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always study to perform, as it extends our duties, ennobles the heart, and raises the soul above all mean selfinterest; it teaches us not only to be just, but also to be disinterested, obliging, generous, and charitable.

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We must approve and esteem the just and upright man, but the benevolent man calls for our love. With a willing heart we shall never want opportunities to exercise this virtue. United to each other by the tenderest ties, surrounded with weakness, temptations, and afflictions, we constantly need mutual help. There is not a situation in life in which we cannot be useful to each other, in that circle in which Providence has placed us.

"And, in order that we should continually practice these reciprocal services and kindnesses, God has spread his gifts in a diversity of ways amongst men. No one possesses a sufficiency within himself; every one must feel the need of help; and this diversity of strength, talents, knowledge, and means, establishes amongst men a constant exercise of benevolence and gratitude. Hence the admonition of the apostle to the Christians-by love serve one another: How admirably is the gospel of peace adad to render us happy here below ar whilst we endeavour to promote the glory of God, and the good of our fellow-creatures!

"It is true, whatever our goodwill may be, we cannot always render important services to others, because the means are not always in our power. But we can at least feel for the unfortunate, and give them good advice, and so prove our sympathy and affection, and soften their sufferings. We should never neglect any thing in order to lighten the burden of our fellow-creatures, and render them happier. Giving alms, according to our circumstances, is a sacred duty, which both humanity and religion require of us; as we thereby can effectually relieve the misery of those of our brethren, who

VOL. I. NEW SERIES.

are in want of the necessaries of life. And perhaps there are few but who may do something towards helping others, and it becomes our duty to sacrifice those enjoyments which we might have, to relieve the distressed.'

"After a few days, during which Gumal and Vedam went a hunting, and Lina was engaged in her domestic concerns, Geronio again called them all together. He then conducted them to the grove, where, having desired Lina, Gumal, and Vedam to come near to him, he thus addressed them :- • My dear young

friends, you have seen how pleasing it is to exercise benevolence if done to glorify God; but does not this virtue attain a higher lustre, when we exercise it towards those who are not our friends, but our declared enemies? If you love them, said Jesus, who love you, what do ye more than others?

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"Know, then, that a Christian, called to the exercise of this virtue, ought not to limit himself to love those who love him, but to extend it even to those who hate him and wish him evil.'-'What!' exclaimed Chilum, 'love those who hate us and wish us evil? That is impossible.' -Certainly, it would be impossible if we were to do it in our own strength; but if we attempt it with a praying heart, we certainly shall succeed. Besides, it is not required of us that we should love our enemies as tenderly as our friends, but in such a manner that we cheerfully forgive and forget every injury they may do to us, and assist them whereever we can.'

"But is it not permitted, and even right, to render evil for evil?' asked Chilum. 'Does not the gos

pel of Jesus require of us to forgive our enemies, and to love those that hate us?'' But,' replied Chilum,

he who acts unjustly towards me, does he not deserve to be punished?'

Undoubtedly: but this does not belong to you, because he who is inG

jured is not calm and impartial enough to punish the guilty as he deserves. But then crime will remain unpunished!'No, Chilum; have we not a Sovereign Judge, who will render to every one according to his deserts? And even suppose it were so; still it would be better to suffer than to act against the positive command of God,-Avenge not your selves, but rather give place unto wrath, for vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord. My children, the Lord is a just Judge, far above all human passions; and knowing the very inmost recesses of our souls, he will punish or reward with impartiality, He who is offended, is by no means impartial in his judgment; hatred guides him; vengeance renders him unjust, and even ferocious and cruel. Bad passions stifle in him all humane feelings, make him trample under foot every law of God and man; disturb the peace of the soul, and even sometimes that of society; perpetuate enmity, and so influence the heart, that men will often hear of no reconciliation.

"But, on the contrary, kindness, mildness, and pardon of injuries received, bring into our soul true peace of mind, preserve us from innumerable evils, and, by the help ofour God, cause us even to triumph over ourselves and over our strongest enemies. The gospel precept, which forbids us to revenge ourselves, inculcates the highest virtue-Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you; and in following it, we imitate the blessed example of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who never rendered evil for evil, but always did good to his enemies, and prayed for them, even when dying by their hands. Do you remember what he said when on the cross?"

"Yes! he prayed,-Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do! Like unto God his Father, who is love itself, who forgives every re

pentant sinner, and who, in his providence, does good to the just and to the unjust.'-My dear friends, pray against every evil passion; suffer them not to remain in your hearts; banish them if you love yourselves, and wish to avoid the torments which they will inevitably draw upon you. It is so cruel to hate-so sweet to love! As much as possible, live in peace with all the world; do not exclude from your kindness those who injure you; but, on the contrary, try, by a mild amiable behaviour, to be reconciled to them; and far from rendering evil for evil, rather oblige your enemies (by loading them with benefits) to acknowledge their wrong, to desist from hatred and prejudice, and to become your friends. This is the summit of virtue, this is true grandeur of soul; and it is thus that you will imitate Jesus Christ, who confirmed this precept of love with his dying breath, and that you will be children of your heavenly Father, who maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.'" pp. 387-414.

Such are the admirable precepts which Geronio endeavours to impress on the minds of the children pleed under his care; not a cold, uninenpte tial morality, which might comeni as much propriety from the lips of a Heathen Philosopher as from a Christian, but an amiable moral system, founded upon the firm basis of Christian principle, which touches the heart whilst it enlightens the understanding, a system, the prevalence of which would banish from the face of the earth War with all its multitudinous and infernal train of evils, and for its accompaniments, pining misery, wretchedness, and pale want, would substitute individual, social and national happiness.

We shall now conclude our Critique with recommending the advocates of the meek and unresisting precepts of the Saviour of men, to promote, as much as in them lies, the circulation

of Works which, like the present, are devoted to the best interests of mankind. That they are adapted to the juvenile class of readers is an additional recommendation, as right principles of conduct cannot be too early inculcated. If the early culture of the human mind is neglected, we cannot expect otherwise than that vicious habits will obtain full influence over it, the melancholy consequences of which are too well verified in the history of mankind.

Mr. Moens deserves our thanks for having put this valuable little work into an English dress, and for the improvements the second edition has received under his hands, in which the moral is more unexceptionable, as being more conformable to the divine precepts of the Redeemer.—In a future edition, the work would be improved by being divided into chapters, with a table of contents at the head of each.

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mits and resources of this Society, it cannot be expected that its operations will be very extensive, or that much can be expended in the purchase and distribution of tracts. It is believed, however, that the benevolent exertions of this Institution have contributed in some good degree to the dissemination of correct views upon the subject of war, and that many of our fellow-citizens have been induced to adopt more just and scriptural views upon this subject, than those which they formerly entertained.

Since the last annual meeting, there have been printed 500 copies of the Third Annual Report, and 8,000 copies of the "Defence of Peace Societies:" besides which, the Directors have purchased in behalf of the Society, 132 copies of the Friend of Peace, which have been distributed among the members. The whole number of Tracts printed and purchased in behalf of the Society, since its first establishment in 1818, amounts to 28,702.

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Besides these, a number of benevolent individuals have printed, at their own expense, an edition of Whelpley's "Letters to Governor Strong.' These publications have been circulated in all parts of this State, and in many of the U. States; and there is good reason to believe that they have been cordially received, and produced impressions which will be permanent and salutary.

Since the last annual meeting, there have been 87 members added to the Society, which makes our present number 200.

The cause of peace in this region has lost some valuable friends in the death of three of the members of this Society.*-Although the additions to this Institution have not been so great as could be wished, yet there is sufficient reason to believe that the progress of pacific principles has been very considerable, and that Christians

Benjamin Gardner, Asa Bacon, and Edward Manton.

begin to see the impropriety of the disciples of the Prince of Peace, being advocates of the inhuman and unchristian practice of destroying men's lives.

Within a few years past, a great change has taken place in this region among the ministers and professors of the Christian religion, in relation to the subject of War. Many who at first viewed Peace Societies with a jealous eye, and opposed their establishment, are now convinced that their principles and operations are in perfect unison with the nature and design of that religion which is "pure, peaceable, easy to be entreated, and full of mercy and good fruits." It is not saying too much, when we ascribe this change, under the Divine blessing, to the circulation of Peace publications, which have placed the principles and practice of War in their true colours, by contrasting them with the principles and precepts of the religion of Jesus Christ.

Our correspondence with other Peace Societies has been continued as usual; and from several we have received letters and annual Reports.

The Massachusetts Peace Society, with its various branches, is in a flourishing condition. Since its for-mation, "it has increased in a ratio greater than that of doubling its number annually." Its committee distributed in the year 1820, eighteen thousand nine hundred and forty Tracts, of which 11,795 were the Friend of Peace. These have been sent into different parts of the United States-" to the four British Provinces in America—to Great Britain, France, Germany, and Russia in Europe, and to Calcutta and Ceylon, in Asia." Their Report states, in regard to the influence of these Tracts, and the manner in which they have been received, "it may be sufficient to give an extract from a recent Report of the Raleigh Peace Society, in which it is said-All who had an opportunity of reading them seemed to feel the importance of the subject.

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None, we venture to say, have attempted a refutation of the doctrines or principles therein contained. Aged Ministers of the Gospel expressed their astonishment and regret, that they had never before viewed the matter in its true light. Others declared that they had often been impressed with such sentiments, but so indistinct, and so varying from sentiments that are generally deemed triotic, that they never ventured to express them.' During the past year, several Auxiliary Societies have been established in Massachusetts, and many members added to the original Society, so that their present number is now about eleven hundred, embracing "upwards of 140 public teachers of religion, and many respectable characters in literary institutions."

From the information which has been received from the other Peace Societies in the U. S. there is reason to believe that the cause of Peace is rapidly advancing. Several new Societies have been formed the past year, and considerable additions made to the number of the friends of peace. A Female Peace Society has been formed near Cincinnati, in Ohio.

We regret that it is not in our power to give any information respecting the situation and prospects of the Peace Societies in Great Britain, but from the knowledge we have of the character of the members of the London Peace Society, we have reason to believe that they are actively engaged in promoting the cause of Peace. From the last information which we received, we are inclined to believe that some of their Tracts have been translated into several of the modern languages of Europe, and that ere this, they are widely disseminated over the continent.

The Board are more fully convinced than ever, of the importance and utility of pacific institutions, and that the present state of the world is highly favourable to renewed exertions in the cause of peace. It is not,

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however, to be expected that all who are friends to peace will exactly agree as to the best mode of effecting this desirable object. Some may fear that if these principles are generally entertained by our citizens, that they will tend to weaken the arm of government in the defence of our just rights, and that neglecting to prepare the means of defence, may expose us to foreign invasion. Others seem to think that a state of war is natural to man in his present condition, and that as wars have always prevailed among the human species, from the days of Nimrod to the present time, we may expect that they will continue, until the period has arrived when wars shall cease to the ends of the earth.

Notwithstanding these suggestions, we are fully convinced that the object of Peace Societies is to give stability to good government, and at the same time to accelerate the period when nations shall not lift up sword against nation, neither learn war any more. The peaceful citizen will always be "subject to the powers that be," and use his utmost endeavours to enforce obedience to the just laws of his country. From the example and influence of such citizens, civil government receives support, while from the factious, the proud and the warlike, who are breathing out threatenings and slaughter, its stability is constantly endangered. This Society by its constitution does not prohibit its members from defending their just rights; it requires only, that they should adopt suitable measures, consistent with the dignity of man and the spirit of Christianity, in their defence. It proposes that nations should adopt and pursue such measures to preserve peace, as they usually do, after war has been declared and carried on for years, and after much blood and treasure have been expended. When nations have become weakened by war, they then have recourse to negociation, and, meeting together in the spirit of conciliation

and mutual concession, terms of peace, agreeable to both belligerents, are concluded upon, and hostilities cease. Had the same measures with the same spirit been adopted, at first, there is good reason to believe, that war would have been avoided, and many distressing calamities been prevented.

The benevolent objects which this Society has in view, accord with the spirit, the precepts, and the design of Christianity. The spirit of our holy religion is "pure, peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy." It breathes tenderness and compassion to every object of distress and wretchedness, and benevolence and good will to all mankind, even to enemies. But war counteracts this heavenly influence. It not only permits, but encourages deceit and falsehood, revenge and cruelty and those who breathe out threatenings and slaughter against their brethren with the greatest success, are elevated to the rank of heroes, and crowned with glory.

Peace Societies in their legitimate operations, conform to the precepts of the Christian religion. Every one who has read the discourses of the Saviour of the world, must have observed that in his first public discourse, after pronouncing a benediction upon peace-makers, he gives directions for the government of their conduct under the various trials of life. But notwithstanding they might meet with opposition and persecution, he charges them "not to resist evil, but to love their enemies, bless them that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you and persecute you;" and gives as a reason why they should so conduct, "that ye may be the children of your Father who is in Heaven." The apostolical epistles, as well as the discourses of our Saviour, abound with injunctions to the same effect. But the spirit and practice of war forbid a conformity to these heavenly man

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