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Letter from a Clergyman in Nova Scotia, alluded to in the foregoing. REV. SIR, January 5, 1822. I HAVE lately received two communications on the subject of the Peace Society of Massachusetts, one from Robert Pagan, Esquire, of New Brunswick, and the other from Walter Bromley, Esq. of Halifax, both requesting my services to carry into effect the benevolent intentions of the institution. I am not altogether ignorant of the labours of the Society. The sending of the brig Messenger, laden with provisions for the relief of the sufferers at Newfoundland, in the midst of winter, will not soon be forgotten.* The aims and objects of your Society are high and holy. It embraces the virtue and happiness of the whole human family; and were such institutions to become general, they would be as guardian angels to all other institutions, and in many ways diminish the sum of human misery. War is the enemy, and Peace the friend of man. A society which is formed for maintaining and promoting the repose and tranquillity of nations, has surely high claims on the kind regards of all good men, and especially of the ministers of the Prince of Peace. This is the age of missions and of benevolence: plans of usefulness, unexampled in the annals of history, are formed, and we see many things accomplished, for which martyrs prayed, bled, and died; and yet, if there be an institution which demands the union of all hearts, and the co-operation of all hands, it is the Peace Society. The exertions of the Peace Societies will not suddenly put a stop to the crimes and miseries of war, but they will do much to lessen the disposition of men towards it, and to prevent the frequent recurrence of such a dreadful calamity.

*For an account of this act of Christian benevolence by the inhabitants of Boston, New England, with reflections on the same, see the Herald of Peace, Vol. I. p. 368-376.


Good men in all countries will wish you success. The peace publications have already made favourable impressions upon reflecting men in the British provinces. I trust that a Peace Society will soon be formed in this neighbourhood

* * * *

Princes, kings, and emperors, it appears, are already regarding your small beginnings with an eye of benevolence and affection. I hope that the friends of peace shall continually increase, until the highly enlightened period arrive, foretold in ancient prophecy, "when nations It is shall learn war no more." one of the greatest curses inflicted on our race. We have long complained of the horrors of the inquisition in Europe, and the cruelties of the slave-trade to Africa, and yet these are only beginnings of sorrow, compared with the sufferings, crimes, and calamities of public war. Says the prophet, every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; proudest triumphs are mingled with the bitter cries of the orphan, and

- its

its gayest laurels are bedewed with


the widow's tears, and crimes and miseries follow in its train. Were mankind under the influence of Christian principles, they would seek higher honours than those which are acquired by the sword. War is a system of crimes by which a few are aggrandized upon the destruction of millions of mankind. mild genius of Christianity has already softened the horrors of war, and will in time put an end to it. Your country deserves the highest credit for the many benevolent institutions with which it abounds. I shall be glad to hear from you, and I wish you all success in any good cause you undertake.

Anecdote of two Farmers.

To the Editor of the Herald of Peace.

SIR-In the Evangelical Magazine for December 1822, there is inserted under the head of "Foreign Religious Intelligence," a very


pleasing account of the powerful
influence which Christianity pos-
sesses in effecting forgiveness of in-
juries and as it beautifully exempli-
fies that spirit which it is the object
of the Herald of Peace to inculcate,
I send the account for insertion in
valuable Miscellany, if you
think it will afford pleasure to such
of your readers who may not be in
the habit of seeing the above pub-

"In a small country town in Massachusetts [North America] there lived two wealthy farmers, whose lands adjoined each other From some common causes, such as trespassing of cattle, poor fences, &c. they became very inimical to each other; and finally got into the law, and spent a great deal of money, for supposed trifling offences.

"While in this state of fiend-like feeling, the sacred obligations and benign affections of the Christian religion began to assume, by the Divine blessing, a powerful and extensive influence over the minds of the thoughtless, the dissipated, and the worldly minded in the vicinity of their residences. Mr. S. one of the champions of wrath, became convinced of the iniquity of his past conduct, and was led to yield obedience to the holy requirements of the Gospel; and as an almost immediate consequence, was anxious to prove his love to God by burying every feeling of animosity towards his enemy. With a trembling broken heart he rapped at the door of his neighbour, which he had not entered for more than six years. As Mr. L. had no suspicion who it was, he bade him walk in. With amazement every eye was fixed upon him. After helping himself to a seat, 'Neighbour,' says Mr. S. 'I am come to ask your forgiveness. We have had a great deal of difficulty, and I find I have been much to blame.'-' Well,' says Mr. L. 'I always knew you were to blame, and I never shall forgive you. You have

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made more cost and trouble than your head is worth.'-' I know,' replied Mr.. S. that I have done wrong. I am convinced of my sins, and I humbly ask your forgiveness. I am determined to act differently in future, and I hope that God will forgive me. We have been actuated by a wrong spirit; and we shall be afraid to meet each other at the bar of God, where we must soon appear.'

Mr. L. a little softened, replied, I can never forget the sleepless nights, and the costs, and damages, and vexation, that you have occasioned. But I am willing to do what is right about it, and always have been: and we never should have had any difficulty if it had not been for you and your boys.'

"This visit of Mr. S., who now retired, filled his neighbour and his family with astonishment, and they were at a loss to account for it, till one of the boys, who had helped his father to carry on the quarrel, stated that Mr. S. had lately become religious. His father was silent, and soon after retired quite disturbed. What,' said he, 'is S. become a Christian?—Why should he come and ask my forgiveness? If religion will humble such a man, it is surely a good thing. He said we shall be afraid to meet each other at the bar of God.' Such reflections as these, with a consciousness of his own iniquity, occasioned him great distress for several days. At length he could smother his feelings no longer. He took his hat and went to see his once hated neighbour. As he entered the door he received a cordial welcome; they took each other by the hand and burst into tears. 'You came to ask my forgiveness the other day,' said Mr. L. 'but I find I have been a thousand times worse than you.'

"Before they separated they retired and prayed together. They now members of the same church, and have lived about eight


years in uninterrupted harmony and good neighbourhood!"

Such are the triumphs of "Peaceful Christianity," compared with which

"The laurels that a Cæsar reaps are weeds."

A Review of the Tract published in the Welsh Language, for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace. (Translation.)

[Extracted from the Seren Gomer, of which the Rev. Joseph Harries is the Editor. 2000 copies of this paper are printed and regularly forwarded to various parts of the Principality of Wales, and other places. The Tract is entitled, "An Epitome of the Views and Principles of the Peace Society established in London, for the promotion of permanent and universal Peace; prepared under the superintendence of the Swansea and Neath Auxiliary Society." Price 1s.]

We are desirous of calling the attention of our countrymen to a book lately published in our ancient language, respecting the lawfulness of War under the Gospel dispensation. It is scarcely known, in various parts of the Principality, that there is a Society in existence whose object is to promote Universal Peace among mankind. It may appear, at first sight, Utopian," to attempt to work such a change in the minds of men; but when we consider the powerful arguments used and the scriptural authorities quoted in this book, we are bound to acknowledge the correctness of the conclusion, that War is an anti-christian practice, and calls for the grave dissatisfaction of every sincere Christian. Many of our readers may entertain a diversity of opinion respecting defensive War; but when we consider the difficulty of deciding whether Wars are defensive or offensive, and the horrible consequences of all War, every Christian must fervently pray the God of Peace to hasten the time when it shall for ever cease; and rejoice that there are Peace Societies formed with an intention to annihilate the dreadful practice. We earnestly wish their

prosperity, so far as we understand they are acting consistently with the word of God. But we hasten to give a sketch of the work before us, and begin by observing, that some of the members of the Peace Society, who are natives of Wales, have felt anxious that their sentiments, which have already extended and been heartily received in England, Scotland, and America— yes, and in the metropolis of France, may be made known in the valleys and mountains of Wales. It is justly observed, that we have the New Testament in our hands, from which we learn that Peace upon earth was the joyful language which ushered in our holy dispensation. When we read of the old heathens sacrificing their children to idols; of Hindoos falling under the carriage-wheels of their god Juggernaut, to be bruised to death; of women being burnt to death with the dead bodies of their husbands, and of others throwing their children alive into the river Ganges as their monthly sacrifice, we are struck with horror! But how is this feeling increased by the indisputable truth, that a practice exceeding the most horrible transactions of savage nations, is popular through all Christendom. There was one peculiar law which Jesus Christ claimed as his own, the law of love. But what practice amongst mankind transgresses so horribly this law, as that of War? The same spirit of love and Peace which had been commended by Christ, shines forth in the epistles of Paul, Peter, and John. The Tract states, that several of the fathers, as Justin, Tatian, Clemens of Alexandria, Tertullian, Cyprian, Lactantius, and many others, condemned War as a practice entirely contrary to Christianity, Toward the end of the second century, Celsus being an enemy to Christianity, attacked the Christians for not bearing arms for the emperor. Origen in answer to Celsus admits the fact, and justifies the Christians


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for refusing to comply with the practice, on the principle of the unlawfulness of War. The carriage and boldness of a young man, whose name was Maximilian, is portrayed, who made choice of suffering a miserable death rather than bear arms. The doctrine inculcated by this pamphlet is, that all War is antichristian; and it is advocated with great ability and correctness. It contends that all War is inconsistent with Christianity, and that no professor living under the influence and government of that religion, of which Christ is the author, can consistently argue or plead in its defence. To prove this the commandments of Christ are quoted; especially Matthew v. 38 and 39, and other texts Not to return evil for evil, but to overcome evil by doing good; and to love our neighbour as ourselves. Many expressions of the learned Erasmus are made use of in support of the doctrine. The peaceable government of the celebrated William Penn, in the state of Pennsylvania, is adduced as a proof of the happy consequences attendant on a peaceable government. Our limits will not permit us to enlarge much; but we recommend our readers to procure the work, in which they will find excellent arguments, in defence of the principles of Peace, respecting which very little has been written in the Welsh language, that we know of. We do not, by these observations, wish it to be understood, that we approve of all the principles that the work maintains; we cannot wholly unite with our acute writer in respect to the lawfulness of defensive War. As to the body of the work, it is difficult to speak too highly of it,-the arguments are powerful and to the point, and there is a savour of the Gospel of Peace in

every page of it. We have already mentioned that there is no book in our language, which treats of the subject so largely and thoroughly as the one under our consideration ; twenty pages of it are filled with extracts from Labaume's History of the Russian Campaign, and no eyes but those of iron could refrain from shedding tears in perusing this horrid history. We translated the book for the Society, and were several times forced to put aside the paper, lest we should obliterate the writing with our tears. Yes, more than once did we throw down the pen and exclaim, Oh God! Is it possible that men can treat each other in so cruel and dreadful a manner. From Labaume's History it appears, that five hundred thousand men were destroyed in one hundred and seventy-three days, during that bloody campaign alone.

May the Prince of Peace hasten the time when all the inhabitants of the earth shall cherish the principles of Peace, and when Wars shall for

ever cease.

We are confident those who purchase the work, will feel satisfied been well laid out. that the money it costs will have

[The writer of this review, although (with excellent but mistaken Christians in


England) he is disposed to justify defensive War, does not withhold his countenance and support from Societies, who, in his respect, differ from him. And we would put it to the pious Christian, who does not give his sanction to these societies, because he thinks "their principles require limitation," whether the influence, which their universal establishment would acquire over the public mind, is not calculated to prevent the supposed necessity for defensive War, as well as to check the audacity of offensive contests.]



"Revue Encyclopédique, ou Analyse Raisonnée des Productions les plus remarquables dans la Litterature, les Sciences, et les Arts," Vols. XIV. and XV. and Part 46, for October, 1822, being the first of Vol. XVI.

OUR readers will recollect that in the second number of the present series of the Herald of Peace, appeared a correspondence between the Committee of the Peace Society, and the Conductors of the "Revue Encyclopédique," and that the latter promised co-operation with the Peace Society, and to promote its object through the medium of their Journal. This promise, they have not forgotten. In the 15th Vol. p. 64, appears a review of the three volumes of the Herald of Peace, by Mr Ferry.

Mr. Ferry evidently thinks differently from the London Peace Society, on the subject of defensive war, and he has candidly stated his opinion. Admitting the lawfulness of defensive war, we think that his remarks on the measures and precautions necessary to be taken on that principle, evince a more lucid view of the subject, than we have met with in other writers on the same side of the question. If Mr. Ferry be not prepared to adopt the sentiments of the London Peace Society to their full extent, yet he is unquestionably a friend to the object, towards the attainment of which the labours of that Society tend; and he has brought a reflecting mind to the consideration of the arguments in favour of Peace, on Christian principles. He expresses his wish that Peace Societies were established in France, and mentions an attempt that was made in 1820, to establish one at Paris, but which failed. He, however, hopes that they may obtain the good

will and protection of the French government.

"In the contest," says Mr Ferry, "which the London Peace Society sustains with the utmost vigour, against the demon of war, the weapon which it employs with the most success is the authority of the Gospel: profane morality, the opinion of philosophers, of historians, and of the most eminent orators, yea, all the energies derived only from a human source, would be quite powerless in a contest with the passions which produce war. Divine power only can impose silence upon them, and keep them within the bounds of reason.” p. 66.

This conquest which Mr. Ferry allows that philosophers, historians, and the most eminent orators, have failed to obtain, he grants to the London Peace Society, so far at least as regards the conviction of the understanding-a victory, however, which we cannot admit to have been so easily obtained as Mr. Ferry seems to intimate. We are willing to ascribe with him, the success which we have had, to that power which can enlighten the darkness of man, and remove from his mind those deep-rooted prejudices to which are to be attributed, the continuance of the barbarous customs, which have inflicted so much misery on mankind. We are sensible that little yet, comparatively, has been effected; that we have in our future progress many obstacles to surmount, and much opposition to encounter. This prospect does not intimidate us, does not prevent us from persevering in the path of duty, knowing that He, who only can enlighten the understanding, can also change the heart of man, so as to accomplish his own benevolent designs towards the

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