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tries. The mistake of the canonists probably arose from the circumstance that the greater part of the Constitutions was known as the Διδασκαλία τῶν ̓Αποστόλων, as well as from the fact that the practical portions of the Sidayn were embodied in the seventh book.

And now of the book itself. It is divided into two portions, the first respecting the lives and conversation of Christians; the second, respecting ecclesiastical officers. The Apostles are represented as in conference agreeing on regulations which they send out to the whole world; each speaks in his turn and suggests some rule. It opens thus:- We greet you, sons and daughters, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ; _[we] 'John and Matthew, and Peter and Andrew, and Philip and Simon, and James and Nathanael, and Thomas and Cephas, and Bartholomew and Jude [the brother of James]. 'We being assembled, according to the command of our Lord 'Jesus Christ, our Saviour, as He enjoined us before: "Ye 'shall divide among you the provinces, make an orderly arrange'ment of the numbers of places, the dignities of bishops, the 'stations of presbyters, the ministries of deacons, intelligent 'readers, blameless widows, and whatever is necessary for the founding of the Church, in order that knowing the model of 'things in heaven, they may guard themselves from all irregu'larity; knowing that they shall give an account in the great day of judgment respecting those things which they have heard ' and have not kept;" and He commanded us to send forth 'these words into all the world. It therefore hath seemed good to us, with the view of reminding and admonishing the brethren, having His word in remembrance, to enjoin on you, as the 'Lord hath revealed to each of us, according to His will (or ' according to the will of God) through the Holy Ghost.'

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"John said, "Brethren, knowing that we shall render an account ' respecting those things which have been enjoined us, let us not ' respect the persons one of another, but if any one think it ex'pedient to contradict another, let him be contradicted."

'And it seemed good to all that John should speak first:"John said, "There are two ways, one of life, and one of death; and the difference is great between the two ways; for the way ' of life is this: first, thou shalt love God who made thee with all thy heart, and shalt glorify Him that redeemed thee from 'death, which is the first commandment; the second, thou shalt 'love thy neighbour as thyself, which is the second command'ment; on these two hang the whole law and the prophets." Matthew said, "All things which thou wouldest not should e done to thee, do not thou to another: but the lesson conined in these words,' (so we understand ToÚTwv dè Tŵv Xóywv


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Tηv didaxnv,)" speak thou, brother Peter." Peter said, "Thou shalt not kill," &c.

Now, before going any further, it will be manifest that this is the production of one who, pious as his whole work is, was a writer of fiction, and a very simple-minded one. The entire composition is of this character. This and the attributing actual words to our Lord, and relating colloquies amongst Apostles, however much it might engage the interest of simple people, make it improbable that this book (which, whether it be the Doctrina Apostolorum or not, held the first place in the Oriental Collections of Apostolic Canons) was the authorized composition of one of the great Churches of the primitive ages,-the actual recognised book of laws for daily life and Church government, in such a Church as that of Alexandria. It contains no indication of any rule special to the Church of Alexandria (though most probably it is an Alexandrian composition); indeed it does not seem suited to be the rule-book of a long-settled Church, because the only rule for the election of a Bishop, is that which provides what shall be done when the number of Christians in any place is small, and there are fewer than twelve brethren to vote in the election; and the other rules for the Church officers seem clearly to be designed for a newly-formed Church. It was this tract which, when its dramatic features had been pared away, and the good words put into the Apostles' mouths alone left, was recently put forth in the Church-and-House Book,' as containing the first set of Canons of the Alexandrian Church. This notion could not, we think, gain credit if the fictitious narrative portion of the work had not been stripped off; and those characteristics which alone can enable us to decide on the value of the production as a document of the Antenicene Church been in the background. For instance, the list of Apostles shows an ignorance of Holy Scripture which would surprise the very children of our days. The number twelve is made out in the list, but Cephas is introduced as a separate person from Peter, and he and Nathanael occupy the places of S. James the Less and S. Matthias; and this is no mistake in the list only, because each of those who are there enumerated speaks in his turn. One only has no speech assigned him in the Greek, viz. Judas; and his name is also wanting in the Coptic, but it is supplied in the Ethiopic. Again, the following occurs not far from the end: John said: "Ye have forgotten, brethren, 'when the Master asked for the bread and the cup, and blessed 'them, saying, 'This is My Body and Blood;' that He did not

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1 Bunsen had the Coptic only when he wrote the portion of his work in which these Canons are introduced, vol. iii. p. and p. 35; he afterwards learnt the existence of Bickell's work.

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permit these women to stand with us." Martha said, "[It was on account of Mary, because He saw her smiling." Mary said, "I 'did not laugh any more; for He said before to us, when He was 'teaching, that the weak shall be saved by the strong.' "We can indeed imagine this to be the composition of a simple and good man, putting down, perhaps, some traditional sayings, or the inventions of the writers of spurious gospels. The tales of Papias, and the general style of the very beautiful Shepherd of Hermas, show us what might thus be written. We can further very well imagine that it might be read amongst recent converts, and even in some of the religious meetings of Christians, (which, be it remembered, were then conducted in a very simple way, and often, doubtless, by very simple-minded bishops,) on account of the truly edifying matter which it contains; we can imagine, further, that it might be taken as a good compendium of Christian practice, for the use of catechumens, lent to them probably by their Christian friends; and so we can imagine that it thus gained a hold on the affections of Christians, and that they continued to read it and to love it; but we hold it quite certain that it must have been regarded by the great doctors of the Church of Alexandria in the second century, as it was by Eusebius and Athanasius in after times, as a spurious, unauthoritative book, fit, as Ruffinus says, to be read for edification, but only for that purpose, and not to be regarded as of any authority.

We will not leave this relic of antiquity, without a brief reference to some illustrations of early morals, doctrine, and practice, which are found in it. For instance:

Peter says, "Thou shalt not hate any man; but some thou shalt reprove, and some thou shalt pity, and for some thou shalt pray, and some thou shalt love more than thine own soul."

Thomas said, "My son, him that speaketh to thee the word of God, and has been to thee the cause (Tapaíτios) of life, and has given to thee the seal in the Lord, thou shalt love as the apple of thine eye, and thou shalt remember him day and night; thou shalt honour him as the Lord, for where the Lord is spoken of, there the Lord is. And thou shalt seek his face daily, and the rest of the saints, in order that thou mayest rest in their words; for, being joined as holy to the holy, thou wilt become holy. Thou shalt honour him, in so far as thou art able, of thy sweat, and of the labours of thy hands; for if the Lord hath vouchsafed that, through him, spiritual meat and drink, and everlasting life, be given to thee, thou oughtest much more to offer him the perishable and temporary food; for the workman is worthy of his hire; and thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn; and no one planteth a vineyard, and eateth not the fruit of it."'

"Cephas said, "Thou shalt not make divisions, but shalt reconcile those that are contending; thou shalt judge justly, thou shalt not respect the person, when thou reprovest any one for a transgression; for wealth availeth not with the Lord, for He prefers not dignities in judging, nor does beauty profit, but all are equal with Him.

“In thy prayer be not of doubtful mind whether it shall be or not. Do not stretch out thy hand for receiving and contract it for giving. If thou hast [means], thou shalt give with thy hands as a ransom for thy sins. Thou shalt not hesitate to give, nor murmur in giving; for thou shalt know who is the good Recompenser of thy reward. Thou shalt not turn away from the needy, but shalt share in all things with thy brother, and shalt not say that things are thine own; for if ye are sharers in what is immortal, how much more in things corruptible!"

Bartholomew said, "We beseech you, brethren, whilst yet there is time, and ye have those among you to whom ye may do good, fail not in anything if ye have opportunity, for the Day of the Lord is near, in which all things shall perish together with the evil; for the Lord shall come, and His reward is with Him. Be ye good counsellors of yourselves, well instructed: thou shalt keep what thou hast received, neither adding nor taking away.'"

P. 120.

Then, after the words of S. Peter and the rest quoted above:

'Peter said, "If there be a paucity of believers, and there be not in a place persons qualified to vote in the election of a Bishop to the number of at least twelve, let them write to the Churches in the neighbourhood of the place where the Church in question is fixed, in order that three selected men coming thence, may try and approve him that is worthy, if he has a good report from the heathen, if he is unblameable, if a friend of the poor, sober-minded, not a drunkard, not a fornicator, not covetous, or a reviler, or a respecter of persons, and the like to these: it is well that he be unmarried: but if not, the husband of one wife: one that has had training, able to explain the Scripture: but if unlettered, let him be meek and let him abound in love to all, lest the Bishop should be reproached by the many on any point."

John said, "The Bishop that has been appointed, knowing the attention and love of God of those that are with him, shall appoint two presbyters, whomsoever he shall approve."

All answered, "Not two, but three; for there are four-and-twenty elders, twelve on the right, and twelve on the left."

John said, "Ye have reminded me aright, my brethren; for those on the right receiving the vials' from the archangels, offer them to the Lord, and those on the left overlook the multitude of the angels, &c.'"

The simplicity of its teaching is very beautiful. It carries with it the whole air of being written in primitive times, for recent converts, and for a country where the Church was but newly established. There breathes throughout an air of almost apostolic purity and truth. In the whole there is supposed, the doctrines of grace in connexion with the sacramental rites and the Christian ministry; Baptism, the Sealing (of Confirmation), the Oblation of the Body and Blood, (not of the mere elements, περὶ δὲ τῆς προσφορᾶς τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος ȧkρißws μnvvowμev,) and the Communion of them, as giving eternal life; the laity are distinguished in character and office; the distinctness of the clergy and their offices are set forth.

1 See Rev. v. 8.

We have a picture of Christian life, and morals, and doctrine, such as it was, among simple converts at least, in the age next after the Apostolic.

We must now trace the further history of this little tract. Besides being preserved distinct, so as to be embodied in the Collections of Canons, it underwent a process of adaptation to other uses. Stripped of its dramatic or mythical character, the latter portion, on Church Offices, being also omitted, it was annexed to the Epistle of Barnabas, or rather inserted in it just before the concluding words; we say so, because those concluding words are cited by Clement of Alexandria as out of the Epistle of Barnabas, as well as several portions of the part before the insertion, but no portion of this inserted part itself. The insertion, however, is cited repeatedly by Origen as a part of the Epistle. That it is an insertion, is, we think, plain from the difference of style; these chapters had long been regarded as an interpolation; and we infer that the addition was made, at the latest, between the times of Clement and of Origen-between 190 and 230. From this we infer that the tract itself was much older; and we apprehend that it was thus embodied in another work, in order to preserve the valuable practical teaching to which the Christians had been attached from the time of their conversion, without the fiction of Apostles holding a colloquy together. After this, in the compilation of the eight books of the Constitutions, it was introduced as the beginning of the seventh book, being there, as in the Epistle of Barnabas, without any of its dramatic characteristics. This was its natural position, as the first of the forms of old pseudo-apostolic appoint


In its original form it might well be called 'The Teaching, or Teachings of the Apostles;' or The Two Ways, or the Judgment of Peter;' we submit to the judgment of others, whether the characteristics of the work do not fall in with this supposition. But there is no proof whatever that this tract was regarded as of authority in matters of ecclesiastical rule; and the most cursory examination of its contents shows that it could never have been used to any extent for such a purpose. One-half of it is on practical subjects exclusively; the other half is so to a very great extent. It makes no provision, we repeat, for the election of a Bishop in a settled Church, but only in one where the number of converts fit to join in the election was under twelve; it orders that the Bishop should appoint three Presbyters (though the reasons given seem rather to imply that the number should be an equal one), and divides them into two classes, assigning the respective duties of each; it orders the appointment of a reader, who seems to have

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