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"I observed five cuts across his left side, a proof he had killed five men. How many were on his right side could not be seen, being hid by his cloak. These scars are made for the same purpose that stars are worn on the breasts of European conquerors. They are marks of distinction, which reflect honour upon them among their countrymen, though the sight of the scars shocks the feelings of Europeans."

The necessity of a change or deliverance from this degraded state of ignorance and cruelty, seems to be obtaining a secret influence among some of the natives:

"Two of the Lattakoo Hottentots who could speak the Bootchuana language, while searching for game, fell in with a Bootchuana Bushman, who inquired where they were going. They told him they were going to the Marootzee, to tell them the word of God. He then begged them to sit down, and tell him what it was; they did so; when he listened to their story with deep interest. After they had finished, he said, "That word ought to have been in the country long ago."

In the prospect of extending his journey farther into the interior, Mr. Campbell received a visit from Munameets, his guide, who said, "That there was no end to nations in that direction; that they had nothing else to do but to kill one another, and therefore he thought they stood much in need of the word of God."

After contemplating with pain the lamentable state of the untutored barbarians of Africa, we turn with pleasure to those gleamings of light which are beginning to shine in that land of darkness. Gratifying as it is to observe that considerable benefits are resulting from the labours of the Missionaries in a moral and religious point of view, we feel it right to confine our quotations to those passages which indicate a pa

cific change in the sentiments and dispositions of the African Chiefs and their people-a change from which we augur the most favourable results.

The natives are quite aware, from the preaching and the conduct of the Missionaries, that the Religion they teach is a peaceful system:

"The King (Mateebee) then obseryed, (says Mr. Campbell,) that he saw the Word was peaceable, and the children know it, for, when the waggons came, the children fled, now they run to meet them."

"Hottentot commandoes (said Munameets) drove us to the Krooman. Here (he added) the word of God found us, and brought peace."

The benefits arising from pacific measures begin to be appreciated by some of the Africans; thus it is said of Cornelius Kok, the oldest captain of the Griquas, that, "like his father, he found gentle means the most successful in maintaining Peace among the natives, such as shooting game for them, and sometimes presenting them with a sheep or some tobacco."

Another pleasing instance of the efficacy of kindness and forbearance in promoting Peace is recorded in vol. ii. p. 293:

"Some time ago the Bushmen higher up the Cradock stole a few. cattle from the Corannas at Konnah, who pursued, overtook them, and killed several men. Afterwards some Bushmen stole two oxen, when another commando was set on foot against them. Kruisman and David begged the Corannas to spare the lives of the Bushmen, but to give them a sound beating. The Corannas traced the robbers to their kraal, and finding they had cattle of their own, seized two in the room of those that had been stolen. These, however, upon consideration, they restored, saying, they would forgive them for that time. Since then they have never suffered by the depredations of this wild people; such a powerful influence did this unexpected act of

forgiveness produce. If such bene ficial consequences resulted from the exercise of the spirit of forgiveness between two ignorant and savage nations, what encouragement does it yield to Christians to act at all times in conformity to the lovely disposition of their Divine Master, I say not until seven times, but until seventy times seven!' It effected more than all the punishments which had been formerly inflicted."

Mr. Campbell has recorded several testimonies in favour of Peace, which were delivered by some of the Kings and their Chiefs, or Captains :

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Having invited Liqueling and Moeelway into the tent, and taken some bread and cheese together, we stated our object in visiting Kurreechane-that we came in friendship, and wished to know them and that they should know us; and if they were disposed to receive and protect men from our country, who should come to teach them the word of God, we would endeavour to obtain them; but if such men came they must not be desired to go upon commandoes-that the God of heaven and earth had determined his Word should be made known to all nations, that all nations might honour his Son, and be at peace among themselves.

"Liqueling said they were a people who loved peace, and he was glad when he heard that the white men (Missionaries), who had come to Mateebe, at Lattakoo, taught that all men should live peaceably; it was what he desired."

At another time the same Chief said "he was acknowledged as superior by all the tribes immediately around; but there were others beyond them who were very mischievous, such as the Boquains. Should teachers settle with him, they could visit such nations, and tell them the things he had heard from us, and that would make them peaceable, and he and his people would be happy, for they did not like war.

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While this important speech, by the Regent, was interpreting to me, I could not but observe, with satisfaction, how the peaceful doctrines of Scripture commend themselves to the minds of untutored heathens; and I told him how much I was gratified by hearing his desire to receive teachers, and assured him that, on my return to my own country, I would do all in my power to obtain them for him."

Upon this occasion, Mr. Campbell very suitably directed the attention of the Regent and others to the peaceful character of the Religion of Jesus Christ:

"After this we had our meeting for worship, to attend which all remained; the subject of address was,

God being the God of Peace, and his Son Jesus Christ the Prince of Peace.' Showing how the publication and reception of his message by the nations would bring peace to the world. After the address the interpreter went to prayer, and I could not but be gratified at witnessing a tent full of African Kings and Chiefs voluntarily bowing their knees with their faces to the ground before the God of Israel. I did not ask them to kneel, but they did it in imitation of those with me.'

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Testimony of Pelangye, a Matchappee Captain, at a peetso, or general meeting, in favour of the peaceful character of the Missionaries :—

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Pelangye then addressed the meeting, first by taking credit to himself for having brought white men to them; he said we were men of Peace, and hated theft. On his saying this, the people turned round and looked at us as if they had not seen us before; undoubtedly they had never till now heard of people of that description. It was a heathen who bore this honourable testimony in our favour and in favour of the truth; and they were heathens who indicated by their conduct their approbation: thus demonstrating that they had the outlines of God's law written on their

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Testimony of Munameets :"With the approbation of Mateebe he had brought these white men unto them, he now left them to their care, and hoped they would not allow them to starve. They came as friends, and were anxious to establish a friendship with the Marootzee. He assured them the Missionaries had behaved well at Lattakoo, had acted to them as fathers, and loved peace. They had not brought beads, because they were not traders; they came to tell them of the true God, and now that the path from Kurreechane to Lattakoo was opened, he hoped that communications between the two places would be so frequent that the path would never again become invisible." On the same occasion, the Regent, Liqueling, said, "that he had had various conversations with the strangers, and there was no occasion to fear and to run from them. They loved Peace, and came to make known to them the true God and his Son who had come into the world."

The King of Mashow and his Captains wished to receive Missionaries, hoping that their coming would put an end to commandoes or marauding expeditions, which they did not like.

Laheisey, the Chief or King of Turreehey, a very old man, when asked if he were willing to receive a Missionary, among other observations, said, "I hear! the Word of God is good, it is a peaceable Word.

I am not a friend to commandoes; I would never go on them. -I like the Word of God ever since it came to the Griquas, for, since that time, the neighbouring Corannas have never come to steal my cattle, so that I cannot refuse it."

This testimony in favour of the pacific character of the Gospel, from a grey-headed barbarian, is truly gratifying. Tkannee, one of the Chiefs among the Bushmen, who has received the truths of the Gospel, told Mr. Campbell that "when any of the

VOL. I. NEW SERIES.

natives fight and try to murder each other, he desires them to listen while he speaks; and then exhorts all to live in peace with one another, and to pray that they may become better acquainted with the Scriptures." With regard to this scattered and miserable race of men, Mr. Campbell says, 66 All agree, that if there were a separate mission solely for the Bushmen, it would put an end to the robberies and murders which are now committed by this people; that, wild as they are, they are more docile then any of the other nations, and more grateful for kindness shown to them."

We cannot better conclude our extracts from this account of the interior of South Africa (which will be read by the friends of Religion and Peace with considerable interest) than by the following account of two Chiefs, who exhibit striking and delightful examples of the peaceful nature of Christianity, where it is received in simplicity and sincerity :

"There was one circumstance, in this meeting, of a very affecting nature. I saw before me, at this moment, worshipping under the same tent, and receiving the glad tidings of the Gospel with much feeling, the noted Africaner, and Berend the Griqua captain. Till their conversion they were mortal enemies to each other. Berend was brought to feel the power of divine truth several years before Africaner. When the Namaqua Chief was converted, he sent a message to the Griqua Chiefs, confessing the injuries he had done them, and soliciting them at the same time to unite with him in promoting universal peace, and the improvement of the people.

"Africaner and Berend are both judicious, excellent Christians, and their own feelings must have been strongly excited upon the present occasion. These patriarchal men are now kings, fathers, and priests in their domestic connexions. They instruct their families, preside among F

the people in the absence of Missionaries, and breathe nothing but Peace on earth, and good will to men. Thus when God blesses his people, he makes them blessings to others. With all the particulars relating to these Chiefs in view, what would Infidelity have said on contemplating so interesting a scene? To what agency would she have ascribed this marvellous change in the characters of these men? Could her favourite system have exhibited such fruits, she would have called upon all men to fall down and worship her!

"The subject of address was 'The invitation of God to the ends of the earth to look to him, and to him alone for salvation.' Berend, on this occasion, engaged in prayer, and Africaner knelt at his side. Twentyfour years before this time they and their respective adherents fought for five days against each other on the banks of the Great Orange River; Africaner had now some intention of leaving the west side of Africa, and of taking up his residence in the vicinity of Berend, for the remainder of his days."

REVIEW.

Gumal and Lina, or the African Children, an instructive and entertaining Work, designed chiefly for the Use of Young People. Translated from the French by S. B. Moens. 2d Edit, revised and improved. THE importance of watching the first buddings of the human intellect, of attending to its progress till it arrives at full maturity, must be admitted by all who are properly impressed with a sense of the great end of man's creation, that this world is only the embryo of his existence, is a state of probation designed to fit him for the beatific vision, and to join with "an innumerable company of angels" and "the spirits of just men made perfect," in praise and adoration to the Lord God and the Lamb, through the endless ages of eternity. Such is the high destiny of man,

Hence the solemn duty which devolves on the Parent, of cultivating the seeds of virtue in the youthful mind, and of rooting up the noxious weeds of vice. The Volume of Divine Revelation affords encouragement to expect that these pious labours will not be in vain, but that they will produce fruit to the glory of God. "Train up a child in the way he shall go, and when he is old he will not depart from it," says the Wise Man. Of Abraham, God himself bare this testimony, "I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord." May every Father imitate the example of faithful Abraham: may every Mother place before her view the example of the pious Eunice, who instilled early into the mind of her son Timothy that knowledge which makes "wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus." And, from the testimony of the Apostle Paul, it is evident that her maternal instructions were not in vain, that she received a full reward in their happy effects on her son.

With these impressions of the duty and incalculable benefit of early religious instruction, we view with pleasure the recent attempts, through the medium of the press and otherwise, to afford assistance to parents in their arduous but pleasing task; and when we meet with works which dare to be singular in the cause of morality and religion, by impressing upon the minds of youth, in all their native beauty, those Christian graces and virtues which, either through culpable timidity or deep-rooted prejudices, too seldom find decided advocates even in the pulpit, and are practically rejected by the great majority of professing Christians, we hail such works as the harbingers of increased Christian light, before which the mists of ignorance and error must retire, and lift up our heads in hope, on thus beholding the glimmerings of the approach of the approach of that perfect

Gospel-day when" they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord; for they shall know him, from the least of them unto the greatest of them."

These reflections have been induced by the work before us, which, through a pleasing narrative and familiar dialogues, gradually introduces the minds of young persons to the all-important truths of Christianity. The author has evidently made his plot subservient to his moral. If, by his adoption of a plan so opposite to the every-day novelist, the work may be less interesting to those who read for amusement only, it is more than compensated by the moral and religious instruction to which it is made subservient.

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The outline of the tale is briefly this: Two African hostile nations being at war with each other, (a circumstance by far too common,) in a pitched battle, Chilum, the chief of one of these nations not only obtained the victory, but also killed the only son of the other chief. This latter, who is called Hadsi, enraged at the loss of his son, resolved on revenge, and, as he was too much weakened by his late defeat to risk another battle, determined, if possible, to get into his power the son of his enemy, who was his only child, and but a youth, to sacrifice him to the manes of his deceased son. This was undertaken by some of his warriors, who succeeded in their enterprise by kidnapping Gumal, the son of Chilum, and bringing him to their prince; who ordered every care to be taken of young Gumal, and that he should want for nothing. Lina, a little girl, and daughter of Hadsi, is permitted to attend the young prince, and amuse herself with him, he being reserved, till the day of the anniversary of the death of the deceased son of Hadsi came round, to whose manes it was intended, on that day, to sacrifice him. The story proceeds to relate the attachment which the

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children formed for each other-that Lina, upon hearing accidentally of the fate that awaited Gumal, formed the resolution of rescuing him, if possible, from the cruel design of her father-the escape of the two children the hardships they endured in their flight-their arrival at the ha bitation of Geronio, an elderly white man, who is described as living as a recluse, in almost patriarchal simplicity and devotion, with only an old African for his companion that Geronio takes the children under his protection, endeavours to cultivate their minds, and impress upon them the moral and religious duties enjoined by the Gospel. At this part of the narrative the dialogues commence, interspersed with incidents, each of which is made the vehicle of some moral lesson.

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The first step in religious instruction is to inculcate correct views of the Supreme Being; this Geronio endeavours to effect in a manner suitable to the capacities of the children, by calling their attention to the works and wonders of Creation, and from them to the Creator. We give the following as a specimen of the familiar and easy manner the most important and abstract truths are instilled into the mind :

"One day Gumal said to him, ‘As you have promised to let us know more of that Great Being, pray, dear father, do it, and in such a manner that we may see Him with our eyes.'

That is impossible,' answered the old man; 'I will certainly make you better acquainted with the Almighty God; but to show Him to you, or to make you to see Him, is impossible; for, by his nature, God is invisible to us.' But how, then, can I know that there is a God,' replied Gumal, if I cannot see Him?'- My son, before I answer you that question, tell me what it is which moves yonder tree, which shakes its top, and puts all its leaves in motion? What is it, Lina, which makes the curls of my hair sport about my head?'-' Oh! it is the

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