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many fine cities and towns, but the shops and manufactories were destitute of people; the herds and flocks of cattle and sheep were destroyed, or perishing for want of food, the corn rotting on the ground, because there were not hands to reap it, while gloomy melancholy and dark despair sat on the countenances of the remaining inhabitants, many of whom, driven from their abodes, wandered about the woods and fields, destitute of food, raiment, and all other necessaries: the women, flying from men in uncouth habits and of fierce aspect, threw themselves down precipices and into rivers, to avoid the brutal violence of their lustful and savage pursuers. I then saw that vast numbers of those who should have been innocently and usefully employed in manufactures, agriculture, &c. were torn from their occupations and dwellings, and compelled to destroy one another by fire and sword. Accordingly I beheld the face of the country covered and deformed with slaughtered bodies of the human species, the ground drenched and the rivers discoloured with their blood, and their habitations in flames; one city, particularly, being involved in a total conflagration, a sudden explosion, exceeding the noise of the loudest thunder, arose from it, and awaked me from my dream; and how delighted should I have been to have found that all these scenes of cruelty had existed only in the imagination!

Extracts from Harrison's Adversaria. 30. Those who contemplate the Divine Being under the character of Mars, (the god of war,) are virtually the worshippers of the heathen god Mars, as truly as any man ever was in the time of the Greeks or Romans.-H.

44. Whenever Christianity shall be universally professed in all its truth, and practised in all its purity, the world will be one universal monarchy, under the reign of love.-Fellowes.

175. Man appears, from the harmless make of his body, the conversible disposition of his mind, the tenderness of his affections, the sovereignty of his reflecting principle, the necessity of assitance in his numerous wants, and the rules of life prescribed him by express revelation to be formed for a social, unoffensive creature.-Secker

176. War not only weakens and afflicts a community, but interrupts the freedom of commerce; retards the propagation of knowledge; prevents useful improvements; takes off the public attention from domestic concerns; furnishes occasion for abuses; obstructs the remedy of inconveniences, till they grow inveterate and hard to cure; in short, disorders and unhinges the whole system of civil affairs.-Every suffering, thus caused, is a heinous crime, and every

death a murder.-Secker.

humains, il est plus pardonable et 360. Il est vrai, que selons les lois plus permis de se venger quand on a été maltraité, que de commettre le premier une injustice contre les autres. Mais, si on consulte la nature, on trouvera que l' un et l'autre de ces fautes vinnent de la même source, et qu'il y a autant de foibles à se venger d'une injure qu'à la faire le premier.-Rollin ex Diod. Sic.

479. In their opinions, (the admirers of the government of Sparta and Rome,) the only proper employment of a free citizen is to be either incessantly assembled in the forum, or preparing for war. Being valiant, inured to hardships, inflamed with an ardent love of one's country, which is, after all, nothing more than an ardent desire of injuring all mankind for the sake of that society of which we are members; and with an ardent love of glory, which is likewise nothing more than an ardent desire of committing slaughter, in order to make afterwards a boast of it.-De Lolme.

545. The obligations of Christianity upon individuals to promote re

pentance, to forgive injuries, and to discharge the duties of universal benevolence, are equally binding upon states. Enquiry at Dr. Franklin's.

547. The virtues are all parts of a circle: whatever is humane is wise, whatever is wise is just; and whatever is wise, just, and humane, will be found to be the true interest of states, whether criminals or foreign enemies are the objects of the legislation.Enquiry at Dr. Franklin's.

575. The state of nature, in which nations in respect to each other, still subsist, is a state contrary to the happiness and destination of man: a state in which force only exists in order to violate right with impunity, while it ought only to be exerted in the punishment of its violators. This situation of affairs perpetuates all the misfortunes combined in the single scourge of war; it surrounds with dangers; it feeds jealousies, distrust and apprehensions, and it renders endless precautions indispensable.—Ancillon. 659. If it is a principle of indispensable obligation, both in morals and religion, of which no sound mind will entertain a doubt, that we are not to do evil that good may come of it, then I hold that war is indefensible; for, to say the best of it, it is doing enormous evil, by the violent sacrifice of human life and domestic happiness, for the purpose of acquiring, under circumstances of great uncertainty, some expected or jected good, connected probably with commercial prosperity or with political ambition.-H.

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715. The feeling of patriotism, however vivid, will not morally efface the guilt, or sanction the exercise of cruelty and oppression towards any other country. No ties of kindred, affection, of friendship, or of patriotism, can justify our disobedience to the immutable precepts of truth, justice, and humanity.Fellowes.

836. To enforce the doctrines of a religion, which prohibit violence and

bloodshed in every case, even that of self defence, more violence has been exercised, more blood shed, and cruel tortures inflicted, than in any other dispute or quarrel, that ever was engendered by the turbulent and unruly passions of men.-R. P. Knight.

862. As fine weather, accompanied with the glorious emanations of the sun, is providentially dispensed to promote the comfort of mankind, by fostering vegetation for the subsistit is the season in which men, (men ence of man and beast; so likewise shall I say!) avail themselves of the opportunity of cutting, slashing, and business of war, which, alas! seems murdering one another. This is the to employ the potentates of Christendom, in this the nineteenth century of the Christian era, more than any

other business whatever.

War is a game which were their subjects wise Kings would not play at.-Cowper.

Every man that falls in battle is murdered. It is not for human tribunals to impute the crime and fix the charge; but most assuredly the trial will come, when that being, to whom, by the decision of unerring wisdom, the crime belongs, will stand appalled by the consciousness of his own conduct, at that tribunal where no equivocation can avail, where no palliation will be admitted. Sovereigns and ministers of state! tremble in the discharge of your func

tions!-H.

895. A thorough-bred soldier is the mere creature of command. His warrant is in all cases the order of his superior, to whose views he blindly conforms, however adverse they may be to the peace and happiness of society: while the occupations in which he is engaged, have a natural tendency to produce, in the lower orders, a disdain and impatience of peaceful industry-in the higher a restless and turbulent ambitionand in both a brutal contempt for the comfort and feelings of every other description of men.-Edin. Review.

The Liberator Bolivar. ON the 1st of October, this extraordinary man, on being called upon to take the oath as President of Columbia, addressed an eloquent letter to the President of the Congress, earnestly desiring to be excused from serving in that capacity; but he was overruled by them. On taking the oath he delivered an energetic speech, of which follows a curious example:

"I am the son of war, the man whom battles have raised to the magistracy. Fortune has sustained me in this rank, and victory has confirmed it. But these titles are not

those which are consecrated by justice, by the welfare and wishes of the nation. The sword, which has governed Columbia, is not the balance of Astrea, it is the scourge of the genius of evil, which sometimes heaven permits to descend to the earth for the punishment of tyrants and the admonition of the people. This sword will be of no use on the day of Peace; and that shall be the last of my power, because that I have sworn it within myself because I have promised it to Columbia, and because there can be no Republic when the people are not secure in the exercise of their own powers. A man like me is a dangerous citizen in a popular government, is a direct menace to the national sovereignty. I

wish to become a citizen in order to be free, and that all may be so too. I prefer the title of Citizen to that of Liberator, because this emanates from war, that from the laws. Exchange, Sir, all my honours for that of a good citizen."-London Papers.

SIR-If the sentiments here ascribed to Bolivar be authentic, the testimony of a prosperous soldier may be thought worth recording; of a mind deeply imbued with patriotism and the love of freedom, those points which must be allowed to be most generous and lovely of all which go to the composition of

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Extract from the Critical Review of
Thoughts on War. By G. LATRILLE.

(Translated from the French.)

THE author of this work, unlike his countryman M. Laverne, sets out with saying, that war is an evil inherent in the nature of our species, of which we can never hope to see an end. We differed from M. La

verne, in his notions of putting a stop to this dreadful scourge. But neither will we assent to the proposition of M. Latrille. We do trust that the period, however remote it may at present seem, will one day come, when war shall cease in all the world, destruction for the arts of peace. and mankind shall forsake the lust of If Christianity be an increasing good, if its principles, which are so well accommodated to the social propensities of man, be gradual and slow, but certainly progressive, such a period must finally arrive.

We all know that there are many individuals in whose bosoms the spirit of Christianity is vitally operative, who are superior to envy, malice, revenge, and all the baser and more violent passions, in which the essence of war will be ultimately found to reside, and which are the source of so much ravage, and so much suffering in the world. Now as nations are only collections of individuals, and as we trust that the number of persons who are warmed by that spirit, and guided in their conduct by that benevolence, which is the distinguishing characteristic of the Christian doctrine, is continually increasing, the spirit and the precepts of this benevolence must at last become the rules by which not only particular individuals, but nations, will be directed in their intercourse with each other. Wars will then

cease, because that which now so largely furnishes fuel for the destructive flame will be extinguished.

It may be said that this is only a visionary hope, or that it is speculating on a good too remote ever to be an object of joyful anticipation; but if the principles of the Christian religion be gradually spreading their influence over the world, the event is certain, though the time when it will happen cannot be ascertained. The mere consciousness of such a truth is cheering to the mind, and tends to infuse into it sensations of serenity and joy; while the contrary supposition, that war is an evil radically inherent in the present constitution of the world, and consequently for ever irremediable, tends not only to damp the zeal of philanthropy, but to spread a terrifying gloom over our future hopes, and the happier prospects of humanity. If the governors of nations, like the author of this work, think that a state of durable peace is an impossible attainment, they will make no efforts to attain it. Their minds will continue to be occupied with schemes of ambition-views of aggrandizement at the expense of other states, and preparations for war-and they will easily be led to look on the devastation which they occasion as patriotism rather than a crime. But if they consider war as it certainly is, only a forced and unnatural state, and peace as the state most congenial to social man; if they regard such a state as the injunction of the Almighty, and as the designed fruit of that blessed doctrine which he communicated to mankind; they will not only be led morally to loath, and as far as possible conscientiously to shun the horrors and atrocities of war; but they will do all in their power to promote the interests and preserve the continuance of peace.

It may seem at first sight of little practical consequence what are the speculative principles which men which men adopt, what the theories which they

cherish, or the abstractions to which they cling: but when we consider that speculation leads to action, that theories tend to practice, and that inward abstractions are soon beheld in outward realities, the matter is not one of trivial consideration. It will be found of no small moment to the happiness of mankind, whether a statesman adopts the principles of St. Pierre, or of Hobbes, whether he believes in the possibility of perpetual peace, or whether he thinks man constitutionally fitted for eternal war.-Appendix to Critical Review, 1805. Vol. VI.

Extracts from Letters, &c. of the late Joseph Gurney Bevan.

It

I have several times thought of the subject of thy_last letter; and one evening lately, I put down a few hints in reply to the two charges which thou mentionest to have lately heard against Christianity. The first of them, namely, that it has been the cause of more bloodshed and ill-will in the world than any other passion or principle, I propose to consider in this letter; but I shall begin by denying it utterly, as a malicious falsehood. is probable that, were I now talking with an advocate of this false position, I should be quickly reminded of the Crusades; the wars against the Albigenses in France and Piedmont; and those between Protestants and Papists in Germany, and other places; to say nothing of fire, faggot, and persecution in general. And our opponent might ransack history, and swell the catalogue as much as he pleased: still I would assert that the position was utterly false, and for this simple reason (for Christianity doth not want complex ones) that all these things are Anti-Christian, and have arisen from the rejection, and not the adoption, of Christianity. Yes, my dear friend, they arise from hat for which Christianity is the

only antidote, the genuine cure; they arise from human pride."

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"It may here be said, that, if this be allowed as sound doctrine, we shall unchristian three-fourths of Christendom. Be it so, if it must. 'Let God be true, and every man a liar.' This reduction of the number of true Christians is only a sad comment on Christ's own prophetic words- Few there be that find it.' And how plain the reason! because they will have a Christianity, with out true Christianity's inseparable adjunct the Cross; and their faith (if such it may be called) being without works, is dead, and, being dead, cannot overpower, and slay those lusts from which wars naturally spring. The heart will be where the treasure is; and, if this be on earth, there will be contentions about it; and both these things are contrary to Christ's commands, Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth.'-'If a man shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.' Now let common sense, assisted by common observation, declare where the treasure of most people is : on earth, no doubt, though in various ways. Some, in property; some, in honours and fame; some, in power; and even the poor are not wholly exempt from the charge of having their minds 'set on things that are on earth.' Now, against these very affections, these affections which, when they are disturbed by the fear of losing their ob ject, lead men naturally to violent means, when such promise to secure it;- against these affections Christ cautioned his followers in the words above quoted-Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth,' &c. And his single injunction in three words, 'Love your enemies,' is, alone, a perpetual monument of the abhorrence of his religion from wars: whilst it must be allowed, that it needs no more than universal obedience to it, to banish war from the earth for ever, and to turn enemies into friends. It is in vain to urge against us the diffi

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VOL. I. NEW SERIES.

culty of this injunction to human nature, for the Christian doth not look for strength from that quarter; and I believe that even infidels must allow that instances are not wanting to show that this seeming impossibility has been overcome. Indeed, seeing it lies in self-love, self-denial, neglected self-denial, is its natural solution; so that, turn which way we will, I believe we shall find in Christianity a remedy for every moral evil. And I am apt to think, the gainsayers themselves know this, if they would be ingenuous enough to confess it; and that, thus rightly distinguishing that religion which was ushered in with the song of peace and goodwill,' from the sophistications which usurp its place, they will not dare to assert that it is the cause of bloodshed and ill-will. Let us turn away from the incongruous connection of Christianity and ill-will even in a sentence, and hear the heavenly messenger proclaiming- Behold! I bring you good tidings of great joy which shall be to all people;' and let us mark the often-quoted, but never trite responses-Glory to God in the highest; and on earth, peace; goodwill towards men.''

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Thompson's Letters.

"I HAVE received a few pamphlets on the subject of War; I feel more than ever convinced of the unlawfulness of this fleau du genre humain. It is dressed up in dazzling colours, sanctioned by the imposing words, Honour, Glory, Valour, and Patriotism; but strip it of this glare, and examine it by the pure principles of Christianity, it will then appear to be a hideous monster, a monster, a disgrace to human nature, and the source of incalculable mise"Can the meed of applause be due to those who, in order to attain it, have led their fellow-creatures from the innocent occupations of a rural life, to shed their blood in adjusting a vain and groundless quarrel, who have broken asunder E

ry!.

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