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the tender bands of connubial felicity in thousands of families, and half peopled the world with orphans? What are the triumphs of the conqueror but so many harbingers of desolation to mankind? But these mournful truths are forgotten by the deluded multitude. Brutality is termed courage; pride, honour; and lawless rapacity, a just and reasonable preservation of the rights of nations. The pompous eulogiums pronounced over departed heroism, the specious monumental inscriptions, with all the ensanguined trophies of martial valour, must vanish away before the steady and unerring lamp of Religion. Those that ravage the earth with fire and sword may assert their attachment to that divine handmaid, and justify their most horrid actions, under pretence of advancing her interests; but believe them not: no casuistry can disprove that Religion is wholly inimical to hostile pursuits; its high and holy Founder exhibits in his own person the example, whilst he delivers the precept-that peace, harmony, and brotherly concord, should be the distinguishing characteristics of his humble follow

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"Cause. It has its origin in pride, avarice, envy, and revenge; and generally ends in cruelty, injustice, and all sorts of crimes.


Antiquity. The history of mankind is little more than a history of battles and sieges. In Sacred History, we read of the violence which filled the earth before the Flood, and which was the great cause of that universal destruction: and, in Profane History, the first great fact which can be depended on is the siege of Troy.

Novelty. The history of our own time rings with the dreadful sounds of war; though perhaps it may be questioned whether, since the discovery of gunpowder, Wars have either been so bloody or so frequent as they were in ancient times.


Disadvantages. While War prevails, it is impossible society can flourish: that party which is the weakest cannot employ a single moment on the liberal arts and embellishments of life; their whole care is engaged, either in repelling the enemy, or in saving themselves from violence, rapine, and death: while the victorious party, flushed with conquest, generally grow more insolent and tyrannical, and either prepare for new wars, or sink into vice and luxury.

"Advantages." Mr. Walker, in the enumeration of these, mentions,

1st, That great conquerors have sometimes been remarkable for their generosity and clemency.

2ndly, That wars are sometimes "undertaken in the defence of virtue, and for the repression of injustice and lawless power, which might, other

wise, enslave and oppress 66 the whole human race.". He concludes with the observation," that God makes even the worst actions of man productive of some good."

In this latter view we are willing to admit that a kind and merciful God has been pleased to overrule great evil for some benefit to his creatures, even as "the wrath of man is made to praise him." But this amounts to no argument in favour of War; and the few advantages which may thus arise from this awful pèstilence will admit of no comparison with the wretchedness, ruin, and iniquity always attendant on a state of warfare.

On Peace.

"Definition. Peace is the ultimate wish of all men."}

"Cause. For, however we desire to exercise our faculties in the acquiring of knowledge, riches, or honours, we all look forward to a state of peace and tranquillity, in which alone we think we can enjoy them. In this happy state it is that the merchant expects to enjoy his riches, the soldier to be secure from toils and dangers, and the statesman to lay aside his anxious cares.

"Antiquity. So agreeable to the mind of man is a state of peace and tranquillity, that all the poets of antiquity have supposed that this state existed when man was first created, and that it insensibly changed into a worse, as men grew wicked and depraved; hence the poetical fictions of the Golden Age, the Silver Age, the Brazen Age, the Iron Age; which last always means the present age. Peace on earth was the benediction announced by the Angels on the birth of Christ, the Prince of Peace, as the greatest benefit which could be bestowed on man, and at his birth, under the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus, the whole world was in a state of peace.

Advantages. Peace gives the human faculties liberty to expand themselves, and has generally been styled the Nurse of Arts; for, when a nation is at peace, it generally rises to improvements of every kind.


Disadvantages. But, however desirable Peace may be, if it is not accompanied by virtue, it is often productive of as many evils as War. The riches acquired in Peace are apt to give a taste for luxury and prodigality, and these generally lead to profligacy. The quiet and ease men enjoy in Peace have a tendency to make them careless and irreligious; and these dispositions put them off their guard, and make them liable to become a prey to every other vice. Nay, Peace may be said naturally to generate War, for security begets self-sufficiency; self-sufficiency, insolence; and insolence, quarrels. Thus, Peace, the most desirable thing on earth, by the depravity of man, who is not virtuous enough to bear it, becomes in the end productive of the most dreadful scourge of human nature, a state of War. Upon the whole therefore, we may conclude, that, without Religion and Virtue, no state can afford true enjoyment; and that the best things on earth, if not properly enjoyed, will be often productive of the worst."

This ingenious enumeration of the disadvantages of Peace is only applicable where the principles of Christianity do not constitute the basis of national tranquillity. Certainly it must be admitted that permanent and absolute Peace cannot be long preserved among nations where the precepts and example of the Saviour of mankind are not operative. This must constitute the foundation on which the friends of Peace hope, ere long, to see the beautiful structure of universal brotherly love erected in the world.


Extracts from the Rev. J. Campbell's Journal in South Africa, in 1820.

THE friends of Peace consider that the abolition of all hostile feelings, as well as practices, between the children of men, is expressly enjoined by the precepts of the New Testament: they expect, therefore, that, if the Gospel he proclaimed simply and truly, it will everywhere be received as a system of Peace, and that its natural tendency will be to convert the sword into a ploughshare, and the spear into a pruning-hook. It is indeed true, that, in different ages, men, calling themselves Christians, have carried devastation and misery into the fairest portions of the world, in direct opposition to the principles of Peace! Such conduct, we are persuaded, could only have arisen either from a secret disbelief of Christianity, or an entire ignorance of its holy and amiable requirements; and that all the christianized ravagers of the Old and New World, ought to be regarded as little less than demons in the form of man, though bearing the standard of the Cross-that emblem of the Saviour's death which, deeply dyed in human gore, they profanely advanced as a sanction for all their atrocities. It is unnecessary to say that such pretenders to discipleship were either ignorant fanatics or base hypocrites.

Far different was the conduct of the first Christians, and far different the career of holy and devoted Missionaries. By these the Religion of the Cross has ever been exhibited as a Religion of Peace, saying to all who range themselves under its sacred banner, "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you."

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In the present day of Missionary effort, when many, agreeably to ancient prophecy, are running to and fro in the earth, and knowledge is in

creasing among the ignorant and savage tribes of mankind, it is highly interesting and important to ascer tain whether the spread of Christianity be accompanied by the diffusion of that pacific spirit which constitutes one of its glorious peculiarities.

With this view have we perused the Journal of Mr. Campbell, in South Africa, and cannot but feel much gratified at the change which appears to be taking place in the dispositions of some of the Chiefs and people who dwell in that land of strife and blood.

It may tend to place the extracts we are about to make in a more striking point of view, if they are arranged under the following heads :

1st. The dreadful state in which the people inhabiting the interior of South Africa have been, and still are, where destitute of even the faint light of Christianity, which, we rejoice to say, is beginning to shine in those regions of darkness and cruelty.

2nd. The benefits which have already resulted from the labours of Missionaries in that part of the world, in reference to a spirit of Peace.

First. The cruel and barbarous state of the Africans will be abundantly evident from the following quotations :-

"The King (of Mashow) mentioned that he had been twice attacked by the Wanketzens, under Makabba, of which he complained; but as they also attack others, when they think there is a prospect of success, there could not be any just cause for complaint. Indeed it appears that all the nations in this land of strife and blood watch for each other, and seize the first opportunity that may occur to attack and carry off cattle."-Vol. ii. p. 174.

After Mr. Campbell's departure from Mashow, he was joined by several small parties of the natives, of different tribes, who wished to enjoy the protection of his attendants, or to feast upon the game which the

muskets of the Hottentots might destroy. The game of Africa is of a very different description from that of Europe, consisting of the huge carcasses of rhinoceroses, sea-cows, camelopards, &c. A large animal of the first kind having been killed, the mixed company of the natives assembled to help themselves to its flesh; when a scene of disgusting selfishness and ferocity took place, which is thus described:


The sight of so huge a carcase to eat delighted the natives who were with us. Four different parties, who travelled with us, began instantly to cut it up, each party carrying portions to their own heap as fast as they could. Some being more expeditious than others, excited jealousy, and soon caused a frightful uproar. Perhaps twenty tongues were bawling out at one time, one of which by itself seemed sufficient to deafen an


Not a word was spoken in jest, all were deeply serious. Some severe strokes with sticks were dealt among them by the leaders of the parties; but in the midst of all this hideous confusion, a circumstance occurred which instantly produced universal silence and amazement. A Mashow happened to pierce through the animal's side with his knife, the fixed air from the swollen carcase rushed out with noise and violence which spread terror, and commanded silence for perhaps a minute; they then resumed the same bustle and uproar. In less than an hour every inch of that monstrous creature was carried off, and nothing but a pool of blood left behind. Their rage and fury, during the struggle for flesh, gave them such a ferocity of countenance that I could recognize only a few of them, and actually inquired if these people belonged to our party, or if they had come from some neighbouring kraal." Selfishness, Mr. Campbell very correctly observes, in another place, is the grand moving principle; and a generous act is rarely found among them. To this degrading disposition

are added a dreadful spirit of revenge and a thirst for human blood:

"On the present occasion he accompanied Mateebe in the pursuit of the Bushmen, and we hoped he would prevent the murder of the innocent; for if the Matchappees were to come upon a kraal of Bushmen, however innocent of the offence, while enraged against that people, they would murder man, woman, and child, with as much indifference as boys would kill mice. A short time before this, Hendric met at the Great River with some Bushmen who had resolved to throw a feeble child into the river, because they thought it never would be good for any thing, and because they had no food to spare. He had the humanity to bring the child home with him, to save it from destruction. How great need have such a people of the softening doctrines of the Gospel! Their habitations are indeed full of cruelty and blood. The poor Bushwomen must be wretched in the extreme, not knowing but that every time their husbands leave home, in search of food, they may bring after them a host of barbarians, thirsting for their blood, and crying for vengeance. To think of their situation is heart-rending; nor is it likely to be made better, till the Gospel be sent among them. A Missionary station would be a refuge and a home to this scattered and miserable nation." :

The scattered tribes of natives called Bushmen, like the descendants of Ismael, have every man's hand against them, and are themselves robbers by profession. Some of these had stolen cattle from Mr. Campbell's company, in their progress through the wilderness. They were pursued, and two of them, a man and a lad fifteen years old, were taken:

"At the time I first saw the Bushman, (says Mr. C.) he appeared to be in great agitation, and was crouching under the cloak of a Hottentot for protection from the Matchappees. When the Matchappees were reasoned with on the cruelty of their dis

positions to the Bushmen, they justified themselves by the bad qualities they ascribed to them. I told them, if the Bushmen deserved to die for stealing cattle, the Bootchuanas deserved an equal fate, for they had been guilty of the same crime. I tried to show them that the only difference between the crime of the Bootchuanas and the Bushmen was, that the former did it upon a larger scale than the latter. ! While the Bushmen content themselves with what is necessary to supply present wants, the Bootchuanas, in their commandoes, take from each other by hundreds and by thousands.

"The Bootchuanas could not see the force of my reasoning. It would, perhaps, be difficult to persuade some people, in more enlightened countries, that it is as criminal for nations to make war upon each other for trade or territory, as it is for individuals to rob each other for their own private gain. How true is it, that in the estimation of multitudes, 'One murder makes a villain, a thousand a hero!' The guilt of the poor Bushmen being established, the feelings of our party would not allow us to dismiss him without some punishment, and he was called for, to undergo the sentence of the law. The poor fellow, who expected nothing less than death, seemed glad on the first application of the sambok. Life is precious even to a Bushman; and this man received a beating with as much thankfulness, perhaps, as ever he received a gift. The boy sat by eating, without once looking round him, while his companion was undergoing this punishment. He was pardoned, and the business was scarcely over when both the Bushmen expressed a wish to be taken into our service, that they might have food and clothes.

"The cattle were not recovered: two of them were found slaughtered, and those of the party who escaped carried the other two with them. Some good, however, may arise out

of the capture of the Bushmen, to themselves and their countrymen.


"We took the boy, to endeavour to get him provided for and instructed, either at Berend's kraal, which was not far from his home, or at Griqua Town, but would not take the We desired him to go home to his friends, and steal no more, and left two Hottentots with the horses to protect him, for at least half an hour after our departure, lest the Matchappees of our party should, unperceived by us, return and murder him. One Matchappee lagged a little behind, it was supposed, for the very purpose, but seeing the men halting with the Bushman, he proceeded after the waggons."

Even the women partake of the same brutal character as that of the men, and rejoice in the wretchedness and agony attendant on the petty but savage warfare of their tribe :


During our absence from Lattakoo, the Bushmen had stolen twenty head of cattle from Mateebe's people; a commando immediately pursued and overtook them on the plain, when they killed ten men, five women, and five children. On returning from the slaughter, a peetso, or general meeting, was held, and all the circumstances attending it were related. After which, men and women dispersed themselves over the town, imitating the screams of those persons who had been killed, repeating their expressions of terror, and representing their actions when begging for their lives. The Lattakoo women discovered, on this occasion, a more cruel disposition than even the men. They imitated, with much apparent pleasure, the screams of the Bushmen, when put to death by the Bootchuanas. Alas! how truly do the Scriptures represent the dark places of the earth as being the habitations of cruelty."

The marks of military distinction which exist among the warriors of South Africa would not be very

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