pursued the other to some distance from the field of battle, they returned to tear off the hair and flesh from the heads and faces of those they had killed, and then carried home these scalps and the prisoners they had taken, with singing, dancing, and other signs of a

* A Volume with this title was printed at London in 1758.

mad and cruel joy. Near the entrance of their villages they were met by the women, who congratulated them on the victory they had obtained, and joined with them in torturing, and feasting on, their prisoners; who, whilst their enemies were cutting pieces from their most fleshy parts to broil and eat, with amazing intrepidity, or rather insensibility, bade them cut again, for we, said they, have done the same to your fathers, brothers, and sons.-Shocked at this horrid scene I was forced to turn away my sight, which I directed to the southward. There I beheld a country much more cleared from wood, and much better inhabited. Here were considerable numbers of cities, towns, and villages; the lands appeared tolerably cultivated, the inhabitants numerous, and bedecked with trinkets of gold and silver, and with most beautiful feathers of various shapes, sizes and colours. War, I saw, was carried on here with the same cruelty as in the last mentioned countries; and for want of iron and steel the combatants made use of wooden swords and spears, which though clumsy were effectual instruments of slaughter. Among these nations I observed that their priests put the prisoners to death on the altars of their gods (which were most monstrous idols) and then feasted with the people on their carcasses. Casting my eyes towards the sea-coast of this country, I saw some ships approaching it, which as they drew near were viewed by the natives with amazement; and when the cannon were fired and the men came on shore, the wonder of the inhabitants was succeeded by horror and worship.

For horror indeed they had but too much reason, being soon made sensible, that if they were not men like themselves, they could be no other than devils in the shape of men. No sooner had these strangers got possession of a part of the country, than they ransacked every place for gold, and tortured the miserable


people in the most cruel manner to make them discover it; and when they had given them this proof of the great humanity and excellency of their religion, they put millions to death, because they would not become converts to it. Turning my face towards the east, a region presented itself to my view, inhabited by persons of very different features, complexions and physiognomies ; but one part of it much engrossed my notice: it was separated from another country by a wall of vast extent, flanked with towers at proper distances, for defence, abounded with great cities, large towns, numerous villages, and swarmed with people, who inhabited both land and water, Arts and sciences flourished in some degree among them; their buildings, except the temples of their gods, which were lofty and magnificent, were generally low; but many of them abounded in ornaments, and shewed skill in architecture. better sort of inhabitants were decently cloathed, mostly in long garments, were considerably polished, and pretended great strictness in morality; nevertheless, I observed among them many acts of fraud, violence, and cruelty; and their ingenuity, for which they were very remarkable, seemed to be stretched to the utmost to form the most hideous and shocking images for objects of their adoration. To the westward of this empire, at a considerable distance from it, there appeared several armies of men, who all wore caps on their heads, wound about with rolls of linen, and the cavalry were mounted on very fine horses: each of these adverse armies was headed by a person in regal habit; and I perceived that every one of them was a competitor for the crown. The people fought with the utmost rage and fury only to decide which of these tyrants they shouid become slaves to; and the tyrants depopulated and destroyed, by all manner of cruel outrages, that country


they hoped to make their own. Casting then my eye to the south-west, I saw a vast extent of land inhabited by naked people, whose features, but still more their hair and complexions, shewed them to be almost of a different species from the rest of mankind: their time was in a manner entirely spent in making some small provision for their sustenance, and in the destruction of one another by war; the captives taken in which were either put to the most painful deaths, or driven in great numbers, men, women, and children, like cattle to the sea-coast, and sold for slaves; there I observed they were crowded into ships and transported to far distant countries, in which they and their posterity remained in perpetual slavery, and were frequently used with the most inhuman barbarity. Turning myself then towards the north, a very different prospect was exhibited: Countries, many of them populous, well cultivated, abounding in single habitations and villages, and stately towns and cities, adorned with many beautiful and magnificent structures. Here, not only arts and sciences, in diverse parts, flourished to great perfection, but among the better sort of people much politeness appeared: and to crown the whole, a considerable portion of their time was set apart for the exercise of religion and devotion; many were appointed to teach these duties; and great numbers had devoted themselves, in a manner, entirely to the practice of them. Such was the promising and delightful appearance of things in these parts of the world when seen only superficially and in gross, but when viewed more internally and distinctly, how different were they found to be! Among much the greater part of the common people, stupidity, ignorance, rudeness, impudence, and cruelty, were but too apparent. Among their superiors, under the semblance of civility, politeness, and justice, how frequently did I see manifest tokens of envy,

dissimulation, and fraud! Beneath the mask of religion and devotion, pride, deceit, malice, and inhumanity were easily discovered. When I looked into places, the inhabitants of which had devoted themselves to religion, or at least pretended so to have done, what discontent and melancholy were visible in some; what hatred, hypocrisy, and lewdness in others.

[The following description of cruelties exercised in the days of ignorance and barbarity, will not fail to excite the regret and indignation of pious and enlightened Catholics as

well as Protestants.

Casting my eyes towards a city built on very uneven ground near the sea, on a fine river, at the mouth of which was a large rock, I beheld the streets, and balconies and windows of the houses thronged with people in a little time there appeared a procession of men in priestly garments, preceded by some carrying flags, streamers, and crucifixes, and attended by others in layhabits, like gentlemen; these conducted several persons in canvas frocks, painted with flames and devils, who were to be burnt for believing what they could not help believing, and not believing what it was impossible for them to believe. Accordingly I saw these poor wretches, among whom was an ancient man, of venerable aspect, and a most beautiful young lady, fastened with iron chains to stakes, and expiring in the fire; some, who had but a small quantity of fuel placed about them, and from whom the wind blew the flames, were only scorched in certain parts of their bodies, whilst others were burning, and by this means, they lingered long in extreme misery, and died in the most excruciating agonies. I observed that the spectators in general, and the ladies in particular, instead of being shocked at these horrid spectacles, showed manifest signs of satisfaction and joy.Averting my eyes from this sight, I extended my view to the north-east, where appeared

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